- Influenzavirus A
image_width = 175px
image_description = Source: Dr. Erskine Palmer, CDC
Electron micrographof Influenza A viruses
virus_group = v
familia = "Orthomyxoviridae"
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision = "
Influenzavirus A is a
genusof the Orthomyxoviridaefamily of viruses. Influenzavirus A includes only one species: "Influenza A virus" which causes influenzain birds and some mammals. Strains of all subtypes of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, although disease is uncommon. Some isolatesof influenza A virus cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans. [ cite web |url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/avian_influenza/en/ |title=Avian influenza (" bird flu") - Fact sheet |publisher=WHO |format= |work= |accessdate=] Occasionally viruses are transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry and this may cause an outbreak or give rise to human influenza pandemics.cite book |chapterurl=http://www.horizonpress.com/avir|author=Klenk et al|year=2008|chapter=Avian Influenza: Molecular Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Host Range|title=Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology|publisher=Caister Academic Press|id= [http://www.horizonpress.com/avir ISBN 978-1-904455-22-6] ] cite book | author = Kawaoka Y (editor). | title = Influenza Virology: Current Topics | publisher = Caister Academic Press | year = 2006 | url=http://www.horizonpress.com/flu | id = [http://www.horizonpress.com/flu ISBN 978-1-904455-06-6 ] ]
Variants and subtypes
Variants are identified and named according to the isolate that they are like and thus are presumed to share lineage (example
Fujian fluvirus like); according to their typical host (example Human fluvirus); according to their subtype (example H3N2); and according to their deadliness (example LP). So a flufrom a virus similar to the isolate A/Fujian/411/2002(H3N2) is called Fujian flu, human flu, and H3N2 flu.
Variants are sometimes named according to the species (host) the strain is endemic in or adapted to. The main variants named using this convention are:
* Bird flu
* Human Flu
* Swine Flu
* Horse Flu
* Dog Flu
Avian variants have also sometimes been named according to their deadliness in poultry, especially chickens:
* Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI)
* Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), also called: deadly flu or death flu
The Influenza A virus subtypes are labeled according to an H number (for
hemagglutinin) and an N number (for neuraminidase). Each subtype virus has mutated into a variety of strains with differing pathogenicprofiles; some pathogenic to one species but not others, some pathogenic to multiple species. Most known strains are extinct strains. For example, the annual flu subtype H3N2no longer contains the strain that caused the Hong Kong Flu.
viruses are negative sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses. "There are 16 different HA antigens (H1 to H16) and nine different NA antigens (N1 to N9) for influenza A. Until recently, 15 HA types had been recognized, but a new type (H16) was isolated from black-headed gulls caught in Swedenand the Netherlandsin 1999 and reported in the literature in 2005." [ [http://id_center.apic.org/cidrap/content/influenza/panflu/biofacts/panflu.html CIDRAP - Center for Infectious Disease Research And Policy] Pandemic Influenza Overview]
The annual flu (also called "seasonal flu" or "
human flu")in the U.S. "results in approximately 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations each year. In addition to this human toll, influenza is annually responsible for a total cost of over $10 billion in the U.S." [ [http://www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/pandemic-influenza.html whitehouse.gov] National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza - Introduction - "Although remarkable advances have been made in science and medicine during the past century, we are constantly reminded that we live in a universe of microbes - viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi that are forever changing and adapting themselves to the human host and the defenses that humans create. Influenza viruses are notable for their resilience and adaptability. While science has been able to develop highly effective vaccines and treatments for many infectious diseases that threaten public health, acquiring these tools is an ongoing challenge with the influenza virus. Changes in the genetic makeup of the virus require us to develop new vaccines on an annual basis and forecast which strains are likely to predominate. As a result, and despite annual vaccinations, the U.S. faces a burden of influenza that results in approximately 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations each year. In addition to this human toll, influenza is annually responsible for a total cost of over $10 billion in the U.S. A pandemic, or worldwide outbreak of a new influenza virus, could dwarf this impact by overwhelming our health and medical capabilities, potentially resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths, millions of hospitalizations, and hundreds of billions of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This Strategy will guide our preparedness and response activities to mitigate that impact."] .
The annually updated trivalent
influenza vaccineconsists of hemagglutinin(HA) surface glycoprotein components from influenza H3N2, H1N1, and B influenza viruses. [cite journal |author=Daum LT, Shaw MW, Klimov AI, "et al" |title=Influenza A (H3N2) outbreak, Nepal |journal=Emerging Infect. Dis. |volume=11 |issue=8 |pages=1186–91 |year=2005 |month=Aug |pmid=16102305 |doi= |url=http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no08/05-0302.htm "The 2003–2004 influenza season was severe in terms of its impact on illness because of widespread circulation of antigenically distinct influenza A (H3N2) Fujian-like viruses. These viruses first appeared late during the 2002–2003 influenza season and continued to persist as the dominant circulating strain throughout the subsequent 2003–2004 influenza season, replacing the A/Panama/2007/99-like H3N2 viruses (1). Of the 172 H3N2 viruses genetically characterized by the Department of Defense in 2003–2004, only 1 isolate (from Thailand) belonged to the A/Panama-like lineage. In February 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) changed the H3N2 component for the 2004–2005 influenza vaccine to afford protection against the widespread emergence of Fujian-like viruses (2). The annually updated trivalent vaccine consists of hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein components from influenza H3N2, H1N1, and B viruses."]
The dominant strain in January 2006 is
H3N2. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadineand rimantadinein H3N2has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in 2003 to 91% in 2005.
" [C] ontemporary
human H3N2influenza viruses are now endemic in pigs in southern Chinaand can reassort with avian H5N1viruses in this intermediate host." cite book |author=Mahmoud, Adel A. F; Institute of Medicine; Knobler, Stacey; Mack, Alison |title=The threat of pandemic influenza: are we ready?: workshop summary |publisher=National Academies Press |location=Washington, D.C |year=2005 |pages=126 |isbn=0-309-09504-2 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate= |url=http://www.nap.edu/books/0309095042/html/126.html |quote=H5N1 virus is now endemic in poultry in Asia (Table 2-1) and has gained an entrenched ecological niche from which to present a long-term pandemic threat to humans. At present, these viruses are poorly transmitted from poultry to humans, and there is no conclusive evidence of human-to-human transmission. However, continued, extensive exposure of the human population to H5N1 viruses increases the likelihood that the viruses will acquire the necessary characteristics for efficient human-to-human transmission through genetic mutation or reassortment with a prevailing human influenza A virus. Furthermore, contemporary human H3N2influenza viruses are now endemic in pigs in southern China (Peiris et al., 2001) and can reassort with avian H5N1viruses in this 'intermediate host.' Therefore, it is imperative that outbreaks of H5N1 disease in poultry in Asia are rapidly and sustainably controlled. The seasonality of the disease in poultry, together with the control measures already implemented, are likely to reduce temporarily the frequency of H5N1 influenza outbreaks and the probability of human infection.]
"The physical structure of all influenza A viruses is similar. The virions or virus particles are enveloped and can be either spherical or filamentous in form. In clinical isolates that have undergone limited passages in eggs or tissue culture, there are more filamentous than spherical particles, whereas passaged laboratory strains consist mainly of spherical virions." [ [http://www.clinicalservicesjournal.com/print.asp?id=872 Clinical Services Journal] article "Avian influenza issues analysed" published March 2006]
The Influenza A virus genome is contained on eight single (non-paired) RNA strands that code for eleven proteins (HA, NA, NP, M1, M2, NS1, NEP, PA, PB1, PB1-F2, PB2). The segmented nature of the genome allows for the exchange of entire genes between different viral strains during cellular cohabitation. The eight RNA segments are:
hemagglutinin(about 500 molecules of hemagglutininare needed to make one virion) "The extent of infection into host organism is determined by HA. Influenza viruses bud from the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells (e.g. bronchial epithelial cells) into lumen of lungs and are therefore usually pneumotropic. The reason is that HA is cleaved by tryptase clara which is restricted to lungs. However HAs of H5 and H7 pantropic avian viruses subtypes can be cleaved by furin and subtilisin-type enzymes, allowing the virus to grow in other organs than lungs." [ [http://www.expasy.org/uniprot/P09345 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry P09345] Complete sequence of a cDNA clone of the hemagglutinin gene of influenza A/Chicken/Scotland/59 (H5N1) virus: comparison with contemporary North American and European strains.]
neuraminidase(about 100 molecules of neuraminidaseare needed to make one virion).
*M encodes two
matrix proteins (the M1 and the M2) by using different reading frames from the same RNA segment (about 3000 matrix protein molecules are needed to make one virion).
*NS encodes two distinct non-structural proteins (NS1 and NEP) by using different reading frames from the same RNA segment.
*PA encodes an
*PB1 encodes an
RNA polymeraseand PB1-F2 protein (induces apoptosis) by using different reading frames from the same RNA segment.
*PB2 encodes an
The genome segments have common terminal sequences, and the ends of the RNA strands are partially complementary, allowing them to bond to each other by
hydrogen bonds. After transcription from negative-sense to positive-sense RNAthe +RNA strands get the cellular 5' capadded by cap snatching, which involves the viral protein NS1 binding to the cellular pre-mRNAs. The cap is then cleaved from the cellular pre-mRNA using a second viral protein, PB2. The short oligocap is then added to the influenza +RNA strands, allowing its processing as messenger RNAby ribosomes. The +RNA strands also serve for synthesis of -RNA strands for new virions.
RNAsynthesis and its assembly with the nucleoprotein takes place in the cell nucleus, the synthesis of proteins takes place in the cytoplasm. The assembled virion cores leave the nucleus and migrate towards the cell membrane, with patches of viral transmembrane proteins (hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and M2 proteins) and an underlying layer of the M1 protein, and bud through these patches, releasing finished enveloped viruses into the extracellular fluid.
H5N1for the current epizootic(an epidemicin nonhumans) and panzootic (a disease affecting animals of many species especially over a wide area) of H5N1 influenza"
fowlact as natural asymptomatic carriers of Influenza A viruses. Prior to the current H5N1epizootic, strains of Influenza A virus had been demonstrated to be transmitted from wild fowl to only birds, pigs, horses, seals, whales and humans; and only between humans and pigs and between humans and domestic fowl; and not other pathways such as domestic fowl to horse. [Mahmoud, Adel A. F (2005) [http://www.nap.edu/books/0309095042/html/30.html p 30] ]
Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a large variety of
influenzaA viruses. Occasionally viruses are transmitted from these birds to other species and may then cause devastating outbreaks in domestic poultry or give rise to human influenza pandemics.cite book |chapterurl=http://www.horizonpress.com/avir|author=Klenk et al|year=2008|chapter=Avian Influenza: Molecular Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Host Range|title=Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology|publisher=Caister Academic Press|id= [http://www.horizonpress.com/avir ISBN 978-1-904455-22-6] ] cite book | author = Kawaoka Y (editor). | title = Influenza Virology: Current Topics | publisher = Caister Academic Press | year = 2006 | url=http://www.horizonpress.com/flu | id = [http://www.horizonpress.com/flu ISBN 978-1-904455-06-6 ] ] H5N1has been shown to be transmitted to tigers, leopards, and domestic cats that were fed uncooked domestic fowl (chickens) with the virus. H3N8viruses from horses have crossed over and caused outbreaks in dogs. Laboratory mice have been infected successfully with a variety of avian flu genotypes. [Mahmoud, Adel A. F (2005) [http://www.nap.edu/books/0309095042/html/82.html p 82] "Interestingly, recombinant influenza viruses containing the 1918 HA and NA and up to three additional genes derived from the 1918 virus (the other genes being derived from the A/WSN/33 virus) were all highly virulent in mice (Tumpey et al., 2004). Furthermore, expression microarray analysis performed on whole lung tissue of mice infected with the 1918 HA/ NA recombinant showed increased upregulation of genes involved in apoptosis, tissue injury, and oxidative damage (Kash et al., 2004). These findings were unusual because the viruses with the 1918 genes had not been adapted to mice. The completion of the sequence of the entire genome of the 1918 virus and the reconstruction and characterization of viruses with 1918 genes under appropriate biosafety conditions will shed more light on these findings and should allow a definitive examination of this explanation. Antigenic analysis of recombinant viruses possessing the 1918 HA and NA by hemagglutination inhibition tests using ferret and chicken antisera suggested a close relationship with the A/swine/Iowa/30 virus and H1N1 viruses isolated in the 1930s (Tumpey et al., 2004), further supporting data of Shope from the 1930s (Shope, 1936). Interestingly, when mice were immunized with different H1N1virus strains, challenge studies using the 1918-like viruses revealed partial protection by this treatment, suggesting that current vaccination strategies are adequate against a 1918-like virus (Tumpey et al., 2004)."]
Influenza A viruses spread in the air and in
manureand survives longer in cold weather. It can also be transmitted by contaminated feed, water, equipment and clothing; however, there is no evidence that the virus can survive in well-cooked meat. Symptoms in animals vary, but virulent strains can cause death within a few days.
"Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is on every top ten list available for potential agricultural bioweapon agents". [Mahmoud, Adel A. F (2005) [http://www.nap.edu/books/0309095042/html/285.html p 285] "As of October 2001, the potential for use of infectious agents, such as anthrax, as weapons has been firmly established. It has been suggested that attacks on a nation’s agriculture might be a preferred form of terrorism or economic disruption that would not have the attendant stigma of infecting and causing disease in humans. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is on every top ten list available for potential agricultural bioweapon agents, generally following foot and mouth disease virus and Newcastle disease virus at or near the top of the list. Rapid detection techniques for bioweapon agents are a critical need for the first-responder community, on a par with vaccine and antiviral development in preventing spread of disease."]
Avian influenza viruses that the
OIEand others test for in order to control poultry disease include: H5N1, H7N2, H1N7, H7N3, H13N6, H5N9, H11N6, H3N8, H9N2, H5N2, H4N8, H10N7, H2N2, H8N4, H14N5, H6N5, H12N5and others.
;Known outbreaks of highly pathogenic flu in poultry 1959-2003 [cite web |url=http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_03_02/en/ |title=Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks |year=2004 |format= |work=Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR) |publisher=WHO |accessdate= Known outbreaks of highly pathogenic flu in poultry 1959-2003. ]
1979: "More than 400 harbor seals, most of them immature, died along the New England coast between December 1979 and October 1980 of acute pneumonia associated with influenza virus, A/Seal/Mass/1/180 (
H7N7)." [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7063847&query_hl=49 NCBI - NLM - NIH] National Center for Biotechnology Information (part of) U.S. National Library of Medicine (part of) National Institutes of Health (part of) US Government - Science. 1982 Feb 26;215(4536):1129-31. - "Mass mortality of harbor seals: pneumonia associated with influenza A virus." - "More than 400 harbor seals, most of them immature, died along the New England coast between December 1979 and October 1980 of acute pneumonia associated with influenza virus, A/Seal/Mass/1/180 (H7N7). The virus has avian characteristics, replicates principally in mammals, and causes mild respiratory disease in experimentally infected seals. Concurrent infection with a previously undescribed mycoplasma or adverse environmental conditions may have triggered the epizootic. The similarities between this epizootic and other seal mortalities in the past suggest that these events may be linked by common biological and environmental factors." ]
1995: " [V] accinated birds can develop asymptomatic infections that allow virus to spread, mutate, and recombine (ProMED-mail, 2004j). Intensive surveillance is required to detect these “silent epidemics” in time to curtail them. In Mexico, for example, mass vaccination of chickens against epidemic H5N2 influenza in 1995 has had to continue in order to control a persistent and evolving virus (Lee et al., 2004)." [Mahmoud, Adel A. F (2005) [http://www.nap.edu/books/0309095042/html/15.html p 15] "Unlike most other affected countries, Indonesia also instituted mass vaccination of healthy domestic birds against H5N1, followed by routine vaccination (China has a similar policy; other Asian countries are considering it [ProMED-mail, 2004j] ) (Soebandrio, 2004). This is a risky strategy, because vaccinated birds can develop asymptomatic infections that allow virus to spread, mutate, and recombine (ProMED-mail, 2004j). Intensive surveillance is required to detect these “silent epidemics” in time to curtail them. In Mexico, for example, mass vaccination of chickens against epidemic H5N2 influenza in 1995 has had to continue in order to control a persistent and evolving virus (Lee et al., 2004)."]
1997: "Influenza A viruses normally seen in one species sometimes can cross over and cause illness in another species. For example, until 1997, only
H1N1viruses circulated widely in the U.S. pigpopulation. However, in 1997, H3N2viruses from humans were introduced into the pig population and caused widespread disease among pigs. Most recently, H3N8viruses from horses have crossed over and caused outbreaks in dogs." [ [http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/transmission.htm CDC] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - "Transmission of Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People"]
California, poultryproducers kept their knowledge of a recent H6N2avian influenza outbreak to themselves due to their fear of public rejection of poultry products; meanwhile, the disease spread across the western United States and has since become endemic." [Mahmoud, Adel A. F (2005) [http://www.nap.edu/books/0309095042/html/27.html p 27] ]
Netherlands H7N7influenza virus infection broke out in poultry on several farms. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/4412932.stm BBC News] "Early bird flu warning for Dutch" - 6 November 2005 ]
North America, the presence of avian influenza strain H7N3was confirmed at several poultryfarms in British Columbiain February 2004. As of April 2004, 18 farms had been quarantined to halt the spread of the virus. cite journal |author=Tweed SA, Skowronski DM, David ST, "et al" |title=Human illness from avian influenza H7N3, British Columbia |journal=Emerging Infect. Dis. |volume=10 |issue=12 |pages=2196–9 |year=2004 |month=Dec |pmid=15663860 |doi= |url=http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no12/04-0961.htm]
2005: Tens of millions of birds died of
H5N1influenza and hundreds of millions of birds were culled to protect humans from H5N1. H5N1is endemic in birds in southeast Asia and represents a long term pandemic threat.
H5N1spreads across the globe killing hundreds of millions of birds and over 100 people causing a significant H5N1 impactfrom both actual deaths and predicted possible deaths.
Swine flu(or "pig influenza") refers to a subset of Orthomyxoviridaethat create influenzain pigsand are endemic in pigs. The species of Orthomyxoviridaethat can cause flu in pigs are Influenza A virus and Influenza C virus but not all genotypes of these two species infect pigs. The known subtypes of Influenza A virus that create influenzain pigsand are endemic in pigs are H1N1, H1N2, H3N1and H3N2.
Horse flu(or "Equine influenza") refers to varieties of Influenza A virus that affect horses. Horse 'flu viruses were only isolated in 1956. There are two main types of virus called equine-1 ( H7N7) which commonly affects horse heart muscle and equine-2 ( H3N8) which is usually more severe.
Dog flu(or "canine influenza") refers to varieties of Influenza A virus that affect dogs. The equine influenza virus H3N8was found to infect and kill greyhound race dogs that had died from a respiratory illness at a Florida racetrack in January 2004.
H3N8is now endemic in birds, horses and dogs.
Human influenza virus
"Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans.
H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2are the only known Influenza A virus subtypes currently circulating among humans. [ [http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/facts.htm CDC] "Key Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus"]
Genetic factors in distinguishing between "
human fluviruses" and " avian influenzaviruses" include::PB2: ( RNA polymerase): Amino acid(or residue) position 627 in the PB2 protein encoded by the PB2 RNAgene. Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine. :HA: ( hemagglutinin): Avian influenza HA bind alpha 2-3 sialic acidreceptors while human influenza HA bind alpha 2-6 sialic acid receptors. Swine influenza viruses have the ability to bind both types of sialic acid receptors.
"About 52 key genetic changes distinguish avian influenza strains from those that spread easily among people, according to researchers in Taiwan, who analyzed the genes of more than 400 A type flu viruses." [ [http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601086&sid=a6S3ZQwqZkS4&refer=latin_america Bloomberg News] article " Scientists Move Closer to Understanding Flu Virus Evolution" published August 28, 2006] "How many mutations would make an avian virus capable of infecting humans efficiently, or how many mutations would render an influenza virus a pandemic strain, is difficult to predict. We have examined sequences from the 1918 strain, which is the only pandemic influenza virus that could be entirely derived from avian strains. Of the 52 species-associated positions, 16 have residues typical for human strains; the others remained as avian signatures. The result supports the hypothesis that the 1918 pandemic virus is more closely related to the avian influenza A virus than are other human influenza viruses." [cite journal |author=Chen GW, Chang SC, Mok CK, "et al" |title=Genomic signatures of human versus avian influenza A viruses |journal=Emerging Infect. Dis. |volume=12 |issue=9 |pages=1353–60 |year=2006 |month=Sep |pmid=17073083 |doi= |url=http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no09/06-0276.htm]
Human flusymptoms usually include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, conjunctivitisand, in severe cases, severe breathing problems and pneumoniathat may be fatal. The severity of the infection will depend to a large part on the state of the infected person's immune systemand if the victim has been exposed to the strain before, and is therefore partially immune.
H5N1 avian influenzain a human is far worse, killing 50% of humans that catch it. In one case, a boy with H5N1 experienced diarrheafollowed rapidly by a comawithout developing respiratory or flu-like symptoms. [cite journal |author=de Jong MD, Bach VC, Phan TQ, "et al" |title=Fatal avian influenza A (H5N1) in a child presenting with diarrhea followed by coma |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=352 |issue=7 |pages=686–91 |year=2005 |month=Feb |pmid=15716562 |doi=10.1056/NEJMoa044307 |url=http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/352/7/686]
The Influenza A virus subtypes that have been confirmed in
humans, ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths, are:
H1N1caused " Spanish Flu"
H2N2caused "Asian Flu"
H3N2caused "Hong Kong Flu"
H5N1is the world's major influenza pandemicthreat
H7N7has unusual zoonoticpotential
H1N2is currently endemic in humans and pigs
H9N2, H7N2, H7N3, H10N7.
H1N1is currently endemic in both human and pig populations. A variant of H1N1was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemicthat killed some 50 million to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. [Mahmoud, Adel A. F (2005) [http://www.nap.edu/books/0309095042/html/7.html p 7] ] Controversy arose in October, 2005, after the H1N1 genomewas published in the journal, "Science". Many fear that this information could be used for bioterrorism.
:"When he compared the 1918 virus with today's human flu viruses, Dr. Taubenberger noticed that it had alterations in just 25 to 30 of the virus's 4,400 amino acids. Those few changes turned a bird virus into a killer that could spread from person to person." [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/08/science/08flu.html?pagewanted=2 New York Times] Published: November 8, 2005 - "Hazard in Hunt for New Flu: Looking for Bugs in All the Wrong Places"]
Asian Fluwas a pandemicoutbreak of H2N2avian influenza that originated in Chinain 1957, spread worldwide that same year during which a influenza vaccinewas developed, lasted until 1958 and caused between one and four million deaths.
H3N2is currently endemic in both human and pig populations. It evolved from H2N2by antigenic shiftand caused the Hong Kong Flupandemic of 1968 and 1969 that killed up to 750,000. [Detailed chart of its evolution [http://www.eletrica.ufsj.edu.br/~nepomuceno/references/epidemiology/ear_eal02.pdf here] at PDF called "Ecology and Evolution of the Flu"] "An early-onset, severe form of influenza A H3N2made headlines when it claimed the lives of several children in the United States in late 2003." [Mahmoud, Adel A. F (2005) [http://www.nap.edu/books/0309095042/html/115.html p 115] "There is particular pressure to recognize and heed the lessons of past influenza pandemics in the shadow of the worrisome 2003–2004 flu season. An early-onset, severe form of influenza A H3N2made headlines when it claimed the lives of several children in the United States in late 2003. As a result, stronger than usual demand for annual flu inactivated vaccine outstripped the vaccine supply, of which 10 to 20 percent typically goes unused. Because statistics on pediatric flu deaths had not been collected previously, it is unknown if the 2003–2004 season witnessed a significant change in mortality patterns."]
:The dominant strain of annual flu in January 2006 is
H3N2. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadineand rimantadinein H3N2 has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in 2003 to 91% in 2005. [ [http://www.reason.com/rb/rb101905.shtml Reason] [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/15/health/15drugs.html New York Times] "This Season's Flu Virus Is Resistant to 2 Standard Drugs" By Altman Published: January 15, 2006 ]
:" [C] ontemporary human
H3N2influenza viruses are now endemic in pigs in southern China and can reassort with avian H5N1viruses in this intermediate host."
H5N1is the world's major influenza pandemicthreat.
H7N7has unusual zoonotic potential. In 2003 in Netherlands89 people were confirmed to have H7N7 influenza virus infection following an outbreak in poultry on several farms. One death was recorded.
H1N2is currently endemic in both human and pig populations. The new H1N2strain appears to have resulted from the reassortment of the genes of the currently circulating influenza H1N1and H3N2subtypes. The hemagglutininprotein of the H1N2virus is similar to that of the currently circulating H1N1viruses and the neuraminidaseprotein is similar to that of the current H3N2viruses.
;H9N2:Low pathogenic avian influenza A (
H9N2) infection was confirmed in 1999, in Chinaand Hong Kongin two children, and in 2003 in Hong Kongin one child. All three fully recovered. [http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/avian-flu-humans.htm CDC] "Avian Influenza Infection in Humans"]
;H7N2:One person in
New Yorkin 2003 and one person in Virginiain 2002 were found to have serologic evidence of infection with H7N2. Both fully recovered.
North America, the presence of avian influenza strain H7N3was confirmed at several poultry farms in British Columbiain February 2004. As of April 2004, 18 farms had been quarantined to halt the spread of the virus. Two cases of humans with avian influenza have been confirmed in that region. "Symptoms included conjunctivitisand mild influenza-like illness." Both fully recovered.
;H10N7:In 2004 in
Egypt H10N7is reported for the first time in humans. It caused illness in two infants in Egypt. One child’s father is a poultrymerchant. [ [http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/focuson/flu/illustrations/timeline/timeline.htm niaid.nih.gov] Timeline of Human Flu Pandemics]
:See also|Punctuated equilibriumTaubenberger says::"All influenza A pandemics since [the
Spanish flupandemic] , and indeed almost all cases of influenza A worldwide (excepting human infections from avian viruses such as H5N1and H7N7), have been caused by descendants of the 1918 virus, including "drifted" H1N1viruses and reassorted H2N2and H3N2viruses. The latter are composed of key genes from the 1918 virus, updated by subsequently incorporated avian influenzagenes that code for novel surface proteins, making the 1918 virus indeed the "mother" of all pandemics. [ [http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no01/05-0979.htm CDC] ARTICLE "1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics" by Jeffery K. Taubenberger published January 2006]
Researchers from the
National Institutes of Healthused data from the Influenza Genome Sequencing Projectand concluded that during the ten-year period examined most of the time the hemagglutiningene in H3N2showed no significant excess of mutations in the antigenic regions while an increasing variety of strains accumulated. This resulted in one of the variants eventually achieving higher fitness, becoming dominant, and in a brief interval of rapid Darwinian evolutionrapidly sweeping through the human population and eliminating most other variants. [ [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/10/061026185115.htm Science Daily] article "New Study Has Important Implications For Flu Surveillance" published October 27, 2006]
* [http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian Avian influenza] and [http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/pandemics.htm Influenza Pandemics] from the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
* [http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/avian_faqs/en Avian influenza]
FAQfrom the World Health Organization
* [http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/subjects/en/health/diseases-cards/special_avian.html Avian influenza information] from the
Food and Agriculture Organization
* [http://www.pandemicflu.gov U.S. Government's avian influenza information website]
* [http://www.ecdc.eu.int European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control] (
ECDC) Stockholm, Sweden
* [http://www.ndu.edu/ctnsp/Bird_flu.htm "The Bird Flu and You"] Full-color poster provided by the
Center for Technology and National Security Policyat the National Defense University, in collaboration with the National Security Health Policy Center
* [http://www.InfluenzaReport.com Influenza Report 2006] Online book. Research level quality information. Highly recommended.
* [http://www.nature.com/nature/focus/avianflu/index.html Special issue on avian flu] from "Nature"
* [http://www.nature.com/avianflu/index.html Nature Reports: Homepage: Avian Flu]
*cite journal |author=Beigel JH, Farrar J, Han AM, "et al" |title=Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=353 |issue=13 |pages=1374–85 |year=2005 |month=Sep |pmid=16192482 |doi=10.1056/NEJMra052211 |url=http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/353/13/1374
* [http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink/meta-crs-7927 Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts] Congressional Research Service Report on Pandemic Preparedness.
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/conditions/birdflu1.shtml A guide to bird flu and its symptoms] from
* [http://3dscience.com/Avian_Flu_Bird_Flu_License_Free_Images.asp A Variety of Avian Flu Images and Pictures]
* [http://www.nap.edu/books/0309095042/html/285.html Avian flu, bioterror, animals (page in an online book)] "Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is on every top ten list available for potential agricultural bioweapon agents"
* [http://www.healthpolitics.com/archives.asp?previous=bird_flu&bhcp=1 'The Threat of Bird Flu': HealthPolitics.com]
* [http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/articles/531feat1.html Is a Global Flu Pandemic Imminent?] from "Infection Control Today".
* [http://www.ninthday.com/bird_flu.htm Bird Flu is a Real Pandemic Threat to Humans] by Leonard Crane, author of
Ninth Day of Creation.
* [http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/birdflu.html Links to Bird Flu pictures (Hardin MD/Univ of Iowa)]
* [http://www.fluwikie.com/ Flu Wiki]
*cite book |author=Yoshihiro Kawaoka |title=Influenza Virology: Current Topics |publisher=Caister Academic Pr |location= |year=2006 |pages= |isbn=1-904455-06-9 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=
*cite book |author=Francisco Sobrino; Thomas Mettenleiter |title=Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology |publisher=Caister Academic Pr |location= |year=2008 |pages= |isbn=1-904455-22-0 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=
* [http://news.google.com/news?q=avian+OR+bird+flu+OR+influenza&hl=en&lr=&sa=N&tab=wn Current status (Google news of avian OR bird flu OR influenza)]
* [http://www.aboutflu.net/ Flu Breaking News] Avian flu, common symptom, influenza vaccine and flu shot and latest news
* [http://www.pandemic-news.info/pandemic.htm Global Pandemic News : 24×7 online news feeds on the threat of Bird Flu and a Global Pandemic]
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