Indian media

Indian media

Indian media—initiated since the late 1700s with print media started in 1780, radio broadcasting initiated in 1927, and the screening of Auguste and Louis Lumière moving pictures in Bombay initiated during the July of 1895 —is among the oldest and largest media of the world. [See "Thomas 2006" and "Burra & Rao 2006"] Indian media—private media in particular—has been free and independent throughout most of its history. The period of Emergency in India (1975–1977), declared by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was the brief period when India's media was faced with potential government retribution.On the whole, the press functions with little government censorship, and serious controls have been imposed only in matters of national security, in times of emergency, or when it is deemed necessary to avoid inflaming passions (e.g., after communal riots or comparable disturbances).——Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (2008). "India". Encyclopedia Britannica.]

India consumed 99 million newspaper copies as of 2007—making it the second largest market in the world for newspapers. By 2008, India has a total of 60,000,000 Internet users—comprising 6.0% of the country's population, and 4,010,000 people in India also have access to broadband Internet as of 2008— making it the 18th largest country in the world in terms of broadband Internet users. [http://point-topic.com/contentDownload/dslanalysis/world%20broadband%20statistics%20q407.pdf World Broadband Statistics Report – Q4 2007] , Point Topic.] India also ranks 8th in the list of countries by number of television broadcast stations by 1997 statistics.

Print media

The first major newspaper in India—"The Bengal Gazette"—was started in 1780 under the British Raj. Other newspapers such as "The India Gazette", "The Calcutta Gazette", "The Madras Courier" (1785), "The Bombay Herald" (1789) etc. soon followed. These newspapers carried news of the areas under the British Raj. The "Times of India" was founded in 1838 as "The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce" by Bennett, Coleman and Company, a colonial enterprise now owned by an Indian conglomerate.Thomas, pages 105-106] The Times Group publishes "The Economic Times" (launched in 1961), "Navbharat Times" (Hindi language), and the "Maharashtra Times" (Marathi language).

During the 1950s 214 daily newspapers were published in India.Thomas, page 105] Out of these, 44 were English language dailies while the rest were published in various regional languages. This number rose to 2,856 dailies in 1990 with 209 English dailies. The total number of newspapers published in India reached 35,595 newspapers by 1993 (3,805 dailies).

The main regional newspapers of India include the Malayalam-language "Malayala Manorama" (published from: Kerala, daily circulation:673,000), the Hindi-language "Dainik Jagran" (published from: Uttar Pradesh, daily circulation in 2006: 580,000), and the "Anandabazar Patrika" (published from: Kolkata, daily circulation in 2006: 435,000).Thomas, page 106] The Times of India Group, the Indian Express Group, the Hindustan Times Group, and the Anandabazar Patrika Group are the main print media houses of India.

Newspaper sale in India increased by 11.22% in 2007. [http://www.wan-press.org/article17377.html World Association of Newspapers (2008) "World Press Trends: Newspapers Are A Growth Business "] ] By 2007, 62 of the world's best selling newspaper dailies were published in China, Japan, and India. India consumed 99 million newspaper copies as of 2007—making it the second largest market in the world for newspapers.

Audio-Visual media

Radio broadcasting was initiated in 1927 but became state responsibility only in 1930.Schwartzberg 2008] In 1937 it was given the name "All India Radio" and since 1957 it has been called "Akashvani". Limited duration of television programming began in 1959, and complete broadcasting followed in 1965. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India) owned and maintained the audio-visual apparatus—including the television channel "Doordarshan"—in the country prior to the economic reforms of 1991. The Government of India played a significant role in using the audio-visual media for increasing mass education in India's rural swathes. Projected television screens provided engaging education in India's villages by the 1990s.

Following the economic reforms satellite television channels from around the world—including BBC, CNN, CNBC, PTV, and other foreign television channels gained a foothold in India.Thomas, pages 106-107] 47 million household with television sets emerged in 1993, which was also the year when Rupert Murdoch entered the Indian market.Thomas, page 107] Satellite and cable television soon gained a foothold. "Doordarshan", in turn, initiated reforms an modernization. With 562 television stations as of 1997, India ranks 8th in the list of countries by number of television broadcast stations. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2015.html CIA World Factbook: Field Listing - Television broadcast stations] ]

Communications

The Indian Government acquired the EVS EM computers from the Soviet Union, which were used in large companies and research laboratories.Desai 2006] Tata Consultancy Services — established in 1968 by the Tata Group — were the country's largest software producers during the 1960s. The 'microchip revolution' of the 1980s had convinced both Indira Gandhi and her successor Rajiv Gandhi that electronics and telecommunications were vital to India's growth and development. MTNL underwent technological improvements.Chand, page 86] Between 1986-1987, the Indian government embarked upon the creation of three wide-area computer networking schemes: INDONET (intended to serve the IBM mainframes in India), NICNET (the network for India's National Informatics Centre), and the academic research oriented Education and Research Network (ERNET).Wolcott & Goodman, page 568]

The Indian economy underwent economic reforms in 1991, leading to a new era of globalization and international economic integration.Sharma 2006 "Globalization"] Economic growth of over 6% annually was seen between 1993-2002. The economic reforms were driven in part by significant the internet usage in India.Wolcott & Goodman, page 564] The new administration under Atal Bihari Vajpayee—which placed the development of Information Technology among its top five priorities— formed the Indian National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development.Wolcott & Goodman, pages 564-565] Internet gained a foothold in India by 1996.Desai 2006] India had a total of 60,000,000 Internet users—comprising 6.0% of the country's population—as of 2008.See [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2153rank.html The World Factbook: Internet users] and [http://www.internetworldstats.com/ Internet World Stats] .] As of 2008, 4,010,000 people in India also had access to broadband Internet— making it the 18th largest country in the world in terms of broadband Internet users. [http://point-topic.com/contentDownload/dslanalysis/world%20broadband%20statistics%20q407.pdf World Broadband Statistics Report – Q4 2007] , Point Topic.]

India had a total of 49,750,000 telephone lines in use by 2008. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2150rank.html CIA World Factbook: Rank Order - Telephones - main lines in use] ] In the fixed line arena, BSNL and MTNL are the incumbents in their respective areas of operation and continue to enjoy the dominant service provider status in the domain of fixed line services. BSNL controls 79% of fixed line share in the country.

In the mobile telephony sector, Airtel controls 21.4% subscriber base followed by Reliance with 20.3%, BSNL with 18.6%, Vodafone with 14.7% subscriber base as of June 2005.See [http://www.trai.gov.in/trai/upload/StudyPapers/5/spaper2nov05.pdf "Study paper on State of Indian Telecom Network". Telecom Regulatory Authority of India.] and [http://www.trai.gov.in/trai/upload/PressReleases/371/pr12sep06no89.pdf Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Press Release No. 89 /2006, 12th September 2006.] ] India had a total of 233,620,000 mobile phone connections by 2008. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2151rank.html CIA World Factbook: Rank Order - Telephones - mobile cellular] ]

Total fixed-line and wireless subscribers reached 325.78 million as of June, 2008. [http://uk.reuters.com/article/UK_SMALLCAPSRPT/idUKDEL2193920080725 Reuters (2008). "India adds 8.94 mln mobile users in June".] ]

Cinema

The history of film in India begins with the screening of Auguste and Louis Lumière moving pictures in Bombay during the July of 1895.Burra & Rao, page 252] "Raja Harishchandra"—a full length feature film—was initiated in 1912 and completed later. "Alam Ara" (released 14 March 1931)—directed by Ardeshir Irani—was the first India movie with dialogs.Burra & Rao, page 253]

Indian films were soon being followed throughout Southeast Asia and the Middle East—where modest dressing and subdued sexuality of these films was found to be acceptable to the sensibilities of the audience belonging to the various Islamic countries of the region.Watson 2008] As cinema as a medium gained popularity in India as many as 1, 000 films in various languages of India were produced annually. Hollywood also gained a foothold in India with special effects films such as "Jurassic Park" (1993) and "Speed" (1994) being specially appreciated by the Indian audiences. Expatriates throughout the the United Kingdom and in the United States continued to give rise to an international audiences to Indian movies, which—according to the The "Encyclopedia Britannica" (2008) entry on "Bollywood"—'continued to be formulaic story lines, expertly choreographed fight scenes, spectacular song-and-dance routines, emotion-charged melodrama, and larger-than-life heroes.'"Bollywood." Encyclopædia Britannica 2008]

Notes

References

* Burra, Rani Day & Rao, Maithili (2006). "Cinema" in "Encyclopedia of India (vol. 1)", edited by Stanley Wolpert. 252-259. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31350-2.
* Chand, Vikram K. (2006). "Reinventing public service delivery in india: Selected Case Studies". ISBN 0761934898.
* Desai, Ashok V. (2006). "Information and other Technology Development" in "Encyclopedia of India (vol. 2)", edited by Stanley Wolpert. 269-273. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31351-0.
* Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (2008). "India". Encyclopedia Britannica.
* Sharma, Shalendra D. (2006). "Globalization" in "Encyclopedia of India (vol. 2)", edited by Stanley Wolpert. 146-149. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31351-0
* Thomas, Raju G. C. (2006). "Media" in "Encyclopedia of India (vol. 3)", edited by Stanley Wolpert. 105-107. Thomson Gale: ISBN 0-684-31352-9.
* Watson, James L. (2008). "Globalization". Encyclopedia Britannica.
* Wolcott, P. & Goodman, S. E. (2003). [http://mosaic.unomaha.edu/India_2003.pdf "Global Diffusion of the Internet – I India: Is the Elephant Learning to Dance?"] . Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Volume 11, 560-646.

External links

* [http://www.country-studies.com/india/the-media.html "India: the media". U.S. Library of Congress .]

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