- Vasco Núñez de Balboa
name = Vasco Núñez de Balboa
occupation = Maritime explorer for the
Crown of Castile
image_size = 190px
birth_date = c. 1475
Jerez de los Caballeros, Badajoz, Spain
nationality = Spanish
María de Peñalosa
death_date = death date|1519|1|15|mf=y
names in other native languages =
Roman Catholic Church
Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1475–
January 15, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. He is best known for having crossed the Isthmus of Panamato the Pacific Oceanin 1513, becoming the first European to lead an expedition to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World.
He traveled to the
New Worldin 1500 and, after some exploration, settled on the island of Hispaniola. He founded the settlement of Santa María la Antigua del Dariénin present-day Panamain 1510, which was the first permanent European settlement on the mainland of the Americas(a settlement by Alonso de Ojedathe previous year at San Sebastián de Urabáhad already been abandoned).
Balboa was born in
Jerez de los Caballerosin Spain. He was a descendant of the lords of the castle of Balboa, near Villafranca de los Barros, in Badajoz; his father was the hidalgo (nobleman) Nuño Arias de Balboa, and his mother was a lady of Badajoz, which is located in southwestern Spain. Nothing much is known of his early childhood except that he was the third of four boys in his family. During his adolescence, he served as a page and squireto Don Pedro de Portocarrero, lord of Moguer.
In 1500, motivated by his master after the news of
Christopher Columbus' voyages to the New Worldbecame known, he decided to embark on his first voyage to the Americas, along with Juan de la Cosa, on Rodrigo de Bastidas' expedition. Bastidas had a license to bring back treasure for the king and queen, while keeping four-fifths for himself, under a policy known as the Quinto Real, or "royal fifth." Fact|date=February 2007 In 1501, he crossed the Caribbeancoasts from the east of Panama, along the Colombian coast, through the Gulf of Urabátoward Cabo de La Vela. The expedition continued to explore the north coast of South America, until they realized they did not have enough men and sailed to Hispaniola, the island that is presently divided into the Dominican Republicand Haiti.
With his share of the earnings from this campaign, Balboa settled in Hispaniola in 1502, where he resided for several years as a planter and pig farmer. However, he was not successful in this enterprise and ended up in debt. Finally, he was forced to abandon life on the island.
In 1508, the
king of Spain, Ferdinand II "The Catholic", launched the conquestof Tierra Firme(the area roughly corresponding to the Isthmus of Panama). He created two new territories in the region between El Cabo de la Vela (near the eastern border of Colombia) and El Cabo de Gracias a Dios(the border between Hondurasand Nicaragua). The Gulf of Urabá became the border between the two territories: Nueva Andalucíato the east, governed by Alonso de Ojeda, and Veraguato the west, governed by Diego de Nicuesa.
In 1509, wishing to escape his creditors in
Santo Domingo, Balboa set sail as a stowaway, hiding inside a barrel together with his dog "Leoncico",Fact|date=February 2007 in the expedition commanded by the "Alcalde Mayor" ["Alcalde Mayor": may be translated as "mayor" or "chief judge"—a position combining judicial, military, civil, and police powers, that may or may not be held by a person with legal training.] of Nueva Andalucía, Martín Fernández de Enciso, whose mission it was to aid Alonso de Ojeda, his superior. De Ojeda, together with seventy men, had founded the settlement of San Sebastián de Urabáin Nueva Andalucía, on the location where the city of Cartagena de Indiaswould later be built. However, the settlers encountered numerous warlike natives living in the area, who used poisoned weapons, and de Ojeda was injured in the leg. A short time later, de Ojeda sailed for Hispaniola, leaving the colony under the supervision of Francisco Pizarro, who, at that time, was only a soldier waiting for Enciso's expedition to arrive. De Ojeda asked Pizarro to leave some men in the settlement for fifty days and, if no help arrived at the end of that time, to use all possible means to get back to Hispaniola.
Before the expedition arrived at San Sebastián de Urabá, Fernández de Enciso discovered Balboa aboard the ship, and threatened to leave him at the first uninhabited island they encountered; he later thought better of this and decided that Balboa's knowledge of that region, which he had explored eight years before, would be of great utility. This, in addition to the crew's pleas for his life, left Fernández de Enciso with no choice but to spare Balboa and keep him aboard. Moreover, both agreed on removing de Nicuesa as governor of Veragua.
After the fifty days had passed, Pizarro started preparations for the return to Hispaniola, when Enciso's ship arrived. Balboa had gained popularity among the crew because of his charisma and his knowledge of the region. By contrast Fernández de Enciso was not well liked by the men: many disapproved of his order to return to San Sebastián, especially after discovering, once they had arrived, that the settlement had been completely destroyed and that the natives were already waiting for them, leading to a series of relentless attacks.
The founding of Santa María
Balboa suggested that the settlement of San Sebastián be moved to the region of Darién, to the west of the Gulf of Urabá, where the soil was more fertile and the natives less warlike. Fernández de Enciso gave serious consideration to this suggestion, and the regiment later went to Darién, where the native "
cacique" (chieftain) Cémaco had 500 warriors waiting, ready for battle. The Spanish, fearful of the large number of enemy combatants, made a vow to the "Virgen de la Antigua", venerated in Seville, that they would name a settlement in the region after her should they prevail. It was a difficult battle for both sides, but, by a stroke of luck, the Spanish came out victorious.
Cémaco, together with his warriors, abandoned the town and headed for the jungle. The Spanish plundered the houses and gathered a treasure-trove of golden ornaments. Balboa kept his vow, and, in September 1510, founded the first permanent settlement on mainland American soil, and called it
Santa María la Antigua del Darién.
Mayor of Santa María
The victory of the Spanish over the natives and the founding of Santa María la Antigua del Darién, now located in a relatively calm region, earned Balboa authority and respect among his companions. They were increasingly hostile towards Alcalde Mayor Fernández de Enciso, whom they considered a greedy despot because of the restrictions he imposed on their appropriation of the natives' gold.
Balboa took advantage of the situation, acting as the spokesman for the disgruntled settlers. He removed Fernández de Enciso from the position of "alcalde mayor", using the following legal manoeuvre: de Enciso was now controlling an area in Veragua, to the west of the Gulf of Urabá; since he was substituting for Alonso de Ojeda, his mandate was illegitimate, because the governor of Veragua was Diego de Nicuesa, not de Ojeda; therefore, Fernández de Enciso should be deposed and arrested. After de Enciso's ouster, a more open government was established and a municipal council was elected (the first in the Americas). Two "alcaldes" ["Alcalde": judge or quasi-judicial official] were appointed:
Martín Samudioand Vasco Núñez de Balboa.
Shortly after this, a
flotillaled by Rodrigo Enrique de Colmenaresarrived in Santa María. His objective was to find de Nicuesa, who was also facing some difficulties in the north of Panamá. When de Colmenares learned about the recent events, he convinced the town's settlers that they should submit to the authority of de Nicuesa, since their land was under his jurisdiction. Enrique de Colmenares invited two representatives, to be named by the local government, to travel with his flotilla and offer de Nicuesa authority over the city. The two representatives were Diego de Albitesand Diego del Corral.
Governor of Veragua
Enrique de Colmenares found de Nicuesa near the town of
Nombre de Dios, badly wounded and with few men remaining, on account of a skirmish with local natives. After his rescue, Governor de Nicuesa heard about Balboa's exploits, the chieftain Cémaco's bounty, and Santa María's prosperity. He vowed that he would punish Balboa as soon as he gained control of the city, since he regarded his actions as a challenge to his authority in Veragua.
Lope de Olano, who was jailed together with other malcontents, persuaded Santa María's representatives that they would make a serious error in handing control over to de Nicuesa, whom he described as cruel, greedy, and able to singlehandedly destroy the city's prosperity. With this evidence, de Albites and del Corral fled to Darién ahead of de Nicuesa and informed Balboa and the municipal authorities of the governor's intentions.
When de Nicuesa arrived at the city's port, a mob appeared, and the ensuing disturbance prevented the governor from disembarking into the city. De Nicuesa insisted on being received, no longer as governor, but as a simple soldier, but still the colonists did not allow him to disembark. He and 17 others were forced to board an unseaworthy boat with few supplies, and were put out to sea on
March 11511. The ship disappeared, leaving no trace of de Nicuesa and his men. In this way, Balboa became governor ("gobernador" ["Gobernador": governor of a settled and 'pacified' territory] ) of Veragua.
With the title of governor came absolute authority in Santa María and all of Veragua. One of Balboa's first acts as governor was the trial of Fernández de Enciso, accused of usurping the governor's authority. De Enciso was sentenced to prison and his possessions were confiscated. However, he was to remain imprisoned only for a short time: Balboa set him free under the condition that he return immediately to Hispaniola and from there to Spain. With him on the same ship were two representatives from Balboa, who were to inform the colonial authorities of the situation, and request more men and supplies to continue the conquest of Veragua.
thumb|250px|right|Balboa_setting_his_dogs_upon_Indianpractitioners_of_male love; (1594); New York Public Library
In the meantime, Balboa showed himself to have a "conquistador" mentality: he set sail for the west, traveling along Panama's Caribbean coastline, defeating various tribes and befriending others, exploring rivers, mountains, and sickly swamps, while always searching for gold and slaves and enlarging his territory. He was also able to quell revolts among those of his men who challenged this authority, and, through force, diplomacy, and negotiation, he earned a certain respect and fear among the natives. In a letter addressed to the King of Spain, he expressed, somewhat ironically, that he had to act as a guide and even open roads by his own hand.
He succeeded in planting corn, received fresh supplies from Hispaniola and Spain, and got his men used to life as explorers in the new territories. Balboa managed to collect a great deal of gold, much of it from the ornaments worn by the native women, and the rest obtained by violence. In 1513, he wrote a lengthy letter to the King of Spain, requesting more men (who were already acclimatized) from Hispaniola, weapons, supplies, carpenters versed in shipbuilding, and all the necessary materials for the building of a
shipyard. In a subsequent letter, from 1515, he would refer to his humanitarian policies regarding the natives, while at the same time recommending extreme severity in dealing with cannibals and violent tribes.
At the end of 1512 and the first months of 1513, he arrived in a region dominated by the "cacique" Careta, whom he easily defeated and then befriended. Careta was baptized and became one of Balboa's chief allies; he ensured the survival of the settlers by promising to supply the Spaniards with food. Balboa then proceeded on his journey, arriving in the lands of Careta's neighbour and rival, "cacique" Ponca, who fled to the mountains with his people, leaving his village open to the plundering of the Spaniards and Careta's men. Days later, the expedition arrived in the lands of "cacique" Comagre, fertile but reportedly dangerous terrain. However, Balboa was received peacefully and even invited to a feast in his honor; Comagre, like Careta, was then baptized.
When Balboa first saw the Quarequas many of them were engaging in homosexual acts. An enraged Balboa had them killed by his dogs. Peter Martyr reported the following about the encounter:
"Vasco discovered that the village of Quarequa was stained by the foulest vice. The king's brothers and a number of other courtiers were dressed as women, and according to the accounts of the neighbours shared the same passion. Vasco ordered forty of them to be torn to pieces by dogs. The Spaniards commonly used their dogs in fighting against naked people, and the dogs threw themselves upon them as though they were wild boars or timid deer. The Spaniards found these animals as ready to share their dangers as did the people of Colophon or Bastabara, who trained cohorts of dogs for war; for the dogs were always in the lead and never shirked a fight." (
The Discoverersby Daniel Boorstin. Pg. 257)
It was in Comagre's lands that Balboa first heard of "the other sea." It started with a squabble among the Spaniards, unsatisfied by the meager amounts of gold they were being allotted. Comagre's eldest son, Panquiaco, angered by the Spaniards' avarice, knocked over the scales used to measure gold and exclaimed: "If you are so hungry for gold that you leave your lands to cause strife in those of others, I shall show you a province where you can quell this hunger". Panquiaco told them of a kingdom to the south, where people were so rich that they ate and drank from plates and goblets made of gold, but that the conquerors would need at least a thousand men to defeat the tribes living inland and those on the coast of "the other sea".
Discovery of the South Sea
The unexpected news of a new sea, rich in gold, was received by Balboa with great interest. He returned to Santa María at the beginning of 1513 to recruit more men from Hispaniola. It was there that he learned that Fernández de Enciso had told the colonial authorities what had happened at Santa María. After seeing that there would be no assistance from Hispaniola, Balboa sent Enrique de Colmenares directly to Spain to look for help.
While the expedition to the South Sea was being organized in Santa María, some "conquistadores" travelled ten leagues (around 30 miles) up the
Atrato Rivertoward the interior, but came back empty-handed. Balboa's request for men and supplies had been denied: Enciso's case was by then widely known in the Spanish court. Therefore, Balboa had no choice but to carry out his expedition with the few resources that he had on hand in Santa María.
Using information given by various friendly "caciques", Balboa started his journey across the
Isthmus of Panamaon September 1, 1513, together with 190 Spaniards, a few native guides, and a pack of dogs. Using a small brigantineand ten native canoes, they sailed along the coast and made landfall in "cacique" Careta's territory. On September 6, the expedition continued, now reinforced with 1,000 of Careta's men, and entered "cacique" Ponca's land. Ponca had reorganized and attacked, but he was defeated and forced to ally himself with Balboa. After a few days, and with several of Ponca's men, the expedition entered the dense jungle on September 20, and, with some difficulty, arrived four days later in the lands of "cacique" Torecha, who ruled in the village of Cuarecuá. In this village, a fierce battle took place, during which Torecha was defeated and killed in battle. His followers decided to join the expedition. However, the group was by then exhausted and several men were badly wounded, so many decided to stay in Cuarecuá to regain their strength.
The few men that continued the journey with Balboa entered the mountain range along the
Chucunaque Riverthe next day. According to information from the natives, the South Sea could be seen from the summit of this range. Balboa went ahead and, before noon that day, September 25, he reached the summit and saw, far away in the horizon, the waters of the undiscovered sea. The emotions were such that the others eagerly joined in to show their joy at Balboa's discovery. Andrés de Vera, the expedition's chaplain, intoned the " Te Deum", while the men erected stone pyramids, and engraved crosses on the barks of trees with their swords, to mark the place where the discovery of the South Sea was made.
Possession and conquest of the South Sea
After the epic moment of discovery, the expedition descended from the mountain range towards the sea, arriving in the lands of "cacique" Chiapes, who was defeated after a brief battle and invited to join the expedition. From Chiapes' land, three groups departed in the search for routes to the coast. The group headed by Alonso Martín reached the shoreline two days later. They took a canoe for a short reconnaissance trip, thus becoming the first Europeans to navigate the Pacific Ocean. Back in Chiapes' domain, Martín informed Balboa, who, with 26 men, marched towards the coast. Once there, Balboa raised his hands, his sword in one and a standard with the image of the Virgin Mary in the other, walked knee-deep into the ocean, and claimed possession of the new sea and all adjoining lands in the name of the Spanish sovereigns.Fact|date=May 2008
After traveling more than convert|110|km|mi|0|abbr=on, Balboa named the bay where they ended up "San Miguel", because they arrived on September 29, the feast day of the archangel Michael. He named the new sea "Mar del Sur", since they had traveled south to reach it.
Balboa's main purpose in the expedition was the search for the gold-rich kingdoms promised by Panquiaco. To this end, he crossed through the lands of "caciques" Coquera and Tumaco, defeating them easily and taking their riches of gold and
pearls. He then learned that pearls were abundant in the islands ruled by Terarequí, a powerful and feared "cacique". Balboa set out in several canoes towards these islands, even though it was the beginning of October and the weather conditions were not favorable. He was barely able to make out the islands, and named the largest one "Isla Rica" (Rich Island, today known as Isla del Rey). He named the entire group "Archipiélago de las Perlas", which they are still called today.
In November, Balboa decided to return to Santa María but by a different route in order to further expand his territory and procure more gold. He passed through the regions of Teoca, Pacra, Bugue Bugue, Bononaima, and Chorizo, defeating some by force and befriending others through diplomacy. A particularly bloody battle took place against the "cacique" Tubanamá, whom Balboa eventually defeated. In December, the expedition arrived back in the Caribbean coast, by the Gulf of San Blas, a strip of land ruled by "cacique" Pocorosa. From there, he headed to the lands of Comagre, to find that his elderly ally had died. His son, Panquiaco, was now the new chieftain.
From there, he crossed the lands of Ponca and Careta, to finally arrive in Santa María on January 19, 1514, with a treasure in cotton goods, more than 100,000 "castellanos" worth of gold, to say nothing of the pearls. All this, however, did not compare to the magnitude of the discovery of the South Sea on behalf of Spain. Balboa commanded Pedro de Arbolancha to set sail for Spain with news of this discovery. He also sent one fifth of the treasure to the king, as the law required.
Disputes with Pedro Arias
The accusations of Fernández de Enciso, whom Balboa had deposed, and the removal and disappearance of Governor de Ojeda, forced the king to name Pedro Arias de Ávila as governor of the newly created province of
Castilla de Oro. Arias, better known as "Pedrarias Dávila" and who would later become notorious for his cruelty, took control of Veragua and managed to calm the situation. Pedrarias arrived from Arbolancha, Spain with an expedition of 1,500 men and 17 ships, thereby ensuring that Balboa's requests to the crown for more men and supplies were met. This would be to that date the largest and most complete expedition to leave Spain for the New World.
Pedrarias was accompanied on this expedition by
Gaspar de Espinosa, who held the office of "alcalde mayor"; the very same Martín Fernández de Enciso whom Balboa had forced into exile, now as Chief Constable ("Alguacil Mayor") ["Alguacil": may be translated as constable, bailiff, or sheriff] ; the royal officer and chronicler Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo; as well as several captains, among them Juan de Ayora, Pedrarias' lieutenant. There were also several clerics, most notably the Franciscan friarJuan de Quevedo, appointed bishopof Santa María. There were also women among the travellers, among them Isabel de Bobadilla, Pedrarias' wife. More than 500 men died from starvation or due to the inclemencies of the weather soon after reaching Darién. Fernández de Oviedo was to note that knights covered in silk and brocade, who distinguished themselves valiantly in the Italian Wars, would die, consumed by hunger and fever, due to the nature of the tropical jungle.
Balboa received Pedrarias and his representatives in July 1514 and accepted resignedly his replacement as governor and mayor. The settlers, however, did not like the change and some were planning to take up arms against Pedrarias, even as Balboa showed respect to the new colonial authorities.
As soon as Pedrarias took charge, Gaspar de Espinosa had Balboa arrested and tried "in absentia", sentencing him to pay reparations to Fernández de Enciso and others. He was, however, found innocent of the charge of murdering de Nicuesa, so he was freed shortly afterwards.
Due to overpopulation in Santa María, Pedrarias called on several expeditionaries to search for new locations fit for settlement. Balboa requested of Pedrarias that he be allowed to explore the Dabaibe region, along the
Atratoriver, for there was a rumour of the existence of a temple filled with vast riches there. However, this expedition turned out to be a failure, leaving Balboa wounded due to constant attacks by the region's natives.
This setback, however, did not deter Balboa's ambitions of returning to explore the South Sea. Secretly, he arranged to recruit a contingent of men from
Cuba. The ship carrying them berthed just outside Santa María, and its caretaker informed Balboa of their arrival, receiving in return 70 gold castellanos. Pedrarias, however, soon found out about the ship; furious, he had Balboa arrested, took away all his men and was planning to lock him up in a wooden cage. He was held back from doing this by Bishop de Quevedo, who appealed to him not to abuse his power on Balboa.
Luckily for Balboa, around that time the Spanish Crown would finally recognize his valuable services. The king bestowed on him the titles of "
Adelantado" ["Adelantado": governor of a territory that is still possibly experiencing hostilities; a position slightly lower than that of "gobernador"] of the South Seas" and "Gobernador" of Panamaand Coiba". On top of this, the King instructed Pedrarias to show Balboa the greatest respect and to consult him on all matters pertaining the conquest and government of Castilla de Oro. Because of all this, Pedrarias was to release and exonerate Balboa, lifting all charges brought up against him in the matter of the clandestine recruitment of an expeditionary party.
Downfall and death
At that point, rivalry between Balboa and Pedrarias ceased abruptly, due in large part to the intercession of Bishop de Quevedo and Isabel de Bobadilla, who arranged for Balboa's marriage to María de Peñalosa, one of Pedrarias' daughters, who was in Spain. The marriage took place, and shortly thereafter, the bishop left for Spain. The friendship between Pedrarias and Balboa lasted barely two years, but in that time Balboa came to show great filial affection toward his father-in-law.
Balboa wished to continue exploring the South Sea, but Pedrarias did everything possible to delay his departure. However, in light of the new relationship between them, Pedrarias could not stop him indefinitely, and he finally consented to let Balboa go on his new expedition, giving him license to explore for a year and a half.
So, between 1517 and 1518, Balboa moved to
Aclawith 300 men and, using the manpower of the natives and African slaves, managed to gather the materials necessary to fashion new ships. He traveled up to the Balsas river, where he had four ships built. He travelled convert|74|km|mi|0|abbr=on through the Pacific, surrounding the Pearl Islands and the coasts of Darién, up to "Puerto Piñas", so named because of the large amounts of pineapples "(piñas)" he found there. He then returned to Acla, to continue the construction of sturdier ships.
However, on his return, Pedrarias wrote warm letters urging Balboa to meet him as soon as possible. Balboa quickly obeyed. Halfway to Santa María, he encountered a group of soldiers commanded by
Francisco Pizarro, who arrested him in the name of the governor and accused him of trying to usurp Pedrarias' power and create a separate government in the South Sea. Outraged, Balboa denied all charges and demanded that he be taken to Spain to stand trial; Pedrarias, however, together with Martin Enciso, ordered that the trial take place without delay.
Balboa's trial began in January 1519, and on the fifteenth of that month, de Espinosa sentenced him to death by
decapitation. Four of Balboa's friends, Fernando de Argüello, Luis Botello, Hernán Muñoz, and Andrés Valderrábano, accused as accomplices, were sentenced to the same fate. The sentence was to be carried out in Acla, to show that the conspiracy had its roots in that colony.
As Balboa and his friends were being led to the block, the town crier announced: "This is the justice that the King and his lieutenant Pedro Arias de Ávila impose upon these men, traitors and usurpers of the Crown's territories." Balboa could not restrain his indignation and replied: "Lies, lies! Never have such crimes held a place in my heart, I have always loyally served the King, with no thought in my mind but to increase his dominions." Pedrarias observed the execution, hidden behind a platform. The executioner beheaded Balboa and his four friends with an axe. Balboa's head did not come off clean on the first try; it took three. Their heads remained in public display for several days, as a sign of Pedrarias' might.
The final location of Balboa's remains is unknown, partly because there is no record of what happened in Acla after the execution.
Thus, it was Gaspar de Espinosa, Pedrarias' underling, who sailed the South Sea aboard the very ships that Balboa had commissioned. In 1520,
Ferdinand Magellanrenamed the sea the " Pacific Ocean" because of its calm waters.
Although Balboa suffered a premature death, his actions and deeds are remembered by history. Several parks and avenues throughout
Panamabear the name "Vasco Núñez de Balboa," and a number of monuments honor his discovery of the South Sea. The Panamanian currency is called the Balboa, and his likeness appears on the obverse of some coins. His name is also attached to Panama City's main port, Balboa (the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal) and the Balboa District within Panamá Provinceto which the Pearl Islandsthat he discovered belong. In San Francisco, California, USA, Balboa's name appears among a row of avenues which are named after Spanish conquistadors. There is also large park (Balboa Park) adjacent to downtown San Diego, Californianamed after Balboa, in which there are many world-class museums. Balboa's name is also honored in Madridwith a street and an underground station.
The highest order granted by the Panamanian government to distinguished and outstanding figures, foreign and domestic, is the "Orden Vasco Núñez de Balboa", in various degrees, as established by Law 27 from 28 January 1933.
lunar craterBalboa was named after him.
* cite book
last = Asenjo García
first = Frutos
year = 11/1991
title = Vasco Núñez de Balboa: El descubrimiento del Mar del Sur
publisher = Sílex Ediciones
location = Madrid
id = ISBN 84-7737-034-6
* cite book
last = Garrison
first = Omar V.
year = 01/1977
title = Balboa el conquistador: La odisea de Vasco Núñez, descubridor del Pacífico
publisher = Editorial Grijalbo
location = Barcelona
id = ISBN 84-253-0748-1
* (Online book)" [http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/02588400888014428632268/index.htm Historia General de las Indias] ". Chapters LVII to LXVI. Francisco López de Gómara. Medina del Campo, 1553; Zaragoza, 1555
* "Encyclopedia Ilustrada Cumbre - Tomo 10". pp.186 - 188. 32nd edition - 1993. Editorial Hachette Latinoamérica, S. A. de C. V., México. ISBN 970-611-125-5
* "Historia general y natural de las Indias".
Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés. Madrid, 1850
* "Relación de los sucesos de Pedrarias Dávila".
Pascual de Andagoya. III. Madrid, 1829
* [http://www.win.tue.nl/~engels/discovery/balboa.html Discoverers Web: Balboa]
* [http://www.bruce.ruiz.net/PanamaHistory/balboa.htm His life with various illustrations]
* [http://www.artehistoria.com/historia/personajes/5616.htm Biography of Núñez de Balboa]
* [http://www.mgar.net/exp/balboa.htm Biography of Núñez de Balboa]
* [http://alcazaba.unex.es/~ymendez/DESCUBRIDORES.html Discoverers from Jerez: Vasco Núñez de Balboa]
* [http://www.critica.com.pa/archivo/visiones/vasco.html Vasco Núñez de Balboa]
* [http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/historia/ilustre/ilus8.htm Biography of Vasco Núñez de Balboa]
* [http://www.members.tripod.com/~Panamahistoria/Stamaria.htm Founding of Santa María la Antigua del Darién]
* [http://www.members.tripod.com/~Panamahistoria/vasconu.htm Vasco Núñez de Balboa and the discovery of the South Sea]
* [http://www.members.tripod.com/~Panamahistoria/muertede.htm Death of Vasco Núñez de Balboa]
* [http://www.elpanamaamerica.com.pa/archive/12162005/ciudadt.shtml The Balboa monument]
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