The tarot (also known as tarocchi, tarock or similar names) is typically a set of seventy-eight cards, comprised of twenty-one trump cards, one Fool, and four suits of fourteen cards each—ten
pipand four face cards (one more face card per suit than in Anglo-American playing cards).
Tarot cards are used throughout much of
Europeto play Tarot card games such as Italian Tarocchiniand French Tarot.cite book
last = Dummett
first = Michael
authorlink = Michael Dummett
title = The Game of Tarot
Gerald Duckworth and Company Ltd.
date = 1980
isbn = 0-7156-1014-7 ] In English-speaking countries, where the games are largely unknown, Tarot cards are utilized primarily for divinatory purposes [ Huson, Paul, (2004) "Mystical Origins of the Tarot: From Ancient Roots to Modern Usage", Vermont: Destiny Books, ISBN 0-89281-190-0 [http://www.innertraditions.com/Product.jmdx?action=displayDetail&id=887&searchString=huson&y=7&x=7 "Mystical Origins of the Tarot"] ] , with the trump cards plus the Fool card making up the twenty-two major arcana cards and the pip and four face cards the fifty-six minor arcana.
Playing cards first entered
Europein the late 14th century with the Mamelukesof Egypt, with suits very similar to the basic ' Latin' suits of Swords, Staves, Cups and Coins (also known as disks, and pentacles), which are still used in traditional Italian and Spanish decks [ Donald Laycockin "Skeptical – a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal", ed Donald Laycock, David Vernon, Colin Groves, Simon Brown, Imagecraft, Canberra, 1989, ISBN 0731657942, p67] . Although there are quite a number of alternative theories on the origin of Tarot, current evidence seems to indicate that the first decks were created between 1410 and 1430 in either Milan, Ferrara, or Bologna, in northern Italy, when additional trump cards with allegorical illustrations were added to the more common four suit decks that already existedFact|date=June 2008. These new decks were originally called "carte da trionfi", triumph cards, and the additional cards known simply as "trionfi", which evolved into the word "trumps" in common English. The first literary evidence of the existence of "carte da trionfi" is a written statement in the court records in Ferrara, in 1442Fact|date=June 2008. The oldest surviving Tarot cards are from fifteen fragmented decks painted in the mid 15th century for the Visconti-Sforza family, the rulers of Milan [ Place, Robert M.(2005) "The Tarot: History,Symbolism,and Divination,", Tarcher/Penguin, New York, ISBN 1-58542-349-1] .
No documented examples exist prior to the 18th century of the tarot being used for
divinationFact|date=June 2008. However, divination using similar cards is in evidence as early as 1540; a book entitled "The Oracles of Francesco Marcolino da Forli" shows a simple method of divination using the coin suit of a regular playing card deck. Manuscripts from 1735 ("The Square of Sevens") and 1750 ("Pratesi Cartomancer") document rudimentary divinatory meanings for the cards of the tarot, as well as a system for laying out the cards. In 1765, Giacomo Casanovawrote in his diary that his Russian mistress frequently used a deck of playing cards for divinationFact|date=June 2008.
Playing cards first appeared in
ChristianEurope some time before 1367, the date of the first documented evidence of their existence, a ban on their use, in Bern, SwitzerlandFact|date=June 2008. Before this, cards had been used for several decades in Islamic Al Andalus(see playing card history for discussion of its origins). Early European sources describe a deck with typically fifty-two cards, like a modern deck with no jokers.Fact|date=June 2008 The seventy-eight-card tarot resulted from adding the twenty-two trump cards to an early fifty-six card variant (fourteen cards per suit).Fact|date=June 2008
Wide use of
playing cardsin Europe can, with some certainty, be given from 1377 onwardsFact|date=June 2008. Tarot cards appear to have been developed some forty years later, and they are mentioned in the surviving text of Martiano da Tortona.Fact|date=June 2008 Da Tortona's text is thought to have been written between 1418 and 1425, since in 1418 the painter Michelino da Besozzoreturned to Milan, and Martiano da Tortona died in 1425.
Da Tortona describes a deck similar to the cards used for Tarot card games in many specific ways though what he describes is more a precursor to tarot than what we might think of as real tarot cards. For instance, his deck has only sixteen trump cards, with motifs that are not comparable to common tarot cards (they are Greek gods) and the suits are four kinds of birds, not the common Italian suits. What makes da Tortona's deck similar to modern tarot game cards is that these sixteen cards are obviously regarded as trump cards in a card game; about twenty-five years later, a near contemporary of Da Tortona,
Jacopo Antonio Marcello, called them a "ludus triumphorum", or 'game winner'.
The next documents that seem to confirm the existence of objects similar to tarot cards are two playing card decks from Milan (Brera-Brambrilla and Cary-Yale-Tarocchi) — extant, but fragmentary — and three documents, all from the court of
Ferrara, ItalyFact|date=June 2008. It is not possible to put a precise date on the cards, but it is estimated that they were made circa 1440. The three documents date from 1 January 1441to July 1442, with the term "trionfi" first documented in February 1442. The document from January 1441, which used the term "trionfi", is regarded as unreliable; however, the fact that the same painter, Sagramoro, was commissioned by the same patron, Leonello d'Este, as in the February 1442 document, indicates that it is at least plausibly an example of the same typeFact|date=June 2008. After 1442 there are some seven years without any examples of similar material. The game seemed to gain in importance in the year 1450, a Jubilee year in Italy, which saw many festivities and the movement of many pilgrims.
It seems apparent that the special motifs on the trump cards, which were added to regular playing cards with a 'four suits of fourteen cards' structure, were ideologically determined. They are thought to show a specific system of transporting messages of different content; known early examples show
philosophical, social, poetical, astronomical, and heraldicideas, for instance, as well as a group of old Roman/Greek/ Babylonianheroes, as in the case of the Sola-Busca-Tarocchi (1491)Fact|date=June 2008 and the Boiardo Tarocchi poem (produced at an unknown date between 1461 and 1494).Fact|date=June 2008 For example, the earliest-known deck, extant only in its description in Martiano's short book, was produced to show the system of Greek gods, a theme that was very fashionable in Italy at the time. Its production may well have accompanied a triumphal celebration of the commissioner Filippo Maria Visconti, duke of Milano, meaning that the purpose of the deck was to express and consolidate the political power in Milan (as was common for other artworks of the time). The four suits showed birds, motifs that appeared regularly in Visconti heraldry, and the specific order of the gods gives reason to assume that the deck was intended to imply that the Visconti identified themselves as descendants from Jupiter and Venus(which were seen not as gods but deified mortal heroes).
This first known deck seems to have had the standard ten numbered cards, but having kings as the only court card, and only sixteen trump cards. The later standard (four suits of fourteen plus twenty-two) took time to settle; "trionfi" decks with seventy cards only are still spoken of in 1457.Fact|date=June 2008 No corroborating evidence for the final standard seventy-eight card format exists prior to the Boiardo Tarocchi poem and the Sola Busca Tarocchi.
The oldest surviving tarot cards are three early to mid 15th century sets, all made for members of the Visconti familyFact|date=June 2008. The first deck is the so called Cary-Yale Tarot (or Visconti-Modrone Tarot), which was created between 1442 and 1447 by an anonymous painter for Filippo Maria ViscontiFact|date=June 2008. The cards (only sixty-six) are today in the Yale University Library of New Haven. But the most famous of these early tarot decks was painted in the mid 15th century, to celebrate the rule of Milan by Francesco Sforza and his wife Bianca Maria Visconti, daughter of the duke Filippo Maria. Probably, these cards were painted by
Bonifacio Bembo, but some cards were realized by miniaturists of another schoolFact|date=June 2008. Of the original cards, thirty-five are in the Pierpont Morgan Library, twenty-six are at the Accademia Carrara, thirteen are at the Casa Colleoniand two, 'The Devil' and 'The Tower', are lost, or possibly never made. This "Visconti-Sforza" deck, which has been widely reproduced, combines the suits of swords, batons, coins and cups and the court cards king, queen, knight and page with trump cards that reflect conventional iconography of the time to a significant degree.cite book
last = Berti
first = Giordano
authorlink = Giordano Berti
title = Visconti Tarot
Lo Scarabeo, Torino
date = 2002 ]
For a long time tarot cards remained a privilege for the upper classes, and, although some sermons inveighing against the evil inherent in cards can be traced to the 14th century, most civil governments did not routinely condemn tarot cards during tarot's early historyFact|date=June 2008. In fact, in some jurisdictions, tarot cards were specifically exempted from laws otherwise prohibiting the playing of cards.
Later tarot decks
As the earliest tarot cards were hand painted, the number of the decks produced is thought to have been rather small, and it was only after the invention of the
printing pressthat mass production of cards became possible. Decks survive from this era from various cities in France(the best known being a deck from the southern city of Marseillesand thus named the Tarot de Marseilles). At around the same time, the name "tarocchi" appeared.Fact|date=January 2007
The first wide publicity of divination by tarot came from a French occultist named Alliette, under the pseudonym "Etteilla" (his name reversed), who worked as a seer and card diviner shortly before the French Revolution. Etteilla designed the first
esotericTarot deck, adding astrological attributions and "Egyptian" motifs to various cards, altering many of them from the Marseilles designs, and adding divinatory meanings in text on the cards. Later, Mademoiselle Marie-Anne Le Normandpopularized divination in general during the reign of Napoleon I, through the influence she wielded over Joséphine de Beauharnais, Napoleon's first wife.Clarifyme|date=August 2008 However, she did not typically use Tarot.
Tarot cards eventually came to be associated with
mysticismand magic. [Huson, Paul "Mystical Origins of the Tarot: From Ancient Roots to Modern Usage". Vermont: Destiny Books, 2004] Tarot was not widely adopted by mystics, occultists and secret societies until the 18th and 19th centuries. The tradition began in 1781, when Antoine Court de Gébelin, a Swiss clergyman and Freemason, published "Le Monde Primitif", a speculative study which included religious symbolismand its survivals in the modern world. De Gébelin first asserted that symbolism of the " Tarot de Marseille" represented the mysteries of Isisand Thoth. Gébelin further claimed that the name "tarot" came from the Egyptian words "tar", meaning "royal", and "ro", meaning "road", and that the Tarot therefore represented a "royal road" to wisdom. De Gébelin also asserted that the Gypsies, who were among the first to use cards for divination, were descendants of the Ancient Egyptians (hence their common name; though by this time it was more popularly used as a stereotypefor any nomadic tribe) and had introduced the cards to Europe. De Gébelin wrote this treatise before Jean-François Champollionhad deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphs, or indeed before the Rosetta Stonehad been discovered, and later Egyptologists found nothing in the Egyptian language to support de Gébelin's fanciful etymologies. Despite this, the identification of the Tarot cards with the Egyptian "Book of Thoth" was already firmly established in occult practice and continues in modern urban legendto the present day.
The idea of the cards as a mystical key was further developed by Eliphas Lévi and passed to the English-speaking world by The
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Lévi, not Etteilla, is considered by some to be the true founder of most contemporary schools of Tarot; his 1854 "Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie" (English title: "Transcendental Magic") introduced an interpretation of the cards which related them to Hermetic Qabalah. While Lévi accepted Court de Gébelin's claims about an Egyptian origin of the deck symbols, he rejected Etteilla's innovations and his altered deck, and devised instead a system which related the Tarot, especially the Tarot de Marseille, to the Hermetic Qabalahand the four elementsof alchemy.
Tarot divination became increasingly popular in the New World from 1910, with the publication of the Rider-Waite-Smith Tarot (designed and executed by two members of the Golden Dawn), which replaced the traditionally simple pip cards with images of symbolic scenes. This deck also further obscured the Christian allegories of the
Tarot de Marseillesand of Eliphas Levi's decks by changing some attributions (for instance changing "The Pope" to "The Hierophant" and "The Popess" to "The High Priestess"). The Rider-Waite-Smith deck still remains extremely popular in the English-speaking world.
Since then a huge number of different decks have been created, some traditional, some vastly different. The use of Tarot for
divination, or as a store of symbolism, has inspired the creation of Oracle card decks. These are card decks for inspiration or divination containing images of angels, fairies, goddesses, Power Animals, etc. Although obviously influenced by Tarot, they do not follow the traditional structure of Tarot; they lack any suits of numbered cards, and the set of cards differs from the traditional major arcana.
Tarot card games
One usage of tarot cards is for playing games, with the first basic rules appearing in the manuscript of Martiano da Tortona before 1425. [ [http://trionfi.com/0/b/11/t1.php Description of the Michelino deck - translated text] ] The game is nowadays known in many variations, first basic rules appear in the manuscript of Martiano da Tortona (before 1425; [http://trionfi.com/0/b/11/ translated text] ), the next are known from the year 1637. In Italy the game has become less popular, one version named [http://pagat.com/tarot/ottocen.html Tarocco Bolognese: Ottocento] has still survived and there are still others played in
Piedmont, but the number of games outside of Italy is much higher, there connected to the words "Tarot" (French) and "Tarock" (central European). It is played with a tarot deck of playing cards. The so-called "esoteric" decks used for divination are usually ill-suited for playing, for example because the corner symbols are missing. A typical type of Tarot playing card deck is that of the standard French design, the so-called " Tarot Nouveau", which is French-suited and has face and number layouts similar to the common 52-card deck. The "Tarot Nouveau" deck has trumps which depict scenes of traditional French social activities, in increasing levels of wealth; this differs from the character and ideological cards of the standard Italian-suited Tarot decks such as the Tarocco Piedmontese or Tarocco Bolognese, or the Rider-Waiteor Tarot de Marseillesdecks well-known in cartomancy.
Other tarot/tarock decks popular in
Italy, Spain, Switzerlandand Austriause either the Latin suits of cups, coins, batons and swords, or the German suits of Hearts, Bells, Acorns and Leaves. The character representations of the trump cards in divinatory tarot is based on representations similar to those found in the Italian tarot decks; Germanic Tarot playing card decks are less likely to feature these characterizations. [ [http://www.pagat.com/class/itarot.html Pagat.com's page on Italian-suited Tarot decks] ]
The 78-card tarot deck contains:
*14 cards each in four suits (Anglo-French, German or Latin depending on the region): "pip" cards numbered one through ten, plus four court cards - a jack, a knight (or cavalier), a queen, and a king;
*the twenty-one tarots, known in divination as the
Major Arcana, which function in the game as a permanent suit of trumps;
*the Fool, also known as the Excuse, an un-numbered card that in some variations excuses the player from following suit or playing a trump, and in others acts as the strongest trump.
As certain regions have adopted Tarot games that use only a subset of the 78-card deck, the decks themselves have become specialized. A full Tarot deck such as one for "
jeu de Tarot" contains all 78 cards and can be used to play any game in the family; many Austrian Tarock and Italian Tarocchi decks, however, are a smaller subset suitable only for games of a particular region.
Typical rules of play
Play is typically counter-clockwise; the player to the right of the dealer plays to the first trick. If possible players must follow suit. If following suit is not possible a trump card must be played – this rule characterises all Tarot games, even Bavarian Tarock, which does not use a pack with a separate suit of tarocks. In the
French tarotgame, this trump must beat any trump already played to the trick if possible. The winner of each trick leads the next.
Common value of cards
* Oudlers/Trull (Trumps 1, 21 and the Fool) : 5 points
* Kings : 5 points
* Queens : 4 points
* Cavaliers : 3 points
* Jacks : 2 points
* all other cards : fraction of a pointThe cards are usually counted in groups of two or three depending on the game.After the hand has been played, a score is taken based on the point values of the cards in the tricks each player has managed to capture. ( [http://pagat.com/tarot/counting.html counting cards] )
For the purpose of the rules, the numbering of the trumps are the only thing that matters. The symbolic tarot images customary in divinatory tarot have no effect in the game itself: though, rather ironically, the tarot deck was originally designed to play this game (see playing card history), the design traditions subsequently evolved independently and the tarots often bear only numbers and whimsical scenes arbitrarily chosen by the engraver. However there are still traditional sequences of images in which the common lineage is visible: for example, a moon is visible at the bottom left corner of the XXI in the picture at the top of the page. This stems from confusion of German "Mond" with Italian "mondo" and French "monde", meaning "world" - the usual symbol associated with the 21 on Italian suited tarots and in divinatory tarot.
In tarot decks made for playing the game (as opposed to those made for
divinationor other esoteric uses), the four Latin suits are replaced in many regions with the French suits of hearts, diamonds, clubs, and spades. Some variations of the game are played with a 54-card deck (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 of hearts and diamonds and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 of spades and clubs are discarded).
Variations of the game are still played in
France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Denmark, and especially in the countries on the area of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, for which even the name "Tarockanien" has been coined: the Austrian variation of the game is thus still widely popular among all classes and generations in Slovenia, Croatiaand in the Czech Republic, while in Hungarydifferent rules are applied.
Occult tarot and divination
Tarot reading revolves around the belief that the cards can be used to gain insight into the current and possible future situations of the subject (or
querent), i.e. cartomancy. Some believe they are guided by a spiritual force, such as Gaia, while others believe the cards help them tap into a collective unconscious or their own creative, brainstorming subconscious.
Common card interpretations
Each card has a variety of symbolic meanings that have evolved over the years. Custom or themed tarot decks exist which have even more specific symbolism, although these are more prevalent in the English-speaking world. The minor arcana cards have astrological attributions that can be used as general indicators of timing in the year, based on the
Octaviancalendar, and the court cards may signify different people in a tarot reading, with each suit's "nature" providing hints about that person's physical and emotional characteristics.
Tarot has a complex and rich symbolism with a long history. In the past, many occult- or divination-oriented authors claimed that the symbolism's origins are lost in time and/or postulated or claimed as fact non-historical theories. Some authors such as Rachel Pollack have written that tarot origin myths have their own significance and value and that the reader can find a study of such myths enriching while at the same time being aware that they aren't factually true. Interpretations have evolved together with the cards over the centuries: later decks have "clarified" the pictures in accordance with meanings assigned to the cards by their creators. In turn, the meanings come to be modified by the new pictures. Images and interpretations have been continually reshaped, in part, to help the Tarot live up to its mythic role as a powerful occult instrument and to respond to modern needs.
See, for example, the Rider-Waite-Smith Strength card. We can know more about the symbolic intentions of the designer here, since he conveniently wrote many books on the subject on occultism and symbolism and a handbook specifically for this deck titled "The Pictorial Key to the Tarot" (1910). As with its ancestor in the Tarot de Marseilles, the Strength trump shows a woman holding the jaws of a lion, but the Rider-Waite-Smith picture is far more elaborate. The woman's hat of the Marseilles card has been interpreted as a
lemniscate: the sideways-figure-eight representing infinity, or, according to Waite, the Spirit of Life. Other symbols are included: a chain of roses symbolizing desire or passion, against a white robe symbolizing purity. The mountains in the background demonstrate another kind of strength.
Another example of the preservation of designs from one deck to another can be seen via the incorporation of the ribbon design found on the Deux de Deniéres in a Swiss-style deck originally published by Müller & Cie. of Schaffhouse into the of The Book of
ThothTarot's Two of Disks.
There are numerous published books that discuss the usage of the tarot for divination. In many systems, the four suits are associated with the
four elements: Swords with air, Wands with fire, Cups with water and Pentacles with earth. The numerologyof the cards is also considered significant. The tarot is considered to correspond to various systems such as astrology, Pythagorean numerology, the Hermetic Qabalah(where each of the major arcana represent a path on the tree of life), the I Ching, Christianity [http://www.tarotexplained.com] , Aura-Somaand others.
To perform a Tarot reading, the Tarot deck is typically shuffled by either the subject or a third-party reader, and is laid out in one of a variety of patterns, often called "spreads". They are then interpreted by the reader or a third-party performing the reading for the subject. These might include the subject's thoughts and desires (known or unknown) or past, present, and future events. Generally, each position in the spread is assigned a number, and the cards are turned over in that sequence, with each card being contemplated/interpreted before moving to the next. Each position is also associated with an interpretation, which indicates what aspect of the question the card in that position is referring to.
Sometimes, rather than being dealt randomly, the initial card in a spread is intentionally chosen to represent the querent or the question being asked. This card is called the significator.
Some common spreads include:
Celtic Cross: This is probably the most common spread. Ten [Arthur Edward White, "Pictorial Guide to the Tarot", (New York, Causeway, ndp)] cards are used, with five arranged in a cross and four placed vertically beside the cross. Another card is placed horizontally across the central cards of the cross to make a total of 10. The first central card of the cross is frequently the significator and the second card which is placed over the first represents the conditions surrounding the question; or the crossing card often represents an obstacle they must face, an aspect of the question they have not yet considered. The third card which is placed above the first represents what the person hopes for in relation to the question being asked. The fourth card which is placed below the first is what the subject has already experienced in relation to the whole spread. The fifth card is placed to the left of the first card and shows what was in the past. The sixth card is placed to the right of the first card and shows the influence that will come in the future. Then on the right of these cards are the remaining 4 cards, which are placed from bottom to top. So the seventh card represents the attitude of the question being asked. The eighth card is how family or friends will influence the question. The ninth card shows the hopes and fears in relation to the question and the final card, the tenth card, is the Culmination Card which shows the end result of all of the previous nine cards.
*Horse-shoe: Another very common question asking spread. Seven cards are arranged in a semi-circle or 'V' shape. The cards, from left to right, represent the past, present, influences, obstacles, expectations (or hopes/fears), best course of action and likely outcomes. Some variations of this spread swap the expectations and inspiration cards around.
*3-card spread: Three cards are used, with the first representing the past, the second the present, the third the future.
*Astrological spread: Twelve cards are spread in a circle, to represent the twelve signs of the zodiac. A thirteenth card is placed in the middle; often the significator.
*1-card spread: It should be noted that a single card can constitute a spread.
Tetractys: Ten cards arranged in a four-rowed pyramid. Each row represents earth, air, fire or water and each card within the row has a very specific meaning. The single card in the top row is the significator.
star spread: starts in the lower left part and follows the star pattern. 1:what you see 2:what you can't see 3:what you can change 4:what you cannot change 5:what you can expect (this is actually very time effective)
*The Mirror Spread: This Spread works primalrily on existing relationships, but can assess anything from a budding love affair to an established partnership. It will often reveal inconsistencies between viewpoints - for example, if the cards at 2 and 3 contradict one another, there is need to re-asses and re-ajust points of view, or take into account the input of the other person. Obstacles will sometimes produce very positive cards - look carefully under the surface if you find this, rather than assuming everything is fine!! The Probable result card is drawn with circumstances as they currently are - but if changes recommended by the reading are effected, then this final card can change. ***spread*** 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8Card 1: The querent Card 2: The way you see the other person in the relationshipCard 3: The way they see themselvesCard 4: What the person represents to youCard 5: What you represent to themCard 6: Obstacles within the relationshipCard 7: Strengths within the relationshipCard 8: Probable resultThere are numerous other spreads - essentially, the reader may use any card arrangement in which they find by experience to be useful.
Some methods of interpreting the tarot consider cards to have different meanings depending on whether they appear upright or reversed [ Huson, Paul, "Mystical Origins of the Tarot", p. 59 ] . A reversed card is often interpreted to mean the opposite of its upright meaning. For instance, the Sun card upright may be associated with satisfaction, gratitude, health, happiness, strength, inspiration, and liberation; while in reverse, it may be interpreted to mean a lack of confidence and mild unhappiness. However, not all methods of card reading prescribe an opposite meaning to reversed cards. Some card readers will interpret a reversed card as either a more intense variation of the upright card, an undeveloped trait or an issue that requires greater attention.
Other uses of Tarot
Tarot was used as early as the 16th century to compose poems, called "tarocchi appropriati", describing ladies of the court or famous personages.
Carl Jungwas the first psychologist to attach importance to tarot symbolism. He may have regarded the tarot cards as representing archetypes: fundamental types of person or situation embedded in the subconscious of all human beings. The theory of archetypes gives rise to several psychological uses. Since the cards represent these different archetypeswithin each individual, ideas of the subject's self-perception can be gained by asking them to select a card that they 'identify with'. Equally, the subject can try and clarify the situation by imagining it in terms of the archetypal ideas associated with each card. For instance, someone rushing in heedlessly like the Knight of Swords, or blindly keeping the world at bay like the Rider-Waite-Smith Two of Swords.
More recently Dr.
Timothy Learyhas suggested that the Tarot Trump cards are a pictorial representation of human development from a baby to a fully grown adult, The Fool symbolising the new born infant, The Magician symbolising the stage at which an infant starts to play with artifacts, etc. In addition to this, the Tarot Trumps to be a blue print for of the human race in the future.
Occult tarot as a mnemonic device
Some schools of occult thought or symbolic study, such as the
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, consider the tarot to function as a textbook and mnemonic device for their teachings. This may be one cause of the word "arcana" being used to describe the two sections of the tarot deck: "arcana" is the plural form of the Latinword "arcanum", meaning "closed" or "secret."
Varieties of tarot deck designs
A variety of styles of tarot decks and designs exist and a number of typical regional patterns have emerged. Historically, one of the most important designs is the one usually known as the Tarot de Marseilles. This standard pattern was the one studied by Court de Gébelin, and cards based on this style illustrate his "Le Monde primitif". The Tarot de Marseilles was also popularized in the 20th century by
Paul MarteauFact|date=June 2008. Some current editions of cards based on the Marseilles design go back to a deck of a particular Marseilles design that was printed by Nicolas Converin 1760. Other regional styles include the "Swiss" Tarot; this one substitutes Juno and Jupiter for the Papess, or High Priestess and the Pope, or Hierophant. In Florencean expanded deck called " Minchiate" was used; this deck of ninety six cards includes astrological symbols including the four elements, as well as traditional Tarot motifs.
Some decks exist primarily as artwork; and such art decks sometimes contain only the twenty two trump cards.
French suited tarots
French suited tarot cards began to appear in
Germanyduring 18th century. The first generation of French suited tarots depicted scenes of animals on the trumps and were thus called "Tiertarock" decks. Card maker Göblof Munichis often credited for this design innovation. French suited tarot cards are a modern deck used for the tarot/tarock card games commonly played in France and central Europe. The symbolism of French suited tarot trumps depart considerably from the older Italian suited design. With very few expeptional cases such as the Tarocchi di Alanand the recent Tarot de la Nature, French suited tarot cards are nearly exclusively used for card gamesand rarely for divination.
Non-occult Italian-suited Tarot decks
These were the earliest form of Tarot deck to be invented, being first devised in the fifteenth century in northern Italy. The occult Tarot decks are based on decks of this type. Four decks of this category are still used to play certain games:
*The Tarocco Piemontese consists of the four suits of swords, batons, clubs and coins, each headed by a king, queen, cavalier and jack, followed by numerals 10 down to 1. The trumps rank as follows: The Angel (20—although it only bears the second-highest number, it is nonetheless the highest), the World (21), the Sun (19), the Moon (18), the Star (17), the Tower (16), the Devil (15), Temperance (14), death (13), the Hanged Man (12), Strength (11), the Wheel of Fortune (10), the Hermit (9), Justice (8), the Chariot (7), the Lovers (6), the Pope (5), the Emperor (4), the Empress (3), the Popess (2) and the Bagatto (1). There is also the Fool ("Matto").
*The Swiss Tarot de Besançon is similar, but is of a different graphical design, and replaces the Pope with Jupiter, the Popess with Juno, and the Angel with the Judgement. The trumps rank in numerical order and the Tower is known as the House of God.
*The Tarocco Bolognese omits numeral cards two to five in plain suits, leaving it with 62 cards, and has somewhat different trumps, not all of which are numbered and four of which are equal in rank. It has a different graphical design.
*The Tarocco Siciliano changes some of the trumps, and replaces the 21 with a card labelled "Miseria" (destitution). It omits the Two and Three of coins, and numerals one to four in batons, swords and cups: it thus has 64 cards. The cards are quite small and, again, of a different graphical design. [#cite_note-8|  ]
Occult tarot decks
Etteillawas the first to issue a revised tarot deck specifically designed for occult purposes rather than game playing. In keeping with the belief that tarot cards are derived from the Book of Thoth, Etteilla's tarot contained themes related to ancient Egypt.The seventy eight card tarot deck used by esotericists has two distinct parts:
Major Arcana(greater secrets), or trump cards, consists of twenty two cards without suits; The Fool, The Magician, The High Priestess, The Empress, The Emperor, The Hierophant, The Lovers, The Chariot, Strength, The Hermit, Wheel of Fortune, Justice, The Hanged Man, Death, Temperance, The Devil, The Tower, The Star, The Moon, The Sun, Judgement, and The World.
Minor Arcana(lesser secrets) consists of fifty six cards, divided into four suits of fourteen cards each; ten numbered cards and four court cards. The court cards are the king, queen, Knight and page, in each of the four tarot suits. The traditional Italian tarot suits are swords, batons, coins and cups; in modern tarot decks, however, the batons suit is often called wands, rods or staves, while the coins suit is often called pentacles or disks.
The terms major arcana and minor arcana were first used by
Jean Baptiste PitoisAKA Paul Christian and are seldom used in relation to Tarot card games.
Tarot is often used in conjunction with the study of the
Hermetic Qabalah[Israel Regardie, "The Tree of Life", (London, Rider, 1932)] . In these decks all the cards are illustrated in accordance with Qabalistic principles, most being under the influence of the Rider-Waite-Smith deck and bearing illustrated scenes on all the suit cards. The images on the 'Rider-Waite' deck were drawn by artist Pamela Colman-Smith, to the instructions of Christian mystic and occultist Arthur Edward Waite, and were originally published by the Rider Company in 1910. This deck is considered a simple, user friendly one but nevertheless its imagery, especially in the Major Arcana, is complex and replete with esoteric symbolism. The subjects of the Major Arcana are based on those of the earliest decks, but have been significantly modified to reflect Waite and Smith's view of Tarot. An important difference from Marseilles style decks is that Smith drew scenes with esoteric meanings on the suit cards. However the Rider-Waite wasn't the first deck to include completely illustrated suit cards. The first to do so was the 15th century Sola-Busca deckFact|date=June 2008.
Older decks such as the Visconti-Sforza and Marseilles are less detailed than more modern decks. A Marseilles type deck is usually distinguished by having repetitive motifs on the pip cards as opposed to the full scenes found on "Rider-Waite" style decks. These more simply illustrated "Marseilles" style decks are also used esoterically, for divination, and for game play, though the French card game of tarot is now generally played using a relatively modern 19th century design of German origin. Such playing Tarot decks generally have twenty one trump cards with genre scenes from 19th century life, a Fool, and have court and pip cards that closely resemble today's French playing cards.)
The Marseilles style Tarot decks generally feature numbered minor arcana cards that look very much like the pip cards of modern playing card decks. The Marseilles' numbered minor arcana cards do not have scenes depicted on them; rather, they sport a geometric arrangement of the number of suit symbols (e.g., swords, rods/wands, cups, coins/pentacles) corresponding to the number of the card (accompanied by botanical and other non-scenic flourishes), while the court cards are often illustrated with flat, two-dimensional drawings.
A widely used modernist esoteric Tarot deck is Aleister Crowley's
Thoth Tarot(pronounced IPA |/təʊt/ or IPA|/θɒθ/). Crowley, at the height of a lifetime's work dedicated to occultism, engaged the artist Lady Frieda Harristo paint the cards for the deck according to his specifications. His system of Tarot correspondences, published in The Book of Thoth & Liber 777, are an evolution and expansion upon that which he learnt in the Hermetic Order of the Golden DawnFact|date=June 2008.
In contrast to the Thoth deck's colourfulness, the illustrations on
Paul Foster Case's B.O.T.A. Tarotdeck are black line drawings on white cards; this is an unlaminated deck intended to be coloured by its owner. Other esoteric decks include the Golden Dawn Tarot, which claims to be based on a deck by SL MacGregor Mathers.
The variety of decks presently available is almost endless, and grows yearly. For instance, cat-lovers may have the
Tarot of the Cat People, a deck replete with cats in every picture. The Tarot of the Witches and the Aquarian Tarotretain the conventional cards with varying designs. The Tree of Life Tarot's cards are stark symbolic catalogs, the Cosmic Tarot, and The Alchemical Tarotthat combines traditional alchemical symbols with tarot images.
These modern decks change the cards to varying degrees. For example, the
Motherpeace Tarotis notable for its circular cards and feminist angle: the male characters have been replaced by females. The Tarot of Baseballhas suits of bats, mitts, balls and bases; "coaches" and "MVPs" instead of Queens and Kings; and major arcana cards like "The Catcher", "The Rule Book" and "Batting a Thousand". In the Silicon Valley Tarot, major arcana cards include The Hacker, Flame War, The Layoff and The Garage; the suits are Networks, Cubicles, Disks and Hosts; the court cards CIO, Salesman, Marketeerand New Hire. Another tarot in recent years has been the Robin Wood Tarot. This deck retains the Rider-Waite theme while adding some very soft and colorful Pagan symbolism. As with other decks, the cards are available with a companion book written by Ms. Wood which details all of the symbolism and colors utilized in the Major and Minor Arcana.
Unconventionality is taken to an extreme by
Morgan's Tarot, produced in 1970 by Morgan Robbins and illustrated by Darshan Chorpash Zenith. Morgan's Tarot has no suits, no card ranking and no explicit order of the cards. It has eighty eight cards rather than the more conventional seventy eight, and its simple line drawings show a strong influence from the psychedelicera. Nevertheless, in the introductory booklet that accompanies the deck (comprehensively mirrored on [http://www.sleepbot.com/morgan/intro.html dfoley's website] , with permission from [http://www.usgamesinc.com/ U.S. Games Systems] ), Robbins claims spiritual inspiration for the cards and cites the influence of Tibetan Buddhismin particular.
Many popular decks have modified the traditional symbolism to reflect the esoteric beliefs of their creators.
Each card in the Rider-Waite deck is intricately detailed with symbols related to the card. Color is also used symbolically.
Aleister Crowley's Book of Thoth deck
Each card in the Thoth deck is intricately detailed with Astrological, Zodiacal, Elemental and Qabalistic symbols related to each card. Colours are used symbolically, especially the cards related to the five elements of Spirit, Fire, Water, Air and Earth.
Mythic Tarot decklinks Tarot symbolism with the classical Greek Myths.
Modern oracle cards
Recently, the use of tarot for
divination, or as a store of symbolism, has inspired the creation of modern oracle card decks. These are card decks for inspiration or divination containing images of angels, faeries, goddesses, Power Animals, etc. Although obviously influenced by divinatory Tarot, they do not follow the traditional structure of Tarot; they often lack any suits of numbered cards, and the set of cards differs from the conventional major arcana.
* [http://www.jktarot.com/faq Tarot FAQ.]
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