- Jicarilla language
Jicarilla (called "Abáachi mizaa" in Jicarilla) is an Eastern Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the
Jicarilla has 34
* What has developed into IPA|/d/ in Jicarilla corresponds to IPA|/n/ and IPA|/ⁿd/ in other Southern Athabaskan languages (e.g. Navajo and Chiricahua).
Jicarilla has 16
All vowels may be
* oral or nasal
* short or long
The long high front oral vowel is phonetically higher than its nasal and short counterparts (IPA| [iː] vs. IPA| [ɪ, ɪ̃, ɪ̃ː] ). The short back vowel is higher than its long and nasal counterparts (IPA| [ʊ] vs. IPA| [oː, õ, õː] ). The short low vowel is higher than its long and nasal counterparts (IPA| [ə] vs. IPA| [aː, ã, ãː] ).
Nasal vowels are indicated by underlining in the Jicarilla orthography.
Jicarilla has three different tones:
High tone is indicated with an acute accent. Low tone is unmarked. Falling tone is indicated by a sequence of acute-accented vowel and an unmarked vowel.
* high tone: tsé 'rock', dééh 'tea'
* low tone: ts’e 'sagebush', jee 'pitch'
* falling tone: zháal 'money', ha’dáonáa 'how?'
Below is a (partial) text from Wilson & Martine (1996: 125-126).
Shíí Rita shíízhii. Lósii’yé shii’deeshchíí shíí á’ee néésai. Shiika’éé na’iizii’íí nahiikéyaa’íí miiná’iisdzo’íí éí yaa shishíí. Shii’máá éí gé koghá’yé sidá nahaa daashishíí. Shiidádéé naakii. Dáłaa’é éí édii. Dáłaa’é éí dá aada’é miigha. Shiishdázha dáłánéé. Ałtso nada’iizii. Łe’ dá á’ee Lósii’ee daamigha. Isgwéela’yé naséyá, éí Lósii’ee naséyá dá áństs’íísédá. Łe’gó Santa Fe’yé dáłaa’é hai shee goslíí á’ee. Łe’gó Ináaso’yé éí kái’ii hai shee goslíí....
My name is Rita. I was born and grew up in Dulce. My father worked to take care of our land. My mother stayed home and took care of all of us. I had two sisters. One of them is deceased. The other lives far from here. I have many younger sisters. They all work. Some of them live in Dulce. When I was a youngster, I went to school in Dulce. Then I lived for a year in Santa Fe. Later I lived three years in Ignacio....
See 'Bibliography' under 'Jicarilla Apache'.
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