- ETA Systems
ETA Systems was a
supercomputercompany spun-off from Control Data Corporation(CDC) in the early 1980s in order to regain a footing in the supercomputer business. They successfully delivered an excellent machine, the ETA-10, but lost money continually while doing so. CDC management eventually gave up and folded the company.
Seymour Crayleft CDC in the early 1970s when they refused to continue funding of his CDC 8600project. Instead they continued with the CDC STAR-100while Cray went off to build the Cray-1. Cray's machine was much faster than the STAR, and soon CDC found itself pushed out of the supercomputing market. William Norriswas convinced the only way to regain a foothold would be to spin off a division that would be free from management prodding. In order to regain some of the small-team flexibility that seemed essential to progress in the field, ETA was created in 1983 with the mandate to build a 10G FLOPSmachine by 1986.
ETA had only one product, the ETA-10. It was essentially a modernized version of the
CDC Cyber-205 computer, and deliberately kept compatiblility with it. Like the Cyber series, the ETA-10 did not use vector registers as in the Cray machines, but instead used pipelined memory operations to a high-bandwidth main memory. The basic layout was a shared-memory multiprocessor with up to 8 CPUs (and up to 16 I/O processors), each capable of 4 double-precision or 8 single-precision operations per clock cycle.
The main reason for the ETA-10's speed was the use of a
liquid nitrogencooling in some models to cool the logic components. Even though it was based on then-current CMOStechnologies, the cooling allowed the CPUs to operate on a ~7ns cycle, so a fully-loaded ETA-10 was capable of about 4.5 GFLOPS. The design goal had been 10 GFLOPS, so the design was technically a failure. Two LN2-cooled models were designated ETA-10F and ETA-10G. Two slower, lower-cost air-cooled versions, the ETA-10Q and ETA-10P (code named "Piper") were also marketed.
The planned follow-on was supposed to be designated ETA-30, as in 30 GFLOPS.
Software for the ETA-10 line is largely regarded as a disaster. When CDC and ETA first designed the ETA architecture, they made the conscious decision not to port the CDC VSOS operating system from the earlier CDC 205. It was felt by both the vendor, and the existing customer base (who wrongly believed that their vendor knew best), that a new OS needed to be written to extract the best performance from the hardware. It was all "down hill" from here. They didn't realize the fact that typical new operating systems take 10 years for major debugging.
When ETA-10s initially shipped in 1986 there was no
operating systemfor the machines. Programs had to be loaded one at a time from an attached Apollo Computer workstation, run, and then the supercomputer rebooted to run the next program.
At the time
Unixwas making major inroads into the supercomputing fields, but ETA decided to write their own EOSoperating system, which wasn't ready when the first machines were delivered. An operating system based on UNIX System Vbecame available in 1988, at which point it looked like the machine might finally succeed. Many sites that had refused to pay for their machines due to the low quality of EOS found ETA's UNIX completely usable and were willing to accept delivery.
It is a mistake to believe that ETA's demise was based solely on operating system choice or existence. The
Fortrancompiler (ftn200) had not changed from the CDC205. This compiler retained vendor-specific programming performance features (known as the Q8* subroutine calls) in an era when supercomputer users were realizing the necessity of source code portability between architectures. Additionally, the compiler optimizations were not keeping up with existing technology as shown by the Japanese supercomputer vendors as well as the newer minisupercomputer makers and competition at Cray Research.
In general, computer hardware manufacturers prior and up to that period tended to be weak on software. Libraries and available commercial and non-commercial (soon to be called
open-source) applications help an installed base of machine. CDC was relatively weak in this area.
In April 1989 CDC decided to fold ETA back into CDC, by which point 7 liquid-cooled and 27 air-cooled machines had been sold. At this point ETA had the best
price/performance ratioof any supercomputer on the market, and its initial software problems appeared to be finally sorted out. Nevertheless, shortly thereafter CDC exited the supercomputer market entirely, giving away remaining ETA machines free to high schools through the SuperQuest computer sciencecompetition.
Naming the Firm
Neil Lincoln, chief architect, asserts that ETA is not an acronym, and otherwise means nothing, not even the well known acronym of "estimated time of arrival." In point of fact, he says that he would not have named the firm that so as to dissociate it from,
ETA, the Basque separatist group, or the "Eta", the Japanese social minority (especially as Japan was considered a market), see ETA (disambiguation). According to one of the CPU designers at ETA, Neil told a story that his son actually came up with the name - apparently a linotype machinehas characters arranged in the order of frequency used in the English language (etaoin / shrdlu / cmfwyp / vbgkqj / xz) - and the first 3 letters were used.
Another theory asserts the name was chosen based on the frequency of English alphabet letters due in part to the then current popularity of
Douglas Hofstadter's 1980 book Gödel, Escher, Bachwhich used ETAODIN, etc., to capitalize on popularity and current hip-ness.
A third, completely plausible theory, is that ETA was a successor name to the much earlier
Engineering Research AssociatesERA: Engineering Technology Associates. Norris and others have denied this.
Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technologywon one of the donated ETA-10 supercomputers
*EOS was the initial
operating systemdeveloped by ETA Systems
Unixwas the later, more popular operating system
* [http://www.museumwaalsdorp.nl/computer/en/eta10p.html Computer history TNO location The Hague/Waalsdorp: the ETA10-P]
* [http://yarchive.net/comp/eta_peglar.html The ETA Saga]
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