- Women in Sikhism
The role of women in Sikhism was first outlined by the
Sikh Scriptures, which state that the Sikh womanis to be regarded as equal to her malecounterpart. In Sikhism, women are considered to have the same soulsas men and an equal right to grow spiritually. They are allowed to lead religious , take part in the Akhand Path(the continuous recitation of the Holy Scriptures), perform Kirtan(congregational singing of hymns), work as a Granthi, and participate in religious, cultural, social, and secular activities.
Sikh history has prominently recorded the role of women, portraying them as equal in service, devotion, sacrifice, and bravery, to men. Examples of various women's moral dignity, service, and
self sacrificeare a source of inspiration to the Sikhs.
According to Sikhism, man and woman are two sides of the same coin of the
humanrace, a system of interrelation and inter-dependence in which man takes birthfrom a woman, and woman is born of a man. Also, according to Sikhism a man can never feel secure and complete during his life without a woman, and a man's success depends upon the love and support of the woman who shares her life with him, and vice-versa cite book|title=Aad Guru Granth Sahib|publisher=Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar|year=1983] . The founder of Sikhism, Sri Guru Nanak Dev ji, reportedly said in 1499 that " [it] is a woman who keeps the race going" and that we should not "consider woman ("sic") cursed and condemned,/ [when] from woman ("sic") are born leaders and rulers."cite book|title=Aad Guru Granth Sahib |publisher: Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar|year=1983 ] cite book|last=Singh|first=G.B.|title=Gandhi: Behind the Mask of Divinity|publisher=Prometheus Books|year=2004|isbn=1573929980 ]
Sikhs, therefore, have had an obligation to treat women as equals, and gender discrimination in Sikh society has not been allowed. However, gender equality has been difficult to achieve.
Women who were used to having equal privileges with their men in Vedic India were reduced to a position of subordination during the time of the lawgivers.
Purdah and sati
Muslims came " purdah", the veil, and zananah, the confinement of womenfolk to the interior apartments. The female became a greater liability for the male of the invaded populace who, weakened economically, had not only to feed his female dependants but also to be ready to protect his honour and chastity in those troubled times. This, among other social and cultural causes, led to the practice of female infanticide, though prohibited by the Qur'an, as well as child marriage. The state of a widow was the most pitiable. Polygamywas permissible for man, but a Hindu woman, unlike a Muslim woman, could not remarry even after the death of her husband. The Smrtis used to enjoin upon the widow to practise sahamarana, literally "simultaneous death," commonly known as "sati", by burning herself on the funeral pyre of her late husband. Where concession was made and the widow allowed to live on, being pregnant or having infant children, for instance, she remained ostracized from society, submitting herself to rigorous discipline of self-denial.
With the advent of Sikhism appeared a liberating force in
Indian society. Affirmation of the dignity of the human being, male as well as female, was central to Guru Nanak's teaching. His mystical vision of the immanence of the Creator in all of His creation was concertized in a forceful enunciation of the gospel of equality. Guru Nanak said that all creatures were equal before God and that to make distinctions among them on the grounds of birth or sex was sinful. For women especially, he had many bold and sympathetic words to say. Quoted most often in this respect are verses from Asa ki Var, a long composition sung in sangat in the morning service. In it, Guru Nanak expresses extreme respect and admiration for women, "of whom great men are born".
utak and celibacy
In another stanza in Asa ki Var, Guru Nanak dev ji rejects the prevalent superstition of "sutak", according to which a woman giving birth to a child remains in pollution for a given number of days, depending upon the caste to which she belongs. Pollution is not in childbirth, says Guru Nanak:
"The impurity of the mind is greed, and the impurity of the tongue is falsehood.The impurity of the eyes is to gaze upon the beauty of another man's wife, and his wealth.The impurity of the ears is to listen to the slander of others.O Nanak, the mortal's soul goes, bound and gagged to the city of Death. ||2|
All impurity comes from doubt and attachment to duality.Birth and death are subject to the Command of the Lord's Will; through His Will we come and go."(GG, 472)
As against celibacy and renunciation, Guru Nanak recommended "grhastha" — the life of a householder, in which husband and wife were equal partners. Fidelity was enjoined upon both. In the sacred verse, domestic felicity was presented as a cherished ideal and conjugal life provided a running metaphor for the expression of love for the Divine.
Bhai Gurdas ji, poet of early Sikhism and authoritative interpreter of Sikh doctrine, pays high tribute to womankind. He says, "A woman, is the favourite in her parental home, loved dearly by her father and mother. In the home of her in-laws, she is the pillar of the family, the guarantee of its good fortune... Sharing in spiritual wisdom and enlightenment and with noble qualities endowed, a woman, the other half of man, escorts him to the door of liberation." (Varan, V.16)
Equal status for women
To ensure equal status for women, the
Gurusmade no distinction between the sexes in matters of initiation, instruction or participation in sangat, holy fellowship, and pangat, commensality. According to Sarup Das Bhalla, Mahima Prakash, Guru Amar Dasdisfavoured the use of veil by women. He assigned women to the responsibility of supervising the communities of disciples in certain sectors, and preached against the custom of sati. Sikh history records the names of several ladies such as Mai Bhago, Mata Sundari, Rani Sahib Kaur, Rani Sada Kaurand Maharani Jind Kaurwho played a leading role in the events of their time and left their imprint on them. In the tumultuous decades of the eighteenth century when Sikhs went through fierce persecution, the women's display of steadfastness are to this day recounted morning and evening for their heroism and sacrifice by the Sikhs in their ardas:
"Our mothers and sisters they repeat every time in their prayer, who plied handmills in the jails of Mannu [the Mughal governor of Lahore (1748-53)] , grinding daily a maund-and-a-quarter of corn each, who saw their children being hacked to pieces in front of their eyes, but who uttered not a moan from their lips and remained steadfast in their Sikh faith—recall their spirit of fortitude and sacrifice, and say, Vahiguru, Glory be to God!"
Praised treatment of enemy women
Even in those days of severe trial and suffering, Sikhs were guided in their treatment of the womenfolk of enemy captured in battle by the highest standards of
chivalry. They showed towards them utmost respect. In 1763, for instance, one of Ahmad Shah Durrani’s generals, Jahan Khan, was defeated by the Sikhs at Sialkotand a number of his female relations and dependants fell into their hands. Ali ud-Dinwrites in his "Ibratnamah", "as the Sikhs of old would not lay their hands on women, they had them escorted safely to Jammu."
Another Muslim chronicler,
Ghulam Muhaiy ud-Din, vituperates against the Sikhs in his "Fatuhat Namah-i-Samadi", but notices the esteem they had for women. He writes, " [The Sikhs] look upon all women in the light of mothers." This had been how a Sikh was defined by Bhai Gurdasa century earlier. He said, "A Sikh casting his eyes upon the beautiful womenfolk of families other than his own regards them as his mothers, sisters and daughters."
Such being the respect for womanhood among the Sikhs,
monogamyhas been the rule for them, and polygamy a rare exception. Female infanticide is prohibited. The Rahitnamas, codes of conduct, prohibit Sikhs from having any contact or relationship with those who indulge in this practice. As for sati widow-burning, Scripture itself rejects it.
shabad(hymn) in measure Suhi, Guru Amar Das says,
"Satis are not those that burn themselves on the husband's funeral pyre; satis are they, O Nanak, who die of the pangs of separation (GG, 787)"
Stanza follows: "They, too be reckoned satis who live virtuously and contentedly in the service of the Lord, ever cherishing Him in their hearts... Some burn themselves along with their dead husbands: [but they need not, for] if they really loved them they would endure the pain alive."
As a practical step towards discouraging the practice of sati, Sikhism permitted remarriage of widows. In the present-day democratic
politics of India, women as a whole have been rid of many of their disabilities. They all enjoy political franchise and many new opportunities for advancement have opened up for them. Sikh women have shown enterprise in several fields and are among the most progressive in educationand in the professions such as teachingand medicine. In the Sikh system, they are the equals of men in all respects. They can lead congregational services and participate in akhand paths, uninterrupted readings of scripture to be accomplished within forty-eight hours. They vote with men periodically to elect Sikhs' central religious body, the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, which administers their places of worship.
Famous women in Sikhism
The first woman to be remembered in Sikhism is
Mata TriptaJi, the mother of the first and founding Guru, Guru Nanak DevJi. She is said to have meditated while carrying the child Nanak in her womb, and to have brought him up with love and tender care, while attempting to protect him from his father Mehta Kalu's wrath out of his being solitary.
Another famous woman is
Bebe NanakiJi, the elder and the only sister of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, said to be a highly intelligent, spiritually awake, and pious lady who recognised the divine light in her brother and envisaged his mission of life before anyone else could perceive it; she did not treat him just as a brother but also respected him as she would a Guru, supporting him throughout her life. Her brother would become known as a revolutionary who had come to redeem people from misconception and superstition.
Equality of Women, in Sikh Ideology and Practice
By Valerie KaurA drastic distinction between the roles of the male and female exists in all of history's modern human societies. Women have grown to accept, not without resentment though, the male-dominated atmosphere of the world. Because people use religious doctrine to define their life styles, religious scriptures in both the East and the West seem to condone, even encourage, the unequal treatment of women. In the 15th century, Guru Nanak established Sikhism, the first religion to advocate emphatically the equality of all people, especially women. In a continent characterized by severe degradation of women, this bold declaration, along with others, determined to erase the impurities of the Indian society. However, prejudices and injustices based on gender linger even today.
In the dominant Western religion of
Christianity, God created man, and then woman out of man's rib. Eve, the first woman persuades Adam to eat the forbidden apple, thus committing the world's first sin, a landmark recognized as the fall of mankind.1 The implied inferiority and corrupting influence of women in the Bible appear to justify their second rate treatment in Western society.
Changes by Guru Nanak
At the time of Guru Nanak, Indian women were severely degraded and oppressed by their society. Given no education or freedom to make decisions, their presence in religious, political, social, cultural, and economic affairs was virtually non-existent.3 Woman was referred to as "man's shoe, the root of all evil, a snare, a temptress."4 Her function was only to perpetuate the race, do household work, and serve the male members of society. Female infanticide was common, and the practice of sati, the immolation of the wife on her husband's funeral pyre, was encouraged, sometimes even forced.
Guru Nanak condemned this man-made notion of the inferiority of women, and protested against their long subjugation. The Ultimate Truth was revealed to Guru Nanak through a mystic experience, in direct communion with God. Guru Nanak conveys this Truth through the bani, Sikh Scripture. It first argues against the sexist sentiments of the pompous man about the necessity of women :
"In a woman man is conceived,From a woman he is born,With a woman he is betrothed and married,With a woman he contracts friendship.Why denounce her, the one from whom even kings are born ? From awoman a woman is born,None may exist without a woman." 5
The fundamental analogy used in the bani depicts the relationship between God and man, and proves that the physical body does not matter. The
baniparallels all human beings (men and women) to the woman or wife, and God to the man or husband. 6 This means that every person is a sohagan - a woman who is the beloved of the Lord - whether they have the body of a man or woman. Because the human body is transitory, the difference between man and woman is only transitory, and as such superficial. 7 Thus, according to Sikh ideology, all men and women possess equal status. All human beings, regardless of gender, caste, race, or birth, are judged only by theirdeeds.
With this assertion, the
Sikh Gurusinvited women to join the sangat (congregation), work with men in the langar (common kitchen), and participate in all other religious, social, and cultural activities of the gurdwaras (Sikh places of worship). The Gurus redefined celibacy as marriage to one wife and taught that male and female alike need to practice conjugal fidelity. They advocated marriage of two equal partners. Guru Amar Das, the third guru, wrote :
"Only they are truly wedded who have one spirit in two bodies." 8
Guru Amar Das also condemned purdah, the wearing of the veil, and female infanticide. He spoke against the custom of sati, thus permitting the remarriage of widows. 9 Out of 146 chosen, the Guru appointed 52 women missionaries to spread the message of Sikhism, and out of 22 Manjis established by the Guru for the preaching of Sikhism, four were women.10 The steps the Gurus took to advocate the equality of women, revolutionized the tradition of Indian society. As they began to partake in social, religious, and political affairs, their contribution and worth as equal partners of men became more obvious.
However, the Guru's teachings of equality have never been fully realized, which is clearly evident in the treatment of women even in the Sikh society today. Either because of the influence of the majority community on the Sikh minority or the Sikh male's unwillingness to give up his dominant role, women continue to suffer prejudices. A woman has never been elected as the president of
Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee(the Central Management Committee to manage the affairs of the Gurdwaras in the Punjab)(this changed in 2005), or as the head of any of the five Takhats (the thrones of authority). 11 Indian society discriminates against women in workplaces, and denies them the right to fight on the battlefield. People measure a woman's value as a bride by the size of her dowry, not necessarily by her character and integrity. Alice Basarke, a free-lance writer, sadly realizes, "After 500 years head start, Sikh Womenare no better off than their counterparts in any other religion or nation."12
To understand what the Gurus said of women in
Gurbanione must understand the conditions prevalent in India at the time of the Gurus. In the very early Vedic period women had much of the same access to an education, participation in religious, political and social roles. They even composed some of the hymns in the Vedas. That all changed drastically with the arrival of the laws of Manu. The status of women was totally degraded at every level and women were effectively enslaved. Women in Hindusociety were now bound by a series of rigid laws that defined social, occupational and religious conduct.
The women were not only relegated to their households, they were literally under the control of men from cradle to grave. They were compelled to observe Purdah. Sati was expected at the death of the spouse in some castes or permanent widowhood in others even in the case of very young widows. Widowhood meant destitution at best, social rejection and lifelong loneliness. The birth of a daughter was viewed with disdain and sorrow and female infanticide rampant. The birth of a boy was celebrated lavishly but that of a girl meant scorn and blame by the in-laws. Women and girls’ health was poor due to frequent childbirth coerced by husband and in-laws till the birth of a male heir occurred for the former and sheer neglect of health care and nutrition of the latter. The Laws of Manu still maintain a powerful hold over Indian Society today in overt and covert fashions. Women are expected to dress modestly, and wear no make-up. Also they are expected to cover their head as a sign of respect. They manifest as such in present societal mores and attitudes.(article on Laws of Manu as applies to women). These affect as much the modern Punjabi as well as Hindu societies. (This article a blessing for boys and girls are killed)Many of the same conditions that plague women in Indian society described above still exist today in many villages and city centers.
Under Islamic rule women fared no better. Hindu women and children were enslaved and force-marched by their captors to be sold on the markets of Persia, Afghanistan and sent further to Arabia and Africa. Muslim women had some limited rights under Muslim law but functioned primarily in the home.
Coming of Sikhism
It is against such a backdrop that the Gurus implemented reform via their missions and tackled prevalent issues in their teachings.
This passage offers a powerful rejection of mistreatment of women:
"We are conceived in woman,We are born to woman.It is to woman we get engaged,and then get married.Woman is our lifelong companion,And pillar of our survival.It is through woman,that we establish social relationships.Why should we denounce her,When even kings and great men are born from her?" (P. 473 SGGS Guru Nanak)
Guru Amar Das abolished the tradition of Sati and
Purdahand indeed refused to have an audience with ladies that kept Purdah. He established religious centers and women alongside men were recruited to lead and teach. Women worked alongside the men in maintaining the Guru’s kitchen, performing all duties and sitting side by side the men folk in Pangat. Guru Angadstrongly encouraged the education of women.
Women swelled the ranks in spreading the message of the Gurus as missionaries. By the time of
Guru Gobind Singh, 40% of them were women.
With the birth of the Khalsa the last of the barriers of caste and gender oppression had been smashed. Women though continuing their roles of mothers and wives were forever changed. They were lifted up and given the same Amrit at the side of their brothers. The same rules that applied to them to follow the Khalsa way applied to them. They were granted the same 5 K’s. Guru Gobind Singh's encouragement of women to keep even shastars symbolized that he did not envision her role in society as being that of a "nice, meek housewife," but rather that of a fearless, active, independent warrior, involved in the world.
Kaur - princess
Kaurbecame her name. Kaur has an interesting history. Its origin can be found in the word Kanwar, literally meaning princess. Women were given Kaur to give them an identity independent of that of their husband and to uplift their spirit.
At the time of
SHRI Guru Gobind Singh ji, women who were literally and legally possessions of their husbands in Europe and in the American colonies, women who had no voice in administration in Europe, the Americas or India were now orators, teachers, warriors, and administrators and participated in the Guru’s kitchen. Shri Guru Gobind Singh ji’s wife Mata Sundri jiled the KhalsaPanth for many years after passing of the tenth Guru. Jathedar Sada Kaur along with Maharaja Ranjit Singhmade possible the formation of the Sikh Empire. She gave her contribution to the Amrit, sweet Patashey so that the disposition of the Sikhs would be also sweet.
After Shri Guru Gobind Singh ji the situation of not only women but also lower castes had deteriorated as people regained the old ways of caste and the oppression of women. The old habits and attitudes as you read in the laws of Manu continue in some form or another to ensnare the Sikh religion as castiest infiltration regained a foothold during the 19th century at times worse than it is in Hinduism especially casteism.
Gurbani and practises
Given what we know of the history then and now here are some of the quotes regarding women:
In regard to dowry:
"O my Lord, give me thy name as my wedding gift and dowry." Shri Guru Ram Das ji, Page 78, line 18 SGGSji
"Any other dowry offered is a valueless display of false pride and of no earthly use." Shri Guru Ram Das ji, Page 79, line 2
In regard to marriage:
"They are not called husband and wife who merely sit togetherRather they alone are called husband and wifewho have one soul in two bodies."In regard to the odious practice of Sati:
"A Sati is not she, who burns herself on the pyre of her spouse.Nanak, a Sati is she, who dies with the sheer shock of separation (from God).Yea, the Sati is one who lives contended and embellishes herself with good conduct (rather than jewels and dress)And cherishing her Lord ever calls on Him each morning.The women burn themselves on the pyres of their lords,If they love their spouses well, they suffer the pangs of separation. (moh)She who loves not her spouse, why burns she herself in fire?For, be he alive or dead she owns him not (only God does)" Page 787,13, SGGSji Guru Amar Das ji)
Shri Guru Hargobind singh jicalled woman "the conscience of man" without whom moral living was impossible. Child marriage was discouraged and the practice of female infanticide, which had been strongly discouraged, was severely banned. Shri Guru Gobind Singh ji enshrined in the Khalsa code of conduct for his Khalsa, male or female not to have social conduct, relations or marriage to those who kill their daughters. This Hukam is always told in any AmritSanchaar.
Regarding the practice of Purdah:
"Stay, stay, O daughter-in-law - do not cover your face with a veil. In theend, this shall not bring you even half a shell. The one before you used toveil her face; do not follow in her footsteps. The only merit in veilingyour face is that for a few days, people will say, "What a noble bride hascome". Your veil shall be true only if you skip, dance and sing theGlorious praises of the Lord (P. 484, SGGSji, Kabeer)
Women and indeed all souls were strongly encouraged to lead a spiritual life:
"Come, my dear sisters and spiritual companions; hug me close in yourembrace. Let's join together, and tell stories of our All-powerful HusbandLord."-Guru Nanak, pg 17, Shri Guru Granth Sahib ji.
Women in the Guru Granth Sahib
Women in India
Legal rights of women in history
*Robert O. Ballou : The Portable World Bible, Penguin Books, 1976, p. 237-241.
*Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall, translator : The Meaning of Glorious Koran, Mentor Book, New American Library, New York and Scarborough, Ontario, 1924, p. 53, Surah II, 223-228.
*Kanwaljit Kaur : Sikh Women, Fundamental Issues in Sikh Studies, Institute of Sikh Studies, Chandigarh, 1992, p. 96.
*Guru Granth Sahib : p 73.
*Guru Granth Sahib, p.788.
*Kanwaljit Kaur : op. cit., p. 99.
*Sabdarath Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Amritsar, 1975
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* [http://www.sikhwomen.com/Guru_Quotes/women.htm Guru Quotes on women]
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* [http://globalsikhstudies.net/r_link/articles.htm Concepts In Sikhism - Edited by Dr. Surinder Singh Sodhi]
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