- Tomorrow Never Dies
name = Tomorrow Never Dies
caption = "Tomorrow Never Dies" film poster
Michelle Yeoh Jonathan Pryce Teri Hatcher
Barbara Broccoli Michael G. Wilson
cinematography = Robert Elswit
performer = Sheryl Crow
MGM Distribution Co.
released = 19 December 1997
runtime = 119 min.
The World Is Not Enough(1999)
budget = $110,000,000
worldgross = $333,000,000
admissions = 75.5 million
imdb_id = 0120347
amg_id = 1:158896
main theme = Tomorrow Never Dies
country = flagicon|UK
"Tomorrow Never Dies", released in 1997, is the eighteenth
spy filmin the James Bondseries, and the second to star Pierce Brosnanas MI6 agent James Bond. Bruce Feirsteinwas credited as writing the screenplay, although it received input from several writers, and it was directed by Roger Spottiswoode. It follows Bond as he tries to stop a media mogulfrom engineering world events and starting World War III.
The film was produced by
Michael G. Wilsonand Barbara Broccoli, and was the first James Bond film made after the death of producer Albert R. Broccoli. "Tomorrow Never Dies" performed well in the box office despite mixed reviews. While its domestic box office surpassed "GoldenEye", [ [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/showdowns/chart/?id=jamesbondvs.htm James Bond Vs. Himself ] ] it was the only Pierce Brosnan Bond film not to open at number one at the box office since it opened the same day as "Titanic".
MI6 sends James Bond into the field to spy on a terrorist arms bazaar on the Russian border. Via television, MI6 and the British military identify several wanted men, including American "techno-terrorist" Henry Gupta, who is buying a GPS encoder made by the American military. The British launch a missile attack on the arms bazaar, but then Bond points out there are two Soviet nuclear torpedoes mounted on an
L-39 Albatros, the destruction of which poses potential local radioactive contamination. With the missile already in flight and unable to be aborted, Bond hijacks the L-39 and flies it to safety after a fight with its co pilot, who tries to strangle him. Despite the missile destroying most of the terrorists and weaponry, Gupta escapes with the encoder.
Elliot Carver, head of the Carver Media Group Network (CMGN), begins his plans to use the encoder to provoke war between China and the United Kingdom. As the existing Chinese leadership is not receptive to giving Carver Media Group Network the exclusive broadcast rights in their country, Carver wants to use the war to eliminate them in favor of politicians more friendly to his plans. Using the encoder Gupta deviates the frigate HMS "Devonshire" off-course in the South China Sea, where Carver's stealth ship and its crew plan to steal some of its missiles. Carver's henchman, Stamper, sinks the frigate with a sea drill and shoots down a Chinese fighter jet sent to investigate the British presence, and then the men aboard the boat kill the survivors with Chinese airplane guns. Thinking they have been attacked by the Chinese, Admiral Roebuck reluctantly gives M forty-eight hours to investigate before the Royal Navy retaliates and attacks.
M sends Bond to investigate Carver after Carver Media releases news with critical details hours before these have become known, and MI6 noticed a spurious signal from one of his CMGN
communications satellites when the frigate was sunk. Bond travels to , a Chinese spy on the same case, are captured by Stamper and taken to the CMGN Vietnam bureau; they escape and begin collaborating.
They inform the Royal Navy and the Chinese air force to explain what is happening, then find and board Carver's
stealth shipin Ha Long Bayto prevent him firing the stolen British cruise missile at Beijing. During the battle aboard the stealth ship, Bond sets off an explosive, damaging part of the ship and exposing it on radar, enabling the Royal Navy to attack it, but Wai Lin is captured. Bond captures Gupta to use as his own hostage, but Carver kills Gupta, claiming he has outlived his contract. Bond leads a large battle against the crew and Stamper, and Carver is killed by his own sea drill after trying to kill Bond on his own. As Bond begins to start the process of destroying the warhead, Stamper shows that he has held Wai Lin hostage. A fight ensues when he tries to drown her. Bond traps him in the missile firing mechanism and leaves him to die, while saving Wai Lin as the stealth ship is destroyed by the missile. Bond and Wai Lin survive amidst the wreckage as HMS "Bedford" searches for them.Carver's Stealth Ship bears remarkable resemblances to the Zumwalt DDG 1000manufactured by General Dynamics Bath Iron Worksand the Sea Shadowmanufactured by Lockheed Martinfor the United States Navy.
Pierce Brosnanas James Bond (007): British Secret Agent and protagonist
Jonathan Pryceas Elliot Carver: A media mogul modelled on Robert Maxwell, but analyzed as a satire on Rupert Murdoch.cite news | author = Bruce Feirstein| title = Bruce Feirstein: The Tao of Bond-Film Naming | publisher = Vanity Fair | date = 2008-01-29| url = http://www.vanityfair.com/ontheweb/blogs/daily/2008/01/bruce-feirste-2.html | accessdate=2008-01-31]
Michelle Yeohas Colonel Wai Lin: A skilled Chinese spy and Bond's ally.
Teri Hatcheras Paris Carver: A former girlfriend of Bond who is now Carver's trophy wife.
Ricky Jayas Henry Gupta: An American "Techno-terrorist" in the employ of Carver. Bruce Feirstein said he named this character after a Gupta Bakery, which he went past on the way to the studios. [cite news |first=Kerry Douglas |last=Dye |title= His Word is Bond: An Interview With 007 Screenwriter Bruce Feirstein |url=http://www.leisuresuit.net/Webzine/articles/bruce_feirstein.shtml | |publisher=LeisureSuit.net |date= 1999-11-15|accessdate=2007-01-05]
Götz Ottoas Mr. Stamper: Carver's henchman, skilled in the art of Chakratorture.
Joe Don Bakeras Jack Wade: Baker reprised his role of CIAliaison Wade from "GoldenEye", helping Bond with the GPS encoder and providing a plane to get to the "Devonshire".
Vincent Schiavellias Dr. Kaufman: Kaufman is a professional assassin used by Elliot Carver to kill Paris Carver and Bond, with the intention of making it look like Bond did it.
Judi Denchas M: Dench reprised her role of M from "GoldenEye". M often acts as Bond's advocate, justifying his actions to the military.
Desmond Llewelynas Q: Llewelyn returned for his penultimateBond film, supplying Bond with gadgets.
Samantha Bondas Miss Moneypenny: M's secretary.
*Geoffrey Palmer as
Admiral Roebuck: M's contentious military contact.
Julian Fellowesas Defence Secretary: The Defence Minister of the British Government that orders the Admiral to send the British fleet to the China sea, previously played by Sir Frederick Gray
John Choas "' Aide #3
After the success of "
GoldenEye" in reviving the Bond series, there was pressure to recreate that success in its follow-up. This pressure came both from MGM, which had recently been sold to billionaire Kirk Kerkorian, who wanted the release to coincide with their public stock offering,cite web |first=Richard |last=Ashton|title= Tomorrow Never Dies|url=http://www.hmss.com/films/mgw/mgw97.html |publisher=hmss.com |date=1997 |accessdate=2007-01-06] and the worldwide audience, with co-producer Michael G. Wilsonsaying "You realize that there's a huge audience and I guess you don't want to come out with a film that's going to somehow disappoint them." This was the first Bond film to be made after the death of Albert R. Broccoli, who had been involved with the production of them since the series began. The rush to complete it meant the budget reached $110 million. [cite web |title= Business Data for Tomorrow Never Dies |url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120347/business |publisher= IMDB|accessdate=2007-01-06]
The producers were unable to get
Martin Campbell, the director of "GoldenEye", to return; his agent saying "Martin just didn't want to do two Bond films in a row". Instead, Roger Spottiswoodewas chosen in September 1996. The story had its roots in a treatment written by Donald E. Westlake, although what influence it eventually had is unknown. Bruce Feirstein, who had worked on "GoldenEye", penned the initial script which was then passed to Spottiswoode who reworked it. He gathered seven Hollywood screenwritersin Londonto brainstorm, eventually choosing Nicholas Meyerto perform rewrites. The script was also worked on by Dan Petrie Jr and David Campbell Wilson before Feirstein, who retained the sole writing credit, was brought in for a final polish.
As had been the case previously, with no
Ian Flemingnovels remaining unadapted, an entirely original story was required. The scriptwriting process was finished very late and after lengthy disputes. Spottiswoode said that MGM had a script in January 1997 revolving round Hong Kongbeing returned to the Chinese, which happened in July; this couldn't be used for a film opening at the end of the year, so they had to start "almost from scratch at T-minus zero!"cite news |first=Kevin |last=Collette |title=Yesterday’s 'Tomorrow': Spottiswoode Interview |url=http://www.ianfleming.org/mt_content/000180.html | publisher=ianfleming.org |date= 2004-04-10|accessdate=2007-01-05] Wilson said ""we didn't have a script that was ready to shoot on the first day of filming", with Pierce Brosnan saying "we had a script that was not functioning in certain areas." The " Daily Mail" reported on arguments between Spottiswoode and the producers with the former favouring the Petrie version, but the latter reinstating Feirstein to rewrite it two weeks before filming was due to begin. They also said that Jonathan Pryceand Teri Hatcherwere unhappy with their new roles, causing further rescripting.cite news |first=Anne|last=Shooter |title=Bond in the Crossfire |url=http://www.klast.net/bond/tndnews1.html#yeoh | publisher= Daily Mail|date= 1997-05-27|accessdate=2007-01-06]
The title was inspired by the
Beatles' song " Tomorrow Never Knows". The eventual title came about by accident: one of the potential titles was "Tomorrow Never Lies" (referring to the "Tomorrow" newspaper in the story) and it was faxed to MGM. However, through an error it became "Tomorrow Never Dies", which MGM liked so much they insisted on using. The title was the first not to have any relation with Fleming.cite news | author = Bruce Feirstein| title = Bruce Feirstein: The Tao of Bond-Film Naming | publisher = Vanity Fair | date = 2008-01-29| url = http://www.vanityfair.com/ontheweb/blogs/daily/2008/01/bruce-feirste-2.html | accessdate=2008-01-31]
Teri Hatcher was three months pregnant at the shooting start, by her then-husband,
Jon Tenney; her publicist stated the pregnancy did not affect the production schedule. [cite news |first=Elizabeth |last=Johns |title=Teri Hatcher Pregnant |url=http://www.eonline.com/news/article/index.jsp?uuid=1d3ea90a-591b-4ae0-8578-2479539b09fd | |publisher= E!|date= 1997-05-02|accessdate=2007-01-05] Hatcher later regretted playing Paris Carver, saying "It's such an artificial kind of character to be playing that you don't get any special satisfaction from it." [cite news |title=Hatcher regrets Bond movie |url=http://uk.news.yahoo.com/27112006/364/hatcher-regrets-bond-movie.html | |publisher= Yahoo! News|date= 2006-11-27|accessdate=2007-01-05] According to Brosnan, Monica Bellucciscreentested for the role but "the fools said no."cite news |title=Brosnan Bares All For Playboy |url=http://commanderbond.net/article/2994 | |publisher= Playboy|date= 2005-11-05|accessdate=2007-01-07]
The role of Elliot Carver was initially offered to
Anthony Hopkins(who also had been offered a role in " GoldenEye"), but he turned it down.cite news |coauthors=Rex Weiner and Adam Dawtrey |title=Latest Bond Production Shaken, Stirred|url=http://www.klast.net/bond/tndnews1.html#variety | |publisher=Variety |date= 1996-12-08|accessdate=2007-01-05] cite web |title=Production Notes - Tomorrow Never Dies|url=http://www.mi6.co.uk/sections/movies/tnd_production.php3?t=tnd&s=tnd | |publisher=mi6.co.uk |accessdate=2007-01-05] Natasha Henstridgewas rumoured as cast in the lead Bond Girl role, [cite news |first=Amy |last=Ferguson |title=Back In Action |url=http://www.tribute.ca/tribute/0901/cover_story.htm | |publisher=Tribute |date= |accessdate=2007-01-05] but eventually, Yeoh was confirmed in that role. Brosnan was impressed, describing her as a "wonderful actress" who was "serious and committed about her work". [cite news |first=David |last=Cohen|title=Bond girl Yeoh gets licence to thrill 007 |url=http://www.klast.net/bond/tndnews1.html#yeoh | |publisher= South China Morning Post|date= 1997-02-11|accessdate=2007-01-06] She reputedly wanted to perform her own stunts, but was prevented because director Spottiswoode ruled it too dangerous and uninsured. [cite news |title=Bond Leading Lady Won't Do Stunts |url=http://www.klast.net/bond/tndnews1.html#yeoh | |publisher= Associated Press|date= 1997-05-21|accessdate=2007-01-06] [cite news |title=Much More Than Just A Bond Girl |url=http://www.klast.net/bond/tndnews2.html#starburst| |publisher= South China Morning Post|date= 1997-05-30|accessdate=2007-01-07]
When Götz Otto was called in for casting, he was given twenty seconds to introduce himself. Saying, "I am big, I am bad, and I am German", he did it in five. [cite news |title=Promi-Porträt: Götz Otto |url=http://www.kwick.de/magazin/promi_portraet_goetz_otto_.9014.html | |publisher=
Second unitfilming began on 18 January 1997 with Vic Armstrongdirecting; they filmed the pre-credits sequence in the French Alpsand moved on to Portsmouthto film the scenes where the Royal Navyprepares to engage the Chinese. The main unit began filming on 1 April. They were unable to use the Leavesden Film Studios, which they had constructed from an abandoned Rolls-Royce factory for "GoldenEye", as George Lucaswas using it for "", so instead they constructed sound stages in another derelict industrial site nearby. They also used the 007 Stageat Pinewood Studios.
They planned to film some of the scenes on location in
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and had been granted a visa. This was later rescinded, two months after planning had begun, forcing filming to move to Bangkok, Thailand. Some claim the Chinese government put pressure on Vietnam to do this, because they were unhappy with the story involving corrupt Chinese generals doing the bidding of a media tycoon. However, Bond spokesman Gordon Arnell claimed the Vietnamese were merely unhappy with crew and equipment needed for pyrotechnics, with a Vietnamese official saying it was due to "many complicated reasons". [cite news |coauthors="Rush and Molloy" |title=China Resists Western Efforts to Bond |url=http://www.klast.net/bond/tndnews1.html#yeoh | publisher= New York Daily News|date= 1997-03-10|accessdate=2007-01-06]
car chasesequence took three weeks to film, with Brent Crosscar park being used to simulate Hamburg(although the final leap was filmed on locationcite web |title=Tomorrow Never Dies filming locations |url=http://www.movie-locations.com/movies/t/tomorrownever.html | publisher=movielocations.com |accessdate=2007-01-07] ). A stunt involving setting fire to three vehicles produced more smoke than anticipated, causing a member of public to call the fire brigade. [cite news |first=Judith |last=Keeling |title=Bond Goes Down A Bomb In Brent Cross |url=http://www.klast.net/bond/tndnews1.html#yeoh | publisher= Evening Standard|date= 1997-06-17|accessdate=2007-01-07] Two locations from previous Bond films were used: Brosnan and Hatcher's love scene was filmed at Stoke Pogesgolf club, which had been featured in "Goldfinger", and the bay where they search for Carver's stealth boat is Khow-Ping-Khan island near Phuket, Thailand, previously used for "The Man with the Golden Gun".
During filming, there were reports of disputes on set. The "
Daily Mail" reported that Spottiswoode and Feirstein were no longer on speaking terms and that crew members had threatened to resign, with one saying "All the happiness and teamwork which is the hallmark of Bond has disappeared completely." This was denied by Brosnan who claimed "It was nothing more than good old creative argy-bargy", with Spottiswoode saying "It has all been made up...Nothing important really went wrong." Spottiswoode did not return to direct the next film; he said the producers asked him, but he was too tired. Apparently, Brosnan and Hatcher feuded briefly during filming due to her arriving late onto the set one day. The matter was quickly resolved though and Brosnan apologized to Hatcher after realizing she was pregnant and was late for that reason.
Barbara Broccoli chose
David Arnoldto score "Tomorrow Never Dies" on a recommendation from prolific James Bond films composer John Barry. [cite video | people =Macnee, Patrick (Narrator) | year = | title =The Bond Sound: The Music of 007 | url = | medium = DVD (Documentary) | location = | publisher =] Arnold had come to Barry's attention through his successful cover interpretations in "", which featured major artists performing the former James Bond title songs in new arrangements. The film's score combined techno musicwith a recognisably Barry-inspired 'classic Bond' sound – notably Arnold borrowed from Barry's score for "From Russia with Love". For the music for the indoor car chase sequence, Arnold enlisted the help of the band Propellerheads, who had worked with him before on "Shaken and Stirred". The soundtrack's reception was good, with Filmtracks describing it as "an excellent tribute to the entire series of Bond score",cite web | title= Review of Original Album | work=filmtracks.com | url=http://www.filmtracks.com/titles/tomorrow_never.html | accessdate=2007-01-16] and Arnold was brought back to score all the subsequent films, three more to date. The theme was chosen through a competitive process. There were around twelve submissions, including songs from Swan Lee, Pulp, Saint Etienne, Marc Almond, Sheryl Crow, and David Arnold.cite video | people = | year =2006 | title =James Bond's Greatest Hits | url = | medium =Television | location =UK | publisher =North One Television] Crow's song was chosen for the main titles while David Arnold's song "Surrender", performed by k.d. lang, was used for the end titles, its melody cropping up throughout the film. Both songs include the title as a lyric – "tomorrow never dies" – a first for the series; and this was the fourth Bond film to have different opening and closing songs. Two different versions of the soundtrack album were released, the first lacking music from the second half of the film, and the second lacking the songs. Pulp's effort was retitled as "Tomorrow Never Lies" and appeared as a b-side on their single "Help The Aged". Mobycreated a remix of the original James Bond theme to be used for the movie.
Release and reception
The film had a World Charity Premiere at The Odeon
Leicester Square, on 9 December 1997; this was followed by an after premiere party at Bedford Square, home of original Ian Flemingpublisher, Jonathan Cape. [cite web| title=Tomorrow Never Dies - The Premiere & Press | publisher=mi6.co.uk |url=http://www.mi6.co.uk/sections/articles/tnd_premiere.php3?t=tnd&s=tnd |date= 2003-12-12| accessdate=2007-01-14] The film went on general release in the UK and Icelandon 12 December, and in most other countries during the following week. [cite web| title=Release dates for Tomorrow Never Dies | publisher= IMDB|url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120347/releaseinfo | accessdate=2006-01-14] It opened at #2 in the US, with a weekend gross of $25,143,007 from 2,807 theaters, for an average of $8,957 per theater. It ended up achieving a worldwide gross of over $333 million, [cite web | url = http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tomorrow_Never_Dies&action=submit | title = Tomorrow Never Dies | accessdate = 2007-01-14 | publisher = Box Office Mojo] the fourth highest of 1997; [cite web | url = http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tomorrow_Never_Dies&action=submit | title = 1997 Worldwide Grosses | accessdate = 2007-01-14 | publisher = Box Office Mojo] it did not surpass its predecessor " GoldenEye", which made almost $20 million more. [cite web | url = http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?page=main&id=goldeneye.htm | title = GoldenEye | accessdate = 2007-01-14 | publisher = Box Office Mojo]
The critical reception of the film was mixed, with the film review collection website "
Rotten Tomatoes" giving it a 52% Fresh approval,cite web | work=rottentomatoes.com | title=Tomorrow Never Dies (1997) | url=http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/tomorrow_never_dies/ | accessdate=2007-01-13] and similar site Metacriticrating it at 56%.cite web | work=metacritic.com | title=Tomorrow Never Dies |url=http://www.metacritic.com/video/titles/tomorrowneverdies | accessdate=2007-01-13] In the " Chicago Sun-Times", Roger Ebertgave the film three out of four-stars, saying "Tomorrow Never Dies" gets the job done, sometimes excitingly, often with style" with the villain "slightly more contemporary and plausible than usual", bringing "some subtler-than-usual satire into the film". [cite news | title=Tomorrow Never Dies | url=http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19971219/REVIEWS/712190304/1023 |date= 1997-12-19| last=Ebert | first = Roger|authorlink=Roger Ebert |work= Chicago Sun-Times| accessdate=2007-01-13] James Berardinellidescribed it as "the best Bond film in many years" and said Brosnan "inhabits his character with a suave confidence that is very like Connery's." [cite news| title=Tomorrow Never Dies | work=www.reelviews.net | url=http://www.reelviews.net/movies/t/tomorrow.html |first=James |last=Berardinelli |authorlink=James Berardinelli|date= 1997 | accessdate=2006-01-13] However, in the " Los Angeles Times", Kenneth Turanthought a lot of "Tomorrow Never Dies" had a "stodgy, been-there feeling", with little change from previous films, [cite news |title=Tomorrow Never Dies |url=http://www.calendarlive.com/movies/reviews/cl-movie971230-20,0,306796.story |date= 1997-12-19|last=Turan |first=Kenneth |authorlink=Kenneth Turan |work= Los Angeles Times|accessdate=2007-01-13] and Charles Taylor wrote for Salon.comthat the film was "a flat, impersonal affair". [cite news |title=Stale Bonding |url=http://www.salon.com/ent/movies/1997/12/19tomorrow.html |date= 1997-12-19|last=Taylor |first=Charles |authorlink=Charles Taylor (film critic) |work= Salon.com|accessdate=2007-01-13]
The title song sung by
Sheryl Crowwas nominated for a Golden Globefor "Best Original Song - Motion Picture" and a Grammyfor "Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television". The film received four nominations for Saturn Awards, with Brosnan winning "Best Actor". It also won a MPSE Golden Reel Award for "Best Sound Editing - Foreign Feature" and a BMI Film Music Award. [cite web| title=Awards for Tomorrow Never Dies | publisher= IMDB|url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120347/awards | accessdate=2007-01-14]
Appearances in other media
"Tomorrow Never Dies" was the first of three Bond films to be adapted into books by then-current Bond novelist,
Raymond Benson. Benson's version is expanded from the screenplay including additional scenes with Wai Lin and other supporting characters not in the film. The novel traces Carver's background as that of media mogul Lord Roverman's son. Carver blackmails him into suicide and takes over his business. [cite interview| url=http://commanderbond.net/article/2339| title=The Raymond Benson CBn Interview (Part IV)| work=CommanderBond.net| accessdate=2008-02-24] The novel also attempts to merge Benson's series with the films, particularly continuing a middle of the road approach to John Gardner's continuity. Notably it includes a reference to the film version of "You Only Live Twice" where he states that Bond was lying to Miss Moneypenny when he said he had taken a course in Orientallanguages. This was done to counter the scene in "Tomorrow Never Dies" where Bond is unable to read a Chinese keyboard. [This scene from the film does not appear in the novelisation.] But this contradicts Benson's previous book " Zero Minus Ten" in which Bond is able to speak fluent Cantonese. "Tomorrow Never Dies" also mentions Felix Leiter, although it states that Felix had worked for Pinkertons Detective Agency which is thus exclusive to the literary series. Subsequent Bond novels by Benson were affected by "Tomorrow Never Dies", specifically Bond's weapon of choice being changed from the Walther PPK to the Walther P99.
The film was adapted into a
third-person shooter Sony PlayStationvideo game, "Tomorrow Never Dies". It was developed by Black Ops and published by Electronic Artson 16 November 1999. Game Revolutiondescribed it as "really just an empty and shallow game", [cite news | title=Tomorrow Never Dies |url=http://www.gamerevolution.com/oldsite/games/sony/action/tomorrow_never_dies.htm |date=December 1999 | last=Liu| first = Johnny |work= Game Revolution| accessdate=2007-01-16] and IGNsaid it was "mediocre". [cite news | title=Tomorrow Never Dies |url=http://uk.psx.ign.com/articles/152/152310p1.html |date= 1999-11-19| last=Perry| first = Doug|work= IGN| accessdate=2007-01-16]
* [http://www.mgm.com/title_title.do?title_star=TOMNEVER MGM's official "Tomorrow Never Dies" website]
*imdb title|id=0120347|title=Tomorrow Never Dies
*amg movie|id=1:158896|title=Tomorrow Never Dies
*rotten-tomatoes|id=tomorrow_never_dies|title=Tomorrow Never Dies
*mojo title|id=tomorrowneverdies|title=Tomorrow Never Dies
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