Royal College of Surgeons of England

Royal College of Surgeons of England

Coordinates: 51°30′55″N 0°6′57″W / 51.51528°N 0.11583°W / 51.51528; -0.11583

Royal College of Surgeons of England, Lincoln's Inn Fields

The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body and registered charity (212808) committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales. The College is located at Lincoln's Inn Fields in London.



The origins of the College go back to the fourteenth century with the foundation of the 'Guild of Surgeons Within the City of London'.[1] Certain sources date this as occurring in 1368. There was ongoing dispute between the surgeons and barber surgeons until an agreement was signed between them in 1493, giving the fellowship of surgeons the power of incorporation[2] This union was formalised further in 1540 by Henry VIII of England between the Worshipful Company of Barbers (incorporated 1462) and the Guild of Surgeons to form the Company of Barber-Surgeons. In 1745 the surgeons broke away from the barbers to form the Company of Surgeons. In 1800 the Company was granted a Royal Charter to become the Royal College of Surgeons in London. A further charter in 1843 granted it the present title of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.


The original 300 Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (FRCS) include:

The correct way to address a member or fellow of The Royal College of Surgeons is to use the title Mr, Miss, Mrs, or Ms (not Dr). This system (which applies only to surgeons, not physicians) has its origins in the 16th century, when surgeons were barber-surgeons and did not have a medical degree (or indeed any formal qualification), unlike physicians, who held a University medical degree. When the College of Surgeons received its royal charter, the Royal College of Physicians insisted that candidates must have a medical degree first. Therefore an aspiring surgeon had to study medicine first and received the title Doctor. Thereafter, having obtained the diploma of Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons he would revert to the title "Mr" as a snub to the RCP. The title {Mr} only applied to Fellows, not Members with the diploma MRCS. In fact members of the College (holding a MRCS) are referred to as Mr and the College addresses them as such.

In Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's The Hound of the Baskervilles, the distinction is made in the following conversation:

"Come, come, we are not so far wrong after all," said Holmes. "And now, Dr. James Mortimer--"

"Mister, sir, Mister--a humble M.R.C.S."

Despite Mortimer's correction, he is referred to as "Dr. Mortimer" throughout the story.

A biographical register of fellows is available on Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online

The main exhibit room, Hunterian Museum, woodblock engraving by T.H.Shepperd & E.Radclyffe, London, 1853 (Dr. Nuno Carvalho de Sousa collection, Lisbon)


The Company of Surgeons moved from Surgeon's Hall in Old Bailey to a site at 41 Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1797. Construction of the first College building, to a design by George Dance the Younger, and James Lewis, took from 1805 to 1813. Before long, a survey by Sir Kayrun Naher uncovered structural defects. In 1833 Sir Charles Barry won the public competition to design a replacement. The library and portico of this building are all that remain today after a German incendiary bomb hit the College in 1941.

Hunterian Museum

The skeleton of the seven and a half foot (231cm) tall "Irish Giant" is visible in the middle of this image.

In 1799 the government purchased the collection of John Hunter which they presented to the College. This formed the basis of the Hunterian Collection, which has since been supplemented by others including an Odontological Collection and the natural history collections of Richard Owen. The museum displays thousands of anatomical specimens, including the Evelyn tables and the skeleton of the "Irish giant" Charles Byrne, and many surgical instruments


Medals, Awards and Lectures

The Cheselden Medal was instituted in 2009 in honour of William Cheselden "to recognise unique achievements in, and exceptional contributions to, the advancement of surgery". The award is made at irregular intervals to reflect the outstanding qualities required of recipients and is deemed one of the College’s highest professional honours.[3]

The Royal Colleges' Bronze Medal was instituted in 1957 and is awarded jointly with the Royal College of Physicians and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. It is awarded annually "on the nomination of the Medical Group of the Royal Photographic Society for the outstanding example of photography in the service of medicine and surgery".

The Wood Jones Medal was instituted in 1975 to commemorate Frederic Wood Jones (Sir William Collins Professor of Human and Comparative Anatomy and Conservator of the Anatomy Museum 1945-52). It is awarded occasionally (triennially until 1994) by a Committee "for contributions to anatomical knowledge or the teaching of anatomy in the tradition of Frederic Wood Jones".

The Clement-Price Award was founded in 1958 with a gift of 1,000 guineas from members of the staff of the Westminster Hospital in honour of Sir Clement Price Thomas. It is awarded triennially, or at such other interval as the President may decide, by the Council on the recommendation of the Fellowship Election and Prize Committee, "in recognition of meritorious contributions to surgery in its widest sense, without restriction of candidature".

The Lister Medal has been awarded since 1924 (mostly on a triennial basis), after the College was entrusted in 1920 with administrating the Lister Memorial Fund, in memory of pioneering British surgeon Joseph Lister. The award is decided in conjunction with the Royal Society, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Glasgow. In addition to being presented with a medal, the recipient delivers the Lister Oration at the College.

The Honorary Gold Medal was instituted in 1802 and is awarded at irregular intervals "for liberal acts or distinguished labours, researches and discoveries eminently conducive to the improvement of natural knowledge and of the healing art". Recipients to date include Professor Harold Ellis (1998), Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys (2002) and Dr Barry J. Marshall (2005).

The Bradshaw Lecture was founded in 1875 under the will of Mrs Sally Hall Bradshaw in memory of her husband, Dr William Wood Bradshaw. It is a biennial (annual until 1993) lecture on surgery, customarily given by a senior member of the Council on or about the day preceding the second Thursday of December. (Given in alternate years, with the Hunterian Oration given in the intervening years). Not to be confused with the corresponding Bradshaw Lectures delivered to the Royal College of Physicians. See Bradshaw Lecture for list of past lectures and lecturers.

Hunterian Oration

The oration was founded in 1813 by the executors of John Hunter's will, his nephew Dr Matthew Baillie and his brother-in-law Sir Everard Home, who made a gift to the College to provide an annual oration and a dinner for Members of the Court of Assistants and others. In 1853 the oration and dinner became biennial and is held on alternate years in rotation with the Bradshaw Lecture. It is delivered by a Fellow or Member of the college on Feb 14th, Hunter's birthday, "such oration to be expressive of the merits in comparative anatomy, physiology, and surgery, not only of John Hunter, but also of all persons, as should be from time to time deceased, whose labours have contributed to the improvement or extension of surgical science". The RCS Oration is not to be confused with the Hunterian Society Oration given at the Hunterian Society.

  • 2011 Norman Williams
  • 2009 Linda de Cossart
  • 2007 Anthony Mundy
  • 2005 Sir Peter Morris
  • 2003 Charles J.B.Galasko, Hunter's Legacy and Surgical Training and Competence in the 21st Century [4]
  • 1999 Bill Heald
  • 1997 H Brendon Devlin
  • 1995 John Alexander-Williams
  • 1993 Sir Miles Irving
  • 1991 John Blandy
  • 1989 Sir Roy Calne
  • 1987 Sir Geoffrey Slaney
  • 1985 Donald Campbell
  • 1983 Not given due to death of speaker (Sir Alan Parks).
  • 1981 Sir Reginald Sidney Murley
  • 1979 George Qvist, Some controversial aspects of John Hunter's life and work. [5]
  • 1977 R H Franklin, John Hunter and his relevance in 1977 [6]
  • 1975 Sir Rodney Smith, The Hunters and the Arts
  • 1973 Sir Thomas Holmes Sellors, Some Pupils of John Hunter [7]
  • 1971 Sir Hedley Atkins, The Attributes of Genius from Newton to Darwin [8]
  • 1969 Leslie Norman Pyrah, John Hunter and After
  • 1967 Arthur Porritt, Baron Porritt, John Hunter, Distant Echoes [9]
  • 1965 A. Dickson Wright, John Hunter's Private Practice
  • 1963 Sir Stanford Cade, The Lasting Dynamism of John Hunter
  • 1961 Russell Brock, Baron Brock
  • 1959 Sir Reginald Watson-Jones, Surgery is Destined to the Practice of Medicine
  • 1956 Sir Henry Cohen, Reflections on the Hunterian Method [10]
  • 1953 Lionel E. C. Norbury, The Hunterian Era: Its Influence on the Art and Science of Surgery [11]
  • 1951 Sir Max Page, The Hunterian Heritage [12]
  • 1949 Henry S. Souttar, John Hunter the Observer [13]
  • 1945 George Grey Turner, The Hunterian Museum, yesterday and to-morrow
  • 1943 William Francis Victor Bonney [14]
  • 1941 Arthur Henry Burgess, Development of Provincial Medical Education Illustrated in the Life and Work of Charles White of Manchester
  • 1939 Sampson Handley
  • 1936 Charles Herbert Fagge, John Hunter to John Hilton [15]
  • 1934 Sir Cuthbert Sidney Wallace
  • 1932 Wilfred Trotter, The Commemoration of Great Men [16]
  • 1930 Ernest W. Hey Groves, Hero Worship in Surgery [17]
  • 1928 Sir Holburt Waring, The Progress of Surgery from Hunter's day to ours [18]
  • 1927 Berkeley Moynihan, Hunter’s ideals and Lister’s practice [19]
  • 1925 D'Arcy Power, John Hunter as a Man
  • 1923 Sir John Bland-Sutton, John Hunter, his affairs, habits and opinions [20]
  • 1921 Sir Charters J. Symonds
  • 1919 Sir Anthony Bowlby, British Military Surgery in the time of Hunter and in the Great War
  • 1917 Sir George Henry Makins, The Influence Exerted by the Military Experience of John Hunter on himself and the Military Surgeon of Today [21]
  • 1915 Sir William Watson Cheyne, The Treatment of Wounds in War [22]
  • 1913 Sir Rickman Godlee
  • 1911 Edmund Owen
  • 1909 Sir Henry Morris, John Hunter as a Philosopher [23]
  • 1907 Sir Henry T. Butlin, Objects of Hunter's Life and the Manner in which he Accomplished them [24]
  • 1905 Sir John Tweedy [25]
  • 1903 Sir Henry Howse [26]
  • 1901 Nuttidge Charles Macnamara, The Human Skull in Relation to Brain Growth [27]
  • 1899 Sir William MacCormac
  • 1897 Christopher Heath, John Hunter Considered as a Great Surgeon
  • 1895 John Whitaker Hulke. John Hunter, The Biologist
  • 1893 Thomas Bryant, On Villous Growths and the common affections of the rectum
  • 1891 Sir Jonathan Hutchinson [28]
  • 1889 Henry Power
  • 1887 William Scovell Savory, Surgery in its Relation to Science [29]
  • 1885 John Marshall
  • 1883 Thomas Spencer Wells [30]
  • 1881 Luther Holden
  • 1879 Sir George Murray Humphry
  • 1877 Sir James Paget, Science in Surgery
  • 1875 Frederick Le Gros Clark
  • 1873 Henry Hancock [31]
  • 1871 Sir William Fergusson [32]
  • 1869 Richard Quain, On some Defects in General Education [33]
  • 1867 John Hilton
  • 1865 Richard Partridge
  • 1863 George Gulliver
  • 1861 William Coulson
  • 1859 John Bishop
  • 1857 Thomas Wormald
  • 1855 Joseph Hodgson
  • 1852 James Luke
  • 1850 Frederic Carpenter Skey
  • 1849 Caesar Hawkins
  • 1848 Richard Dugard Grainger, The Cultivation of Organic Science
  • 1847 Joseph Henry Green[34]
  • 1846 Sir William Lawrence
  • 1844 John Flint South on the History of Medicine
  • 1843 James Moncrieff Arnott
  • 1842 George Gisborne Babington
  • 1841 Richard Dugard Grainger
  • 1840 Joseph Henry Green
  • 1839 Edward Stanley
  • 1838 Benjamin Travers [35]
  • 1837 Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie
  • 1833 John Howship
  • 1832 Samuel Cooper
  • 1830 George James Guthrie
  • 1829 John Painter Vincent, Observations on Some Parts of Surgical Practice
  • 1828 Sir William Blizard
  • 1827 Honoratus Leigh Thomas
  • 1826 Sir Anthony Carlisle on Oysters
  • 1825 William Norris
  • 1824 Henry Cline
  • 1823 Sir William Blizard
  • 1822 Everard Home In Honour of Surgery
  • 1821 Thomas Chevalier
  • 1820 Sir Anthony Carlisle
  • 1819 John Abernethy
  • 1818 Sir David Dundas
  • 1817 William Norris
  • 1816 Henry Cline
  • 1815 John Percival Pott
  • 1814 Everard Home
  • 1813 Sir William Blizard

Past Presidents

Name Presidential term
John Black 2008-11[36]
Bernard Ribeiro 2005-08[37]
Hugh Phillips 2004–05[38]
Professor Sir Peter Morris 2001-04[39]
Barry Jackson 1998-2001
Rodney Sweetnam 1995-98
Professor Sir Norman Browse 1992-95
Terence English 1989-92
Ian Todd 1986-89
Geoffrey Slaney 1982-86
Alan Parks 1980-82
Reginald Murley 1977-80
Rodney Smith 1973-77
Edward Muir 1972
Thomas Holmes Sellors 1969-72
Hedley Atkins 1966-69
Russell Brock, Baron Brock 1963-66
Arthur Porritt, Baron Porritt 1960-63[40]
James Patterson Ross 1957-60
Harry Platt 1954-57
Cecil Wakeley 1949-54
Alfred Webb Johnson 1941-48
Hugh Lett 1938-40
Cuthbert Wallace 1935-37
Holburt Jaconb Waring 1932-34
Berkeley Moynihan 1926-31
John Bland-Sutton 1923-23
Anthony Alfred Bowlby 1920-22
George Henry Makins 1917-19
Sir William Watson Cheyne 1914-16
Rickman Godlee 1911–1913
Henry Trentham Butlin 1909-11
Henry Morris 1906-08
John Tweedy 1903-05
Henry Greenaway Howse 1901-02
William MacCormac 1896–1900
Christopher Heath 1895
John Whitaker Hulke 1893-94
Thomas Bryant 1890-92
Jonathan Hutchinson 1889
Sir William Scovell Savory 1885-88
John Cooper Forster 1884
John Marshall 1883
Thomas Spencer Wells 1882
William James Erasmus Wilson 1881
John Eric Erichson 1880
Luther Holden 1879
John Simon 1878
John Birkett 1877
Prescott Gardner Hewett 1876
James Paget 1875
Frederick Le Gros Clark 1874
Thomas Blizard Curling 1873
Henry Hancock 1872
George Busk 1871
William Fergusson 1870
Edward Cock 1869
Richard Quain 1868
John Hilton 1867
Richard Partridge 1866
Thomas Wormald 1865
Joseph Hodgson 1864
Frederic Carpenter Skey 1863
James Luke 1862
Caesar Henry Hawkins 1861
John Flint South 1860
James Moncrieff Arnott 1859
Joseph Henry Green 1858
Edward Stanley 1857
Benjamin Travers 1856
William Lawrence 1855
George James Guthrie 1854
James Luke 1853
Caesar Hawkins 1852
John Flint South 1851
James Moncrieff Arnott 1850
Joseph Henry Green 1849
Edward Stanley 1848
Benjamin Travers 1847
William Lawrence 1846
Samuel Cooper 1845
Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie 1844
John Goldwyer Andrews 1843
Anthony White 1842
George James Guthrie 1841
John Painter Vincent 1840
Robert Keate 1839
Honoratus Leigh Thomas 1838
Sir Anthony Carlisle 1837
Astley Paston Cooper 1836
John Goldwyer Andrews 1835
Anthony White 1834
George James Guthrie 1833
John Painter Vincent 1832
Robert Keate 1831
Richard Clement Headington 1830
Honoratus Leigh Thomas 1829
Sir Anthony Carlisle 1828
Astley Paston Cooper 1827
John Abernethy 1826
William Lynn 1825
William Norris 1824
Henry Cline 1823
William Blizard 1822
Everard Home 1821-22

Past Masters - Royal College of Surgeons

Name Magisterial term
Thompson Foster 1820
Sir David Dundas 1819
Thomas Keate 1818
George Chandler 1817
Sir James Earle 1817
William Norris 1816
Henry Cline 1815
William Blizard 1814
Everard Home 1813
Thompson Foster 1812
David Dundas 1811
Sir Charles Blicke 1810
Thomas Keate 1809
George Chandler 1808
Sir James Earle 1807
Charles Hawkins 1806
Thompson Forster 1805
David Dundas 1804
Sir Charles Blicke 1803
Thomas Keate 1802
George Chandler 1801
William Long 1800

Past Masters - Company of Surgeons

Name Magisterial term
Charles Hawkins 1799–1800
James Earle 1798
John Gunning 1797
Isaac Minors 1796
William Cooper 1795
William Walker 1794
John Wyatt 1793
Samuel Howard 1792
William Lucas 1791
Charles Hawkins 1790
John Gunning 1789
Henry Watson 1788
Edmund Pitts 1787
Isaac Minors 1786
Henry Watson 1785
Joseph Warner 1784
Richard Grindall 1782-3
Peter Triquet 1781
Joseph Warner 1780
Fleming Pinkstan 1779
Pennell Hawkins 1778
Robert Young 1776-77
Richard Grindall 1775
Matthew Spray 1774
Joseph Warner 1773
John Pyle 1772
Wentworth Gregory 1770-71
William Bromfield 1769
Benjamin Cowell 1768
Robert Adair 1767
Stafford Crane 1766
Percivall Pott 1765
Robert Young 1764
John Blagden 1763
John Townsend 1762
David Middleton 1761
Edward Nourse 1760
Christopher Fullagar 1759
Mark Hawkins 1758
William Singleton 1757
John Westbrook 1756
Noah Roul 1755
James Hickes 1754
Legard Sparham 1753
John Ranby 1751-52
Peter Sainthill 1749-50
Caesar Hawkins 1748
John Freke 1747
William Cheselden 1746
John Ranby 1745

See also

Holburt Jaconb Waring 1932-34 should be Holburt Jacob Waring 1932-34

External links


  1. ^ Louis Kuo Tai Fu (2000)The origins of surgery. 2: From barbers to surgeons Annals of the College of Surgeons Hong Kong 4 (1), 35–49. doi:10.1046/j.1442-2034.2000.00029.x
  2. ^, page 118
  3. ^ "Terms of reference for Fellowship, Election and Prize Committee". Royal College of Surgeons. Retrieved 21 August 2010. 
  4. ^ "Hunterian Oration". Royal College of Surgeons. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  5. ^ Qvist G (March 1979). "Hunterian Oration,1979". Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 61 (2): 138–41. PMC 2492794. PMID 373574. 
  6. ^ Franklin RH (May 1978). "Hunterian Oration, 1977". Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons 60 (3): 266–73. PMC 2492071. PMID 348022. 
  7. ^ Sellors TH (October 1973). "Some Pupils of John Hunter". Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons 53 (4): 205–17. PMC 2388271. PMID 4583418. 
  8. ^ The Hunterian Festival 1971. PMC 2387934. 
  9. ^ "(Arthur Espie), Baron Porritt of Wanganui, New Zealand and of Hampstead Porritt". Royal College of Physicians. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 
  10. ^ "Reflections on the Hunterian Method". BMJ. JSTOR 20334843. 
  11. ^ The Hunterian Era: Its Influence on the Art and Science of Surgery. Royal College of Surgeons. PMC 2377576. 
  12. ^ PAGE M (March 1951). "The Hunterian Heritage". BMJ 1 (4705): 489–96. PMC 2068470. PMID 14821457. 
  13. ^ Souttar HS (March 1949). "The Hunterian Oration for 1949". Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons 4 (3): 127–41. PMC 2238306. PMID 19309852. 
  14. ^ "Obituary". BMJ. PMC 2028496. 
  15. ^ "Fagge, Charles Herbert (1873-1939)". Royal College of Surgeons. Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  16. ^ "The Hunterian Oration". 
  17. ^ "Hunterian Oration". BMJ. JSTOR 25335294. 
  18. ^ "The Hunterian Oration". BMJ. JSTOR 25327910.  >
  19. ^ "Moynihan, Sir Berkeley George Andrew, Lord Moynihan of Leeds (1865 - 1936)". Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 
  20. ^ "Bland-Sutton, Sir John: Papers". Royal College of Surgeons. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 
  21. ^ Makins GH (February 1917). "Hunterian Oration 1917". BMJ 1 (2929): 213–9. PMC 2348053. PMID 20768476. 
  22. ^ "The Hunterian Oration 1915". Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  23. ^ The Hunterian Oration. BMJ. JSTOR 25280983. 
  24. ^ Butlin HT (February 1907). "The Hunterian Oration". BMJ 1 (2407): 357–62. PMC 2356750. PMID 20763071. 
  25. ^ "Tweedy, Sir John (1849 - 1924)". Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online. Retrieved 23 August 2010. 
  26. ^ "The Hunterian Oration". BMJ 1 (2199): 438–9. February 1903. PMC 2513120. PMID 20760723. 
  27. ^ "Obituary". BMJ. PMC 2342183. 
  28. ^ "Royal College of Physicians-HUTCHINSON, Sir Jonathan (1828-1913)". Royal College of Surgeons. Retrieved 20 August 2010. 
  29. ^ "The Hunterian Oration". BMJ. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 
  30. ^ "The Hunterian Oration". BMJ. Retrieved 20 August 2010. 
  31. ^ Caddy A (September 1931). "The Royal Westminster Ophthalmic Hosspital and its Staff in the Past". The Bristish Journal of Ophthalmology 15 (9): 498–511. doi:10.1136/bjo.15.9.498. PMC 511338. PMID 18168977. 
  32. ^ "The Hunterian Oration". BMJ. JSTOR 25228935. 
  33. ^ "Hunterian Lecture". Internet Archive. Retrieved 26 August 2010. 
  34. ^ "GREEN, Joseph Henry (1791-1863)". King's College London Archives Services. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 
  35. ^ "TRAVERS, Benjamin (1783-1858)". King's College London Archives Services. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  36. ^ "New President for Royal College of Surgeons". Royal College of Surgeons of England. 10 April 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009. 
  37. ^ "New President for Royal College of Surgeons". Royal College of Surgeons of England. 14 July 2005. Retrieved 19 June 2009. 
  38. ^ "Hugh Phillips". London: The Independent. 16 July 2005. Retrieved 19 June 2009. 
  39. ^ "New President for Royal College of Surgeons". Royal College of Surgeons of England. 7 July 2004. Retrieved 19 June 2009. 
  40. ^ G, H. H. (4 January 1994). "Lord Porritt". London: The Independent. Retrieved 19 June 2009. 

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