Social Solidarity

Social Solidarity

Social Solidarity is the degree or type (see below) of integration of a society. This use of the term is generally employed in sociology and the other social sciences.

According to Émile Durkheim, the types of social solidarity correlate with types of society. In simpler societies (e.g., tribal), solidarity is usually based on kinship, mechanical solidarity ties or familial networks. In more complex societies (e.g., democracies), solidarity is more organic. Organic here is referring to the interdependence of the component parts. Thus, social solidarity is maintained in more complex societies through the interdependence of its component parts (e.g., farmers produce the food to feed the factory workers who produce the tractors that allow the farmer to produce the food).

ocial disintegration

"Social disintegration" is the tendency for society to decline or disintegrate over time, perhaps due to the lapse or breakdown of traditional social support systems. It is important to note that in this context, "society" refers to the "social order" which maintains a society, rather than the political order that defines its boundaries. Society in the sociological sense is not the same as a country.

The theoretical origins of this idea lie with Emile Durkheim and Ferdinand Toennies. For both researchers one can see a division into two types of social integration corresponding to two historical phases. First there is a primitive integration based on likeness and intimate interaction, which Durkheim called mechanical solidarity and Toennies labelled Gemeinschaft. Second, there is a more complex and modern integration based on abstracted interdependence, which is known as organic solidarity or Gesellschaft.Those who espouse social disintegration beliefs tend to doubt the integrative capacity of organic solidarity, claiming that if it is not based on primordial ties and relationships, it is fabricated. On the other hand, optimists might argue that new complex forms of integration can emerge, for example through new communal forms of identity formation or through economic interdependence.

ee also

*Catholic social teaching
*Solidarity (sociology)
*Societal collapse
*Urban decay
*Social disorder


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