name = Hickory
image_width = 230px
image_caption = Hickory at
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
genus = "Carya"
genus_authority = Nutt.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = See text
Trees in the genus Carya (from
Ancient Greekκάρυον " nut") are commonly known as Hickory. The genus includes 17–19 species of deciduoustrees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. A dozen or so species are native to North America(11–12 in the United States, 1 in Mexico), and 5–6 species from Chinaand Indochina.
Another Asian species, Beaked Hickory, previously listed as "Carya sinensis", is now treated in a separate genus "
Annamocarya", as "Annamocarya sinensis".
flowers are small yellow-green catkins produced in spring. They are wind-pollinated and self-incompatible. The fruitis a globose or oval nut, 2–5 cm long and 1.5–3 cm diameter, enclosed in a four-valved husk which splits open at maturity. The nut shell is thick and bony in most species, thin in a few, notably "C. illinoinensis"; it is divided into two halves which split apart when the seed germinates.
Species and classification
APG system, genus "Carya" (and the whole Juglandaceaefamily) has been recently moved to the Fagalesorder.
*"Carya" sect. "Carya" — typical hickories
Red Hickory(treated as a synonym of "C. glabra" by "Flora N. Amer.")
***"Carya ovata" var. "australis" (syn. "C. carolinae-septentrionalis") Southern
**"Carya tomentosa" (syn. "C. alba")
*"Carya" sect. "Apocarya" — pecans
**"Carya aquatica" Water Hickory
*"Carya" sect. "Sinocarya" — Asian hickories
Dabie Shan Hickory(may be synonymous with "C. cathayensis")
Hickory is used as a food plant by the
larvae of some Lepidopteraspecies. These include:
* the "
Coleophora" case-bearers "C. laticornella" and "C. ostryae".
Regal moth("Citheronia regalis"), whose caterpillars are known as hickory horn-devil
Walnut Sphinx("Amorpha juglandis")
Another insect that uses the hickory tree as a food source is the
hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera(" Phylloxera caryaecaulis"). Phylloxeridaeare related to aphids and have a similarly complex life cycle. Eggs hatch in early spring and the galls quickly form around the developing insects. Phylloxera galls may damage weakened or stressed hickories, but are generally harmless. Deformed leaves and twigs can rain down from the tree in the spring as squirrels break off infected tissue and eat the galls, possibly for the protein content of the phylloxera, or possibly because the galls are fleshy and tasty to the squirrels.
Some fruits are borderline and difficult to categorize. Hickory nuts (Carya) and Walnuts (
Juglans) in the Juglandaceaefamily grow within an outer husk; these fruits are technically drupes or drupaceous nuts, and thus not true botanical nuts. "Tryma" is a specialized term for such nut-like drupes. [ [http://waynesword.palomar.edu/fruitid1.htm Identification Of Major Fruit Types] ] [ [http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ecoph8.htm Fruits Called Nuts] ]
woodis extremely tough, yet flexible, and is valued for toolhandles, bows (like yew), wheelspokes, carts, drumsticks, lacrossestick handles, golf club shafts (sometimes still called "hickory stick", even though made of steelor graphite), the bottom of skis, walking canes etc. and for punitive use as a switch (like hazel), and especially as a cane-like hickory stick in schools. Baseballbats were formerly made of hickory but are now more commonly made of ash. Hickory is also highly prized for wood-burning stoves, because of its high caloric content. Hickory wood is also a preferred type for smoke curing meats. In the Southern United States, hickory is popular for cooking barbecue, as hickory grows abundantly in the region, and adds flavor to the meat. Hickory is sometimes used for hardwood flooring due to its durability and character.
barkextract from shagbark hickory is also used in an edible syrup that is similar to maple syrup, with a slightly bitter, smoky taste.
The nuts of some species are palatable, while others are bitter and only suitable for animal feed. Shagbark and Shellbark Hickories, along with the
Pecan, are regarded by some as the finest nut trees.
When cultivated for their nuts, note that because of their self-incompatibility, clonal (grafted) trees of the same
cultivarcannot pollinate each other. Two or more cultivars must be planted together for successful pollination. Seedlings (grown from hickory nuts) will usually have sufficient genetic variation.
walnut(also used in waterskis)
* [http://www.cirrusimage.com/hickory.htm "Carya"] Large-format diagnostic photos,
Morton Arboretumacc. 29-U-10
* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=105766 Flora of North America: "Carya"]
* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=105766 Flora of China: "Carya"]
* [http://extension-horticulture.tamu.edu/carya/species/index.htm USDA Agricultural Research Service: "Carya"]
* [http://www.thenutfactory.com/kitchen/edible/facts-hickories.html Edibility of different species' nuts, from a snack food manufacturer]
* [http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/pages/compare-hickories.htm Comparison of eastern North American hickories at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu]
* [http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/pages/carya-fruits.htm Comparison of hickory nuts at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu]
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