- Carbon fiber
Carbon fiber or carbon fibre [See American and British English spelling differences.] (alternately called
graphitefiber, graphite fibre or carbon graphite) is a material consisting of extremely thin fibers about 0.0002–0.0004 inches (0.005–0.010 mm) in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in microscopic crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The crystal alignment makes the fiber incredibly strong for its size. Several thousand carbon fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric. [http://www.answers.com/topic/carbon-fiber?cat=technology carbon fiber: Definition and Much More from Answers.com ] ] Carbon fiber can be combined with a plastic resin and wound or molded to form composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic(also referenced as carbon fiber) to provide a high strength-to-weight ratio material. The density of carbon fiber is also considerably lower than the density of steel, making it ideal for applications requiring low weight. [ Mr. Jeremy Hierholzer, Assistant Professor of Aviation Technology, Purdue University, 2007.] The properties of carbon fiber such as high tensile strength, low weight, and low thermal expansion make it very popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, and motorsports, along with other competition sports.
History of Carbon Fiber
In 1957, Dr. Roger Bacon created the first high-performance carbon fibers at the
Union CarbideParma Technical Center, located outside of Cleveland, Ohio. [ [http://acswebcontent.acs.org/landmarks/landmarks/carbon/car3.html Bacon’s breakthrough ] ] The first fibers were manufactured by heating strands of rayonuntil they carbonized. This process proved to be inefficient, as the resulting fibers contained only about 20% carbon and had low strength and stiffness properties. In the early 1960s, a process was developed using polyacrylonitrile(PAN) as a raw material. This had produced a carbon fiber that contained about 55% carbon and had much better properties. The polyacrylonitrile (PAN) conversion process quickly became the primary method for producing carbon fibers.
January 14, 1969Carr Reinforcements ( Stockport, England) wove the first ever carbon fiber fabric in the world.cite web|title=Carr Reinforcements|url=http://www.carrreinforcements.com/about.htm|accessdate=2008-06-01]
1970s, experimental work to find alternative raw materials led to the introduction of carbon fibers made from a petroleum pitch derived from oil processing. These fibers contained about 85% carbon and had excellent flexural strength.
tructure and properties
Carbon fibers are the closest to
asbestosin a number of properties. [ [http://www.wtec.org/loyola/compce/02_02.htm Properties And Fiber Types ] ] Each carbon filament thread is a bundle of many thousand carbon filaments. A single such filament is a thin tube with a diameter of 5–8 micrometers and consists almost exclusively of carbon.
The atomic structure of carbon fiber is similar to that of
graphite, consisting of sheets of carbon atoms( graphenesheets) arranged in a regular hexagonal pattern. The difference lies in the way these sheets interlock. Graphite is a crystallinematerial in which the sheets are stacked parallel to one another in regular fashion. The chemical bonds between the sheets are relatively weak Van der Waals forces, giving graphite its soft and brittle characteristics. Depending upon the precursor to make the fiber, carbon fiber may be turbostratic or graphitic, or have a hybrid structure with both graphitic and turbostratic parts present. In turbostratic carbon fiber the sheets of carbon atoms are haphazardly folded, or crumpled, together. Carbon fibers derived from Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) are turbostratic, whereas carbon fibers derived from mesophasepitch are graphitic after heat treatment at temperatures exceeding 2200 C. Turbostratic carbon fibers tend to have high tensile strength, whereas heat-treated mesophase-pitch-derived carbon fibers have high Young's modulusand high thermal conductivity.
Carbon fiber is most notably used to reinforce
composite materials, particularly the class of materials known as Carbon fiber or graphite reinforced polymers. Non-polymer materials can also be used as the matrix for carbon fibers. Due to the formation of metal carbides (i.e., water-soluble AlC) and corrosionconsiderations, carbon has seen limited success in metal matrix compositeapplications. Reinforced carbon-carbon(RCC) consists of carbon fiber-reinforced graphite, and is used structurally in high-temperature applications. The fiber also finds use in filtration of high-temperature gases, as an electrodewith high surface area and impeccable corrosionresistance, and as an anti-static component.
carbonfilament is made out of long, thin filaments of carbon sometimes transformed to graphite. A common method of making carbon filaments is the oxidation and thermal pyrolysisof polyacrylonitrile(PAN), a polymerbased on acrylonitrileused in the creation of synthetic materials. Like all polymers, polyacrylonitrile molecules are long chains, which are aligned in the process of drawing continuous filaments. A common method of manufacture involves heating the PAN to approximately 300 °C in air, which breaks many of the hydrogen bonds and oxidizes the material. The oxidizedPAN is then placed into a furnace having an inert atmosphere of a gas such as argon, and heated to approximately 2000 °C, which induces graphitization of the material, changing the molecular bond structure. When heated in the correct conditions, these chains bond side-to-side (ladder polymers), forming narrow graphenesheets which eventually merge to form a single, jelly roll-shaped or round filament. The result is usually 93–95% carbon. Lower-quality fiber can be manufactured using pitch or rayonas the precursor instead of PAN. The carbon can become further enhanced, as high modulus, or high strength carbon, by heat treatment processes. Carbon heated in the range of 1500-2000 °C (carbonization) exhibits the highest tensile strength(820,000 psi or 5,650 MPa or 5,650 N/mm²), while carbon fiber heated from 2500 to 3000 °C (graphitizing) exhibits a higher modulus of elasticity(77,000,000 psi or 531 GPa or 531 kN/mm²).
There are several categories of carbon fibers: standard modulus (250 GPa), intermediate modulus (300 GPa), and high modulus (> 300 GPa). ["Carbon Fiber Data Sheets - Continuous Fiber", "Hexcel Corporation",
26 November 2007.] The tensile strength of different yarn types varies between 2000 and 7000 MPa. A typical densityof carbon fiber is 1750 kg/m3.
Precursors for carbon fibers are
PAN, rayonand pitch. Carbon fiber filament yarns are used in several processing techniques: the direct uses are for prepregging, filament winding, pultrusion, weaving, braiding etc. Carbon fiber yarn is rated by the linear density (weight per unit length = 1 g/1000 m = tex) or by number of filaments per yarn count, in thousands. For example, 200 tex for 3,000 filaments of carbon fiber is three times as strong as 1,000 carbon fibers but is also three times as heavy. This thread can then be used to weavea carbon fiber filament fabric or cloth. The appearance of this fabric generally depends on the linear density of the yarn and the weave chosen. Some commonly used types of weave are twill, satin and plain.
Carbon fibre has less tensile strength than kevlar but a higher tensile strength than fibreglass. Fibreglass is stiffer than carbon fibre which is in turn stiffer than kevlar fabric. However it costs more than both of these.
PAN aerospace/high end carbon fiber:
Toray Industries(largest worldwide manufacturer)
* Schunk Gruppe
PAN commercial grade carbon fiber:
Pitch carbon fiber:
* [http://acswebcontent.acs.org/landmarks/landmarks/carbon/car3.html Bacon's breakthrough] at ACS.org
* [http://pslc.ws/macrog/carfib.htm Carbon Fiber] at ps
* [http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/mjames/homepage.html The Chemistry of Carbon Fiber]
* [http://pslc.ws/macrog/carfsyn.htm Making Carbon Fiber]
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