Gaul ( _la. Gallia) was the Roman name for the region of
Western Europecomprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerlandand the parts of the Netherlandsand Germanyon the west bank of the River Rhine. In English, the word "Gaul" ( _fr. Gaulois) may also refer to an inhabitant of that region, although the expression may be used more generally for all ancient speakers of the Gaulish language(a derivative of early Celtic) who were widespread in Europeand extended even into central Anatoliaby Roman times.
Gauls under Brennus sacked Rome circa
390 BC. In the Aegean world, a huge migration of Eastern Gauls appeared in Thrace, north of Greece, in 281 BC. Another Gaulish chieftain also named Brennus, at the head of a large army, was only turned back from desecrating the Temple of Apollo at Delphi in Greece at the last minute — he was alarmed, it was said, by portents of thunder and lightning. [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin//ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160;query=chapter%3D%23342;layout=;loc=10.22.1 Pausanias, Description of Greece, Phocis] ] At the same time a migrating band of Celts, some 10,000 warriors, with their women and children and slaves, were moving through Thrace. Three tribes of Gauls crossed over from Thrace to Asia Minorat the express invitation of Nicomedes I, king of Bithynia(which was a small geographical location just south of the Bosphorusand the Euxine ( Black Sea) in the northern area of modern-day Turkey, i.e just south and southeast of the latter-day city of Constantinople, or modern-day Istanbul), who required help in a dynastic struggle against his brother. Eventually they settled down in eastern Phrygiaand Cappadociain central Anatolia, a region henceforth known as " Galatia."
The names "Gallia" and "Galatia" sometimes are compared to "
Gael", which is, however, from "Goidhel" or "Gwyddel", and cannot be directly related, though it should be noted the term Goidhel is derived from the Old Welsh Guoidel meaning "pirate, raider". It is uncertain whether the "Gal-" names are from a native name of a tribe, or if they are exonyms. Birkhan (1997) considers a root "* g(h)al-" "powerful" ( PIE"* gelh", well-attested in Celtic, and with cognates in Balto-Slavic), but speculates that the name also could be taken from a "Gallos" River, comparable to the names of the Volcaeand the Sequaniwhich are likely derived from hydronyms. There also have been attempts to trace "Keltoi" and "Galatai" to a single origin. It is most likely that the terms originated as names of minor tribes "* Kel-to" and/or "Gal(a)-to-" which were the earliest to come into contact with the Roman world, but which have disappeared without leaving a historical record. [Birkhan 1997:48.]
In English usage the words "Gaul" and "Gaulish" are used synonymously with Latin "Gallia", "Gallus" and "Gallicus". However the similarity of the names is probably accidental: the English words are borrowed from French "Gaule" and "Gaulois", which appear to have been borrowed themselves from Germanic "
walha-", the usual word for the non-Germanic-speaking peoples (Celtic-speaking and Latin-speaking indiscriminately). Germanic "w" is regularly rendered with French "gu" / "g" (cf. "guerre" = "war", "garder" = "ward"), and the diphthong "au" is the regular outcome of "al" before a following consonant (cf. "cheval" ~ "chevaux"). "Gaule" or "Gaulle" can hardly be derived from Latin "Gallia", since "g" would become "j" before "a" (cf. "gamba" > "jambe"), and the diphthong "au" would be incomprehensible; the regular outcome of Latin "Gallia" would have been * "Jaille" in French. [" Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology" (OUP 1966), p. 391.] "Nouveau dictionnaire étymologique et historique" (Larousse 1990), p. 336.]
aitiologyconnects the name with Galatia(first attested by Timaeus of Tauromenion in the 4th c. BC), and it was suggested that the association was inspired by the "milk-white" skin (γάλα, "gala", "milk") of the Gauls (Greek: Γαλάται, "Galatai", Galatae).
The early history of the Gauls is predominantly a work in archaeology — there being little written information (save perhaps what can be gleaned from coins) concerning the peoples that inhabited these regions — and the relationships between their material culture, genetic relationships (the study of which has been aided, in recent years, through the field of
archaeogenetics), and linguistic divisions rarely coincide.
The major source of materials on the Celts of Gaul was
Poseidonios of Apamea, whose writings were quoted by Timagenes, Julius Caesar, the Sicilian Greek Diodorus Siculus, and the Greek geographer Strabo. [cite book
author=Berresford Ellis, Peter
title= "The Celts: A History"
publisher=Caroll & Graf
id= ISBN 0-786-71211-2]
Many cultural traits of the early Celts seem to have been carried northwest up the
DanubeValley, although this issue is contested. It seems as if they derived many of their skills (like metal-working), as well as certain facets of their culture, from Balkanpeoples. Some scholars think that the Bronze Age Urnfield culturerepresents an origin for the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European-speaking peoples (see Proto-Celtic). The Urnfield culture was preeminent in central Europe during the late Bronze Age, from ca. 1200 BCuntil 700 BC. The spread of iron-working led to the development of the Hallstatt culture(ca. 700 to 500 BC) directly from the Urnfield. Proto-Celtic, the latest common ancestor of all known Celtic languages, is considered by some scholars to have been spoken at the time of the late Urnfield or early Hallstatt cultures.
The Hallstatt culture was succeeded by the
La Tène culture, which developed out of the Hallstatt culture without any definite cultural break, under the impetus of considerable Mediterraneaninfluence from the Greek, and Etruscan civilisations. The La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age(from 450 BC to the Roman conquest in the 1st century BC) in France, Switzerland, Austria, southwest Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakiaand Hungary. Farther north extended the contemporary Pre-Roman Iron Ageculture of northern Germanyand Scandinavia.
By the second century BC, France was called Gaul (Gallia Transalpina) by the Romans. In his "
Gallic Wars", Julius Caesardistinguishes among three ethnic groups in Gaul: the Belgaein the north (in what is present-day Belgium), the Celts in the centre, and the Aquitaniin the southwest. While some scholars believe that the Belgae were a mixture of Celtic and Germanic elements, their ethnic affiliations have not been definitively resolved. One of the reasons is political interference upon the French historical interpretation during the 19th century. French historians adopted fully the explanation of Caesar who stated that Gaul stretched from the Pyreneesup to the Rhinein the north. This fitted the French expansionist aspirations of the time under Napoleon III of France. But Caesar wrote: "The Aquitani can give the Romans lessons in good Latin." Fact|date=May 2008 In the north of (modern) France, the Gaul-German language border was situated somewhere next to the River Somme. Northern Belgic tribes like the Nervians, Atrebatesor Moriniwere without doubt Germanic languagesspeakers. In addition to the Gauls, there were other peoples living in Gaul, such as the Greeksand Phoenicianswho had established outposts such as Massilia (present-day Marseille) along the Mediterraneancoast. Also, along the southeastern Mediterranean coast, the Ligureshad merged with the Celts to form a Celto- Ligurian culture.
In the second century BC, Mediterranean Gaul had an extensive urban fabric and was prosperous, while the heavily forested northern Gaul had almost no cities outside of fortified compounds (or oppida) used in times of war. The prosperity of Mediterranean Gaul encouraged Rome to respond to pleas for assistance from the inhabitants of Massilia, who were under attack by a coalition of Ligures and Gauls. The Romans intervened in Gaul in
125 BC, and by 121 BCthey had conquered the Mediterranean region called "Provincia" (later named " Gallia Narbonensis"). This conquest upset the ascendancy of the Gaulish Arvernitribe.
Conquest by Rome
The Roman proconsul and general Julius Caesar pushed his army into Gaul in 58BC, on the pretext of assisting Rome's Gaullish allies against the migrating Helvetii. With the help of various Gallic tribes (for example, the Aedui) he managed to conquer nearly all of Gaul. But the Arverni tribe, under Chieftain
Vercingetorix, still defied Roman rule. Julius Caesar was checked by Vercingetorix at a siege of Gergorvia, a fortified town in the center of Gaul. Caesar's alliances with many Gallic tribes broke. Even the Aedui, their most faithful supporters, threw in their lot with the Arverni. Caesar captured Vercingetorix in the Battle of Alesia, which ended Gallic resistance to Rome.
As many as a million people (probably 1 in 4 of the Gauls) died, another million were enslaved, 300 tribes were subjugated and 800 cities were destroyed during the
Gallic Wars. The entire population of the city of Avaricum(Bourges) (40,000 in all) were slaughtered. [ [http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/766_Julius_Caesar-3.html Julius Caesar The Conquest of Gaul] ] During Julius Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii(present-day Switzerland) approximately 60% of the tribe was destroyed, and another 20% was taken into slavery.
The Gaulish culture then was massively submerged by Roman culture, Latin was adopted by the Gauls, Gaul was absorbed into the Roman Empire, all the administration changed and Gauls eventually became Roman citizens. [ [http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Families/Family/4708 Helvetti] ]
From the 3rd to 5th centuries, Gaul was exposed to raids by the
Franks. The Gallic Empirebroke away from Rome from 260to 273, consisting of the provinces of Gaul, Britannia, and Hispania, including the peaceful Baetica in the south. Following the Frankish victory at the Battle of Soissons in AD 486, Gaul (except for Septimania) came under the rule of the Merovingians, the first kings of France. Gallo-Roman culture, the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire, persisted particularly in the areas of Gallia Narbonensisthat developed into Occitania, Gallia Cisalpina and to a lesser degree, Aquitania. The formerly Romanized north of Gaul, once it had been occupied by the Franks, would develop into Merovingian culture instead. Roman life, centered on the public events and cultural responsibilities of urban life in the " res publica" and the sometimes luxurious life of the self-sufficient rural villa system, took longer to collapse in the Gallo-Roman regions, where the Visigoths largely inherited the status quo in the early 5th century. Gallo-Roman language persisted in the northeast into the Silva Carbonariathat formed an effective cultural barrier with the Franks to the north and east, and in the northwest to the lower valley of the Loire, where Gallo-Roman culture interfaced with Frankish culture in a city like Toursand in the person of that Gallo-Roman bishop confronted with Merovingian royals, Gregory of Tours.
ocial structure and tribes
Druids were not the only political force in Gaul, however, and the early political system was complex, if was ultimately fatal to the society as a whole. The fundamental unit of Gallic politics was the tribe, which itself consisted of one or more of what Caesar called "pagi." Each tribe had a council of elders, and initially a king. Later, the executive was an annually-elected magistrate. Among the Aedui, a tribe of Gaul, the executive held the title of "Vergobret," a position much like a king, but its powers were held in check by rules laid down by the council.
The tribal groups, or "pagi" as the Romans called them (singular: "pagus"; the French word "pays", "region", comes from this term) were organised into larger super-tribal groups that the Romans called "
civitates". These administrative groupings would be taken over by the Romans in their system of local control, and these "civitates" would also be the basis of France's eventual division into ecclesiastical bishoprics and dioceses, which would remain in place — with slight changes — until the French Revolution.
Although the tribes were moderately stable political entities, Gaul as a whole tended to be politically-divided, there being virtually no unity among the various tribes. Only during particularly trying times, such as the
invasionof Caesar, could the Gauls unite under a single leader like Vercingetorix. Even then, however, the faction lines were clear.
The Romans divided Gaul broadly into "Provincia" (the conquered area around the Mediterranean), and the northern
Gallia Comata("free Gaul" or "long haired Gaul"). Caesar divided the people of Gaulia Comata into three broad groups: the "Aquitani"; "Galli" (who in their own language were called "Celtae"); and "Belgae". In the modern sense, Gaulish tribes are defined linguistically, as speakers of dialects of the Gaulish language. While the Aquitaniwere probably Vascons, the Belgaewould thus probably be counted among the Gaulish tribes, perhaps with Germanic elements. Julius Caesar, in his book, " Commentarii de Bello Gallico", comments:
All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Gauls, the third.
All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws.
Garonne Riverseparates the Gauls from the Aquitani; the River Marneand the River Seineseparate them from the Belgae.
Of all these, the Belgae are the bravest, because they are furthest from the civilisation and refinement of (our) Province, and merchants least frequently resort to them, and import those things which tend to effeminate the mind; and they are the nearest to the Germani, who dwell beyond the Rhine, with whom they are continually waging war; for which reason the Helvetii also surpass the rest of the Gauls in valour, as they contend with the Germani in almost daily battles, when they either repel them from their own territories, or themselves wage war on their frontiers. One part of these, which it has been said that the Gauls occupy, takes its beginning at the
River Rhone; it is bounded by the Garonne River, the Atlantic Ocean, and the territories of the Belgae; it borders, too, on the side of the Sequani and the Helvetii, upon the River Rhine, and stretches toward the north.
The Belgae rises from the extreme frontier of Gaul, extend to the lower part of the River Rhine; and look toward the north and the rising sun.
Aquitania extends from the
Garonneto the Pyreneesand to that part of the Atlantic( Bay of Biscay) which is near Spain: it looks between the setting of the sun, and the north star.
The Gauls practiced a form of
animism, ascribing human characteristics to lakes, streams, mountains, and other natural features and granting them a quasi-divine status. Also, worship of animals was not uncommon; the animal most sacred to the Gauls was the boar, which can be found on many Gallic military standards, much like the Roman eagle.
Their system of gods and goddesses was loose, there being certain deities which virtually every Gallic person worshiped, as well as tribal and household gods. Many of the major gods were related to Greek gods; the primary god worshiped at the time of the arrival of Caesar was Teutates, the Gallic equivalent of Mercury. The "father god" in Gallic worship was "Dis Pater," who could be assigned the Roman name "Saturn." However there was no real theology, just a set of related and evolving traditions of worship.
Perhaps the most intriguing facet of Gallic religion is the practice of the
Druids. There is no certainty concerning their origin, but it is clear that they vehemently guarded the secrets of their order and held sway over the people of Gaul. Indeed they claimed the right to determine questions of war and peace, and thereby held an "international" status. In addition, the Druids monitored the religion of ordinary Gauls and were in charge of educating the aristocracy. They also practiced a form of excommunication from the assembly of worshippers, which in ancient Gaul meant a separation from secular society as well. Thus the Druids were an important part of Gallic society.
Asterix--a French comic about Gaul and Rome set in 40s BC
Braccae--trousers, typical Gallic dress
List of peoples of Gaul
*cite book|first=H.|last=Birkhan|title=Die Kelten|location=Vienna|year=1997
* [http://www.antiquestopic.com/gaul-dying-gladiator/ Dying Gladiator-Gaul Overview]
* [http://classics.mit.edu/Caesar/gallic.html The Gallic Wars]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.