- 3rd century
The 3rd century is the period from
201to 300in accordance with the Julian calendarin the Christian/ Common Era.
In this century, the
Roman Empiresees a crisis, marking the beginning of Late Antiquity. In Persia, the Parthian Empireis succeeded by the Sassanid Empire.
In India, the
Kushan Empireis replaced by the Gupta Empire. Chinais in the Three Kingdomsperiod. The Xiongnuform the Tiefustate under Liu Qubei. Koreais ruled by the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Japanenters the Kofun period.
Sub-Saharan Africa, the Bantu expansionreaches Southern Africa.
In Pre-Columbian America, the
Adena cultureof the Ohio Rivervalley declines in favor of the Hopewell culture. The Maya civilizationenters its Classic Era.
After the death of Commodus in the previous century the Roman Empire was plunged into a civil war. When the dust settled,
Septimius Severusemerged as emperor, establishing the Severandynasty. Unlike previous emperors, he openly used the army to back his authority, and paid them well to do so. The regime he created is known as the Military Monarchyas a result. The system fell apart in the 230s, giving way to a fifty-year period known as the Military Anarchy or the Crisis of the Third Century, where no fewer than twenty emperors held the reins of power, most for only a few months. The majority of these men were assassinated, or killed in battle, and the empire almost collapsed under the weight of the political upheaval, as well as the growing Persian threat in the east. Under its new Sassanid rulers, Persia had grown into a rival superpower, and the Romans would have to make drastic reforms in order to better prepare their state for a confrontation. These reforms were finally realized late in the century under the reign of Diocletian, one of them being to divide the empire into an eastern and western half, and have a separate ruler for each.
* 208: the Chinese naval
Battle of Red Cliffsoccurs
Constitutio Antoninianagrants citizenshipto all free Roman men
Baths of Caracalla
* 220: The
Han Dynastycomes to an end with establish of the Wei Dynasty.
Sassanid dynastyof Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east
Crisis of the Third Centuryshakes Roman Empire
Kofun era, the first part of the Yamato periodin Japan
* 258: Valerian's Massacre of Christians
* 260: Roman
Emperor Valerian Iis taken captive by Shapur Iof Persia
* 184–280: Period of the
Three Kingdomsin China
Jin Dynasty (265-420)of China
Sarnathbecomes a center of Buddhist arts in India
* Diffusion of
maizeas a food crop from Mexicointo North Americabegins
* The Kingdom of
Funanreaches its zenith under the rule of Fan Shih-man
Gothsmove from Gothiscandzato Ukraine, giving birth to the Chernyakhov culture
Clement of Alexandria
Diocletian, Roman emperor
Diophantus of Alexandria, wrote "Arithmetica"
* Hippolytus, considered first
Liu Hui, Chinese mathematician
Mani (prophet), founder of Manichaeism
Pappus of Alexandria, Greek mathematician
Plotinus, founder of Neoplatonism
Tertullian, sometimes called "father of Latin church"
Wang Pi, Taoist
M. Sattonius Iucundus, restorer of the Thermaein Heerlen
Zhuge Liang, known as the greatest strategist during the period of the Three Kingdoms
Liu Bei, founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu
Cao Cao, founding emperor of the Kingdom of Wei
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
* A primitive form of
eyeglasseswere developed for a nearsighted princess in Syria.
South Pointing Chariotinvented by Ma Jun, a wheeled mechanical device that acts as a directional compass
Decades and years
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