Bryophytes are all
embryophytes ('land plants') that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissuethat circulates liquids. They neither have flowersnor produce seeds, reproducing via spores. The term "bryophyte" comes from Greek "βρύον" - "bruon", "tree-moss, oyster-green" < "βρύω" - "bruo", "to be full to bursting, to abound" + "φυτόν" - "fyton" "plant".
The bryophytes do not form a
monophyletic groupbut consist of three groups, the Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Anthocerotophyta ( hornworts), and Bryophyta ( mosses).
Modern studies of the land plants generally show one of two patterns. In one of these patterns, the liverworts were the first to diverge, followed by the hornworts, while the mosses are the closest living relatives of the polysporangiates (which include the
vascular plants). In the other pattern, the hornworts were the first to diverge, followed by the vascular plants, while the mosses are the closest living relatives of the liverworts. Originally the three groups were brought together as the three classes of division Bryophyta. However, since the three groups of bryophytes form a paraphyleticgroup, they now are placed in three separate divisions.
These plants are generally
gametophyte-oriented; that is, the normal plant is the haploidgametophyte, with the only diploidstructure being the sporangiumin season. As a result, bryophyte sexuality is very different from that of other plants. There are two basic categories of sexuality in bryophytes:
Some bryophyte species may be either monoicous or dioicous depending on environmental conditions. Other species grow exclusively with one type of sexuality.
Notice that these terms are "not" the same as monoecious and dioecious, which refer to whether or not a
sporophyteplant bears one or both kinds of gametophyte. Those terms apply only to seed plants.
* Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)
* Bryophyta (mosses)
* Chopra, R. N. & Kumra, P. K. (1988). "Biology of Bryophytes". New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-470-21359-0.
* Crum, Howard (2001). "Structural Diversity of Bryophytes". Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Herbarium. ISBN 0-9620733-4-2.
* Goffinet, Bernard. (2000). Origin and phylogenetic relationships of bryophytes. In A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet (Eds.), "Bryophyte Biology", pp. 124-149. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66097-1.
* Oostendorp, Cora (1987). "The Bryophytes of the Palaeozoic and the Mesozoic". Bryophytorum Bibliotheca, Band 34. Berlin & Stuttgart: J. Cramer. ISBN 3-443-62006-X.
* Prihar, N. S. (1961). "An Introduction to Embryophyta: Volume I, Bryophyta" (4th ed.). Allahabad: Central Book Depot.
* Raven, Peter H., Evert, Ray F., & Eichhorn, Susan E. (2005). "Biology of Plants" (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.
* Schofield, W. B. (1985). "Introduction to Bryology". New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-949660-8.
* Watson, E. V. (1971). "The Structure and Life of Bryophytes" (3rd ed.). London: Hutchinson University Library. ISBN 0-09-109301-5.
* Glime, Janice M., 2007. " [http://www.bryoecol.mtu.edu/ Bryophyte Ecology] ", Volume 1. "Physiological Ecology". Ebook sponsored by Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists.
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