A Landtag ("Diet") is a representative assembly or
parliamentin German-speaking countries with some legislative authority.
The German word "Landtag" is composed of the words "Land" (meaning state, country, territory) which names a political entity comparable to a federal state (in German "Bundesland") and the word "Tag". Tag is literally for "day" and comes from the fact that in ancient times the assembly was held for a single day (the Latin name "dietas" has the same root) with the derived verbal form "tagen" meaning to sit and to hold a meeting in modern German.
Holy Roman Empire
In the feudal society, the formal class system was reflected in the composition of the state's 'representative' assembly (
The States("Landstände")), regardless of its name well described as estates: it was not intended as an elected reflection of the public opinion, but a fixed expression of the established power as recognized in formal privileges, including the right to seat in person (granted to many aristocrats and prelates, as well as certain cities) or be represented as elector in o college that is entitled to one or more seats.In some of the German statesthat were known as "Land", the name of such estates assembly was Landtag, analogous to the "Reichstag" (imperial Diet, mainly comprising most princes of church and hereditary states plus the Imperial Cities). The precise composition obviously varied greatly, and could change over time, as the result of privileges granted or lost, entities split or merged, border changes etcetera.
Since 1466, "Prussian Landtag" were held in
Royal Prussia. Prior to that, "Prussian Landtag"meetings were held in the Monastic state of the Teutonic Order. See also Prussian estates.
Since 1525, "Prussian Landtag" were held in
Ducal Prussia. See also Preußischer Landtag.
As Austria and
Prussiaescaped the French 'exporting the revolution', and Napoleonwas happy to maintain satellite monarchies in most German territories under his control (members of the Confederation of the Rhine), the more democratic principles of the Enlightenment would have less effect in the German-speaking lands, or only much later.
German Confederation("Deutscher Bund") was founded as successor of the Holy Roman Empire. § 13 of the "Bundesakte" (the constitutionof the German Confederation) forced the German states to pass constitutions and implement parliaments called Landstände or Landtag.
The first constitution was passed in Nassau. Until 1841 (
Luxembourg) all but 2 states got their constitution and parliaments.
1871 the German Empire was founded. All 25 states of the German Empire and the "
Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen" (since 1911) had Landtage as legislative authorities. The most important one was the " Prussian Landtag".
In the Weimar Republic 1918 till 1933 all German states had Landtage. In difference to the former Landstände and Landtage the Weimar Republik Landtage have been elected in free an equal elections.
1933 the Nazis abandoned the states and build a
Unitary state. So the Landtage were closed too.
parliament of Finland, which was created when the country was ceded from Sweden to Russia in 1809, was called "lantdag" (Swedish for Landtag) until 1919, when Finland adopted its first constitution as an independent country (independence was declared in 1917). Since then, the official term in Swedish is "riksdag", equivalent of the German Reichstag. The Finnish name is "eduskunta".
In the contemporary Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Austria and the Italian Republic's province of Bolzano-Bozen (with a German-speaking majority), a Landtag is a
unicameral legislaturefor a constitutive federal state (Bundesland). In the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Landtag is the sole national parliament, because Liechtenstein has no federal structure due to its size.
In most of the German constitutive federal states (Bundesländer), the unicameral legislature is called "Landtag". In the
city states the parliamentary city councilserves the function of the state parliament within the federal system - in Bremenand Hamburgit's called the "Bürgerschaft" (short of "Stadtbürgerschaft", municipal assembly), and in Berlinit's called "Abgeordnetenhaus" (House of Representatives).
Landtag of Baden-Württemberg
Landtag of Bavaria(Until 1999, the large federal state of Bavariawas the only state with a bicameral legislature, with a lower house called the Landtag, and an upper house called the Senate)
House of Representatives of Berlin(the new federal and old imperial capital's city-state)
Landtag of Brandenburg
Bürgerschaft of Bremen
Bürgerschaft of Hamburg
Landtag of Hesse
Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Lower Saxon Landtag(Niedersächsischer Landtag)
Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia
*Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate
Landtag of Saarland
Landtag of Saxony
Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt
Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein
Landtag of Thuringia
The national bicameral Parliament comprises the directly elected Bundestag and Bundesrat which represents the constitutive states but which has limited competence.
Landtag of Burgenland(Transleithanian, never a separate Crown land)
Landtag of Carinthia
Landtag of Lower Austria
Landtag of Upper Austria
Landtag of Salzburg
Landtag of Styria(Steiermark)
Landtag of Tyrol
Landtag of Vorarlberg
Gemeinderat of Vienna(statehood granted late; not unlike Berlin, it is identical to its municipal ' Gemeinderat', as the federal capital is a city-state: state and municipalityat the same time)
In seven cases the modern Landtage are the democratic successors of the Landtage of the corresponding imperial
Kronlands. Exceptions are the city of Vienna (which belonged to the Lower Austria Kronland) and Burgenland (which belonged to the kingdom of Hungary, in personal union).
In Italy's predominantly German-speaking province of Bolzano-Bozen the provincial council is called Landtag in German.
In the Sovereign principality of Liechtenstein the national parliament is called the
Landtag of Liechtenstein.
ources and references
* [http://www.donaumonarchie.com/ Donaumonarchie] de icon
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.