- Israel Zangwill
Israel Zangwill (
January 21, 1864- August 1, 1926) was an English-born humourist and writer.
Born to eastern European immigrants (Moses Zangwill from Latvia and Ellen Hannah Marks Zangwill from Poland), he dedicated his life to championing the cause of the oppressed.
Jewish emancipation, women's suffrage, assimilationism, territorialismand Zionism(understood as a national liberation movement) were all fertile fields for his pen. His brother was also a writer, the novelist Louis Zangwill, [ [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=27&letter=Z Louis Zangwill] in Jewish Encyclopedia] and his son was the prominent British psychologist, Oliver Zangwill.
Zangwill received his early schooling in Plymouth and Bristol. When he was nine years old Zangwill was enrolled in the
Jews' Free Schoolin Spitalfieldsin east London, a school for Jewish immigrant children. The school offered a strict course of both secular and religious studies while supplying clothing, food, and health care for the scholars; today one of its four houses is named Zangwill in his honour. At this school young Israel excelled and even taught part-time, moving up to become a full-fledged teacher. While teaching, he studied for his degree in 1884 from the University of London, earning a BA with triple honours.
In later life, his friends included well known Victorian writers such as
Jerome K. Jeromeand H. G. Wells.
Zangwill wrote a very influential novel "Children of the Ghetto: A Study of a Peculiar People" (1892). The use of the metaphorical phrase
melting potto describe American absorption of immigrants was popularised by Zangwill's play " The Melting Pot", [Werner Sollers, "Beyond Ethnicity: Consent and Descent in American Culture" (1986), Chapter 3 "Melting Pots"] a hit in the United Statesin 1908 – 1909. The play received its most recent production at New York's Metropolitan Playhousein March 2006.
When "The Melting Pot" opened in Washington D.C. on
October 5, 1909, President Theodore Rooseveltleaned over the edge of his box and shouted, "That's a great play, Mr. Zangwill, that's a great play." [Guy Szuberla, "Zangwill's The Melting Pot Plays Chicago," MELUS, Vol. 20, No. 3, History and Memory. (Autumn, 1995), pp. 3-20. ] The hero of the play, David, emigrates to America in the wake of the 1903 Kishinev pogrom in which his entire family is killed. He writes a great symphony called "The Crucible" expressing his hope for a world in which all ethnicity has melted away, and falls in love with a beautiful Russian Christian immigrant named Vera. The dramatic peak of the play is the moment when David meets Vera's father, who turns out to be the Russian officer responsible for the annihilation of David's family. Vera's father admits his guilt, the symphony is performed to accolades, David and Vera live happily ever after, or, at least, agree to wed and kiss as the curtain falls.
"Melting Pot celebrated America's capacity to absorb and grow from the contributions of its immigrants." [Kraus, Joe, "How The Melting Pot Stirred America: The Reception of Zangwill's Play and Theater's Role in the American Assimilation Experience," MELUS, Vol. 24, No. 3, Varieties of Ethnic Criticism. (Autumn, 1999), pp. 3-19.] Zangwill, who had already left Zionism, was writing as "a Jew who no longer wanted to be a Jew. His real hope was for a world in which the entire lexicon of racial and religious difference is thrown away." [
Jonathan Sachs"The Home We build Together", Continium Books, 2007, P. 16 ]
His simulation of Yiddish sentence structure in English aroused great interest. He also wrote mystery works, such as "The Big Bow Mystery", and social satire such as "The King of Schnorrers" (1894), a picaresque novel. His "Dreamers of the Ghetto" (1898) includes essays on famous Jews such as
Baruch Spinoza, Heinrich Heineand Ferdinand Lassalle. Jules Furthmanadapted one of his plays for the 1931 Janet Gaynorfilm " Merely Mary Ann", about an orphan and a composer.
"The Big Bow Mystery", was the first locked room murder novel. It has been almost continuously in print since 1891 and has been used as the basis for three commercial films. [Rochelson, Meri-Jane, review of Dreamer of the Ghetto: The Life and Works of Israel ZangwillJoseph H. Udelson; AJS Review, Vol. 17, No. 1. (Spring, 1992)]
Another widely-produced play was "The Lens Grinder", based on the life of Spinoza.
Zangwill was also involved in politics as an assimilationist, an early Zionist, a
territorialist, a feminist and a pacifist. [Rochelson, Meri-Jane, review of Dreamer of the Ghetto: The Life and Works of Israel ZangwillJoseph H. Udelson; AJS Review, Vol. 17, No. 1. (Spring, 1992)]
Zangwill is incorrectly known for coining the slogan "
A land without a people for a people without a land" describing Zionist aspirations in the Biblical land of Israel. What Zangwill actually wrote, in the "New Liberal Review" in December, 1901, was “Palestine is a country without a people; the Jews are a people without a country.” Zangwill, who had visited Palestine, knew nevertheless that it did contain some population, although a relatively small one. What he meant by calling it a land without "a people" is that there was at that time no people or ethnic group identifying itself as any particular national group and that it was underpopulated as most travelers at the time agreed. The people then living in Palestine under the rule of the Ottoman Empirethought of themselves as Arab, Greek, Circassian, and so forth. Those identifying as Arabs identified with their cities, villages or tribe, or with the wider region of Syria, Bilad al-Sham, encompassing what are now Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and the Palestinian territories.
Zangwill, however, did not invent the phrase, he acknowledges borrowing it from Lord Shaftesbury [Garfinkle, Adam M., “On the Origin, Meaning, Use and Abuse of a Phrase.” Middle Eastern Studies, London, October 1991, vol. 27 ] During the lead-up to the
Crimean Warin 1854, which signaled an opening for realignments in the Near Eastin July 1853, Shaftesbury wrote to Foreign Minister Aberdeen that Greater Syria was “a country without a nation” in need of “a nation without a country... Is there such a thing? To be sure there is, the ancient and rightful lords of the soil, the Jews!” In his diary that year he wrote “these vast and fertile regions will soon be without a ruler, without a known and acknowledged power to claim dominion. The territory must be assigned to some one or other... There is a country without a nation; and God now in his wisdom and mercy, directs us to a nation without a country.” [Shaftsbury as cited in Hyamson, Albert, “British Projects for the Restoration of Jews to Palestine,” American Jewish Historical Society, Publications 26, 1918 p. 140; and in Garfinkle, Adam M., “On the Origin, Meaning, Use and Abuse of a Phrase.” "Middle Eastern Studies", London, October 1991, vol. 27). See also [http://www.mideastweb.org/britzion.htm Mideast Web: British Support for Jewish Restoration] ] Shaftesbury himself was echoing the sentiments of Alexander Keith, D.D.
After having for a time supported
Theodor Herzland the main Palestine-oriented Zionist movement, Zangwill, a British Jew, broke away from the established movement and founded his own organization, called the Jewish Territorialist Organizationin 1905. Its aim was to create a Jewish homeland in whatever possible territory in the world could be found (and not necessarily in what today is the state of Israel). Zangwill died in 1926 in Midhurst, West Sussexafter trying to create the Jewish state in such diverse places as Canada, Australia, Mesopotamia, Ugandaand Cyrenaica.
"At the centennial of his birth, even some of those who recognized the continuing relevance of his efforts to define the Jew in the modern world separated the compelling nature of his struggle from the Victorianness of his writing and the insufficiency of his solutions: territorialism, universal religion, assimilation into an American 'melting pot.' As
John Grosswrote in "Commentary" Magazine "one honors the writer, and puts aside his books." [Rochelson, Meri-Jane, review of "Dreamer of the Ghetto: The Life and Works of Israel Zangwill", Joseph H. Udelson; AJS Review, Vol. 17, No. 1. (Spring, 1992)] [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0364-0094%28199221%2917%3A1%3C120%3ADOTGTL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L] This quote appears to be directed toward his break from mainstream Zionism, which out-lived the Territorialist movement that Zangwill established.
Others in fiction
*Israel Zangwill features as a recurring character in the novels of
*Elsie Bonita Adams "Israel Zangwill" (New York: Twayne, 1971)
*John Gross, "Zangwill in Retrospect," "Commentary" 38 (December 1964
*Jacques Ben Guigui, "Israel Zangwill: Penseur el Ecrivain 1864-1926" (Toulouse: lmprimerie Toulousaine-R. Lion, 1975)
*Joseph H. Udelson "Dreamer of the Ghetto: The Life and Works of Israel Zangwill" (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1990)
*David Vital "Zangwill and Modern Jewish Nationalism," "Modern Judaism", Vol. 4, No. 3. (Oct., 1984), pp. 243-253.
*Maurice Wohlgelernter, Israel Zangwill: A Study, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964)
* [http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m0411/1_48/64688888/p1/article.jhtml Israel Zangwill and Children of the Ghetto]
* [http://www.bastulli.com/Zangwill/Zangwill.htm Israel Zangwill]
* cite book
title=The Big Bow Mystery
publisher=Dybbuk Press, LLC
* cite book
title=Merely Mary Ann
publisher=Dybbuk Press, LLC
* [http://26.1911encyclopedia.org/Z/ZA/ZANGWILL_ISRAEL.htm 1911 Encyclopedia]
* [http://www.wzo.org.il/home/movement/zangwill.htm The Zionist Exposition]
* [http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/biography/zangwill.html Jewish Virtual Library]
* [http://www.ibdb.com/person.asp?ID=6477 Internet Broadway Database]
* [http://www.knowledgerush.com/kr/jsp/db/author.jsp?authorId=1064&authorName=Israel+Zangwill Without Prejudice]
* [http://www.jewishmuseum.org.uk Jewish Museum in London]
* [http://librivox.org/the-king-of-schnorrers-by-israel-zangwill/ A reading of The King of Schnorrers]
* [http://librivox.org/the-big-bow-mystery-by-israel-zangwill/ A reading of The Big Bow Mystery]
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