- Louis, Duke of Nemours
Louis Charles Philippe Raphael d'Orléans, duc de Nemours (
October 25, 1814– June 26, 1896) was the second son of the duc d'Orleans, afterwards King Louis-Philippe of France, and his wife Marie Amalie of Bourbon-Sicilies, duchesse d'Orléans then Queen of the French. Under the reign of his father from 1830 - 1848, he was titled as Prince Louis, duc de Nemours.
He was born at the
Palais Royal, in Paris. At twelve years of age he was nominated colonel of the first regiment of chasseurs, and in 1830 he became a chevalier of the Order of the Saint Esprit and entered the "Chambre des Pairs".
As early as 1825 his name was mentioned as a possible candidate for the throne of Greece, and in February 1831 he was nominated
king of the Belgians, but international considerations deterred Louis-Philippe from accepting the honour for his son, who was accompanying the French army that entered Belgiumto support the new kingdom in its separation from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands; there he took part in the siege of Antwerp.
He accompanied the Algerian expedition against the town of Constantine in the autumn of 1836, and in a second expedition (1837) he was entrusted with the command of a brigade and with the direction of the siege operations before Constantine.
General Damrémontwas killed at his side on October 12, and the place was taken by assault on the 13th.
He sailed a third time for Algeria in 1841, and served under General Bugeaud, taking part in the expedition to revictual
Medeaon April 29, and in sharp fighting near Milianaon the 3rd to 5th of May. In the expedition against the fortified town of Takdempthe commanded the 1st infantry division. On his return to France he became commandant of the camp of Compiègne. He had been employed on missions of courtesy to Englandin 1835, in 1838 and in 1845, and to Berlinand Viennain 1836.
April 26, 1840, he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Koharyat the Saint-Cloud. The occasion of his marriage in 1840 with Victoria was marked by a check to Louis-Philippe's government in the form of a refusal to bestow the marriage dowry proposed by Adolphe Thiersin the Chamber of Deputies.
* Louis Philippe Marie Ferdinand Gaston d'Orléans (1842-1922),
**Titled as "comte d'Eu"
**Married Isabella, eldest daughter of Don
Pedro II of Brazil. His great-grandson, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganzais the current presumptive heir to the throne of Portugal.
* Ferdinand Philippe Marie d'Orléans (July 12, 1844 - June 29, 1910)
**Titled as "duc d'Alençon"
**Married Sophie Charlotte Augustine of Wittelsbach (1847-1897), sister of the empress Elizabeth of Austria ("Sisi"), and who had been for a time engaged to
Ludwig II of Bavaria
* Margaret (1846-1893),
**Married Prince Ladislaus Czartoryski
* Blanche (1857-1932).
The death of his elder brother, Ferdinand, duke of Orleans, in 1842 gave him a position of greater importance as the natural
regentin the case of the accession of his nephew, the young count of Paris. His reserve, and dislike of public functions, with a certain haughtiness of manner, however, made him unpopular.
On the outbreak of the revolution of 1848 he held the Tuileries long enough to cover the king's retreat, but refrained from initiating active measures against the mob. He followed his sister-in-law, Hélèn Louise d'Orleans, duchesse d'Orléans, and her two sons to the chamber of deputies, but was separated from them by the rioters, and only escaped finally by disguising himself in the uniform of a national guard.
He embarked for England, where he settled with his parents at Claremont. His chief aim during his exile, especially after his father's death, was a reconciliation between the two branches of the
house of Bourbon, as indispensable to the re-establishment of the French monarchy in any form. These wishes were frustrated on the one hand by the attitude of the comte de Chambord, and on the other by the determination of the duchess of Orleans to maintain the pretensions of the count of Paris. Nemours was prepared to go further than the other princes of his family in accepting the principles of the legitimists.
Lengthy negotiations ended in 1857 with a letter, written by Nemours, as he subsequently explained, at the dictation of his brother, François, prince de Joinville, in which he insisted that Chambord should express his adherence to the tricolour flag and to the principles of constitutional government. In 1871 the Orléans princes renewed their professions of allegiance to the senior branch of their house, but they were not consulted when the count of Chambord came to Paris in 1873, and their political differences remained until his death in 1883.
Nemours had lived at
Bushy Houseafter the death in 1866 of Queen Marie Amélie, widow of Louis Philippe.
Return to France
In 1871 the exile imposed on the French princes was withdrawn, but he only transferred his establishment to Paris after their disabilities were also removed. In March 1872 he was restored to his rank in the army as general of division, and placed in the first section of the general staff. After his retirement from the active list he continued to act as president of the
Red Cross Societyuntil 1881, when new decrees against the princes of the blood led to his withdrawal from Parisian society.
During the presidency of Marshal MacMahon, he had appeared from time to time at the Elysée. He died at
Versailleson June 26, 1896 at the age of 82, the duchess having died at Claremont on November 10, 1857. He outlived all of his siblings apart from Princess Clémentine of Orléansand François d'Orléans the "prince de Joinville"
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1= 1. Louis, Duke of Nemours
Louis-Philippe of France
Maria Amalia of the Two Sicilies
Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon-Penthièvre
Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
Marie Caroline of Austria
Louis Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
Louise Henriette de Bourbon-Conti
10= 10. Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre
11= 11. Maria Theresa Felicitas d'Este
Charles III of Spain
Maria Amalia of Saxony
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maria Theresa of Austria
Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans
Auguste Marie Johanna of Baden-Baden
18= 18. Louis Armand II de Bourbon, Prince of Conti
19= 19. Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon-Condé
20= 20. Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, Count of Toulouse
21= 21. Marie-Victoiré-Sophie de Noailles
Francesco III d'Este
Charlotte Aglaé of Orléans
Philip V of Spain
Elisabeth of Parma
Augustus III of Poland
Maria Josepha of Austria
Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
Élisabeth Charlotte of Orléans
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
René Bazin, "Le Duc de Nemours" (1907); Paul Thureau-Dangin, "Histoire de la monarchie de France" (4 vols., 1884, etc.).
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