flag_img_path=Flag of Canton of Vaud.svg
coa_img_path=Vaud-coat of arms.svg
cantonalmap_img_path=Karte Kanton Waadt.png
municipalities_number=376 (as of 2008-01-01)
The canton stretches from
Lake Neuchâtelin the north, where it borders the canton of Neuchâtelto Lake Genevain the south, bordering the canton of Geneva, Haute-Savoie(lake border with France) and canton of Valais. On the Jura ranges in the west, the canton borders the French départementsof Ain, Jura, and Doubs. In the east, it borders canton of Fribourgand canton of Bern. The total area is convert|3212|km2|sqmi|1|lk=on|sp=us.
In the north, there is an
exclavecontaining Avenchessurrounded by canton of Fribourg and Lake Neuchâtel. On the other hand, there are two enclaves of the canton of Fribourg, as well as two enclaves of the canton of Geneva, that are surrounded by the canton of Vaud.
The areas in the southeast are mountainous, situated in the Alps (
Bernese Alps). The Diableretsmassif, peaking at convert|3210|m|ft|0|lk=on|sp=us, is the highest mountain of the canton, which also host several popular skiing destinations such as Villars, Les Diableretsand Leysin. The central area of the canton, in contrast, consists of moraines and is thus hilly. There are plains along the lakes.
Along the lakes, Vaud was inhabited in prehistoric times. Later on, the Celtic tribe of the
Helvetiiinhabited the area. The tribe was defeated by Caesar's troops in 58 BCand as a consequence the Romans settled the area. The towns of Vevey( _la. Viviscus) and Lausanne("Lausonium" or "Lausonna") are two of the many towns established by the Romans.
27 BCthe state of "Civitas Helvetiorum" was established around the capital of Avenches("Aventicum"). There are still many Roman remains around the town today. Between the 2nd and the 4th centurythe area was repeatedly invaded by Alemannic tribes, and in the 5th centurythe Burgundiansoccupied the area. The MerovingianFranks later replaced the Burgundians. Their occupancy did not last long either, and in 888the area of the canton of Vaud was made part of the Carolingian Empire. In 1032the Zähringens of Germany defeated the Burgundians. The Zähringens themselves were succeeded in 1218by the counts of Savoy. It was only under the counts of Savoy that the area was given political unity, establishing what is today in greater part known as the canton of Vaud. A part stretching from Attalens to the River Sarine, in the north, was absorbed by the canton of Fribourg.
As the power of the
Savoys declined at the beginning of the 15th centurythe land was occupied by troops from Bern. By 1536the area was completely annexed. Reformation was started by co-workers of John Calvinlike Pierre Viret, including a famous debate at the cathedral of Lausanne; but it was only decisively implemented when Bern put its full force behind it. The Bernese occupants were not popular amongst the population and the French Revolutionary troops were received with enthusiasm in 1798. The French troops were victorious and a " Lemanic Republic" was declared. This was soon turned into the canton of Léman, which in 1803joined the Swiss confederation.
The current constitution dates from
April 14 2003, replacing the one from 1885. In the 19th centurythe canton of Vaud was an outspoken opponent of the Catholic separatist movement ("Sonderbund"). Ian Fleming, when writing the fictional biography of James Bond (character), mentioned that Bond's mother was "Monique Delacroix, a Swiss woman from the Canton de Vaud".
Vaud shares a lot with its fellow French-speaking
Protestantcantons of Geneva and Neuchâtel. It has still a strong rural component, protected by high subsidies, even if most of the economy and population are now urbanised, around services (finance, telecommunications, tourism) and industry (packaging, tobacco, food-processing, watchmaking, pharmaceuticals &c). There are survivals of its own Franco-Provençal patois, around which an association was formed.
Quality of life is very high, but natality is very low. Life expectancy is high. Education shares the generally high Swiss standards.
capital Lausanneis the major city in the canton. There are light industries concentrated around it. In 1998, 71.7% of the workers worked in the tertiary sector and 20.8% in the secondary.
The canton is the second largest producer of
winein Switzerland. Most of the wine produced in the canton is white wine, and most vineyards are located on the steep shores of Lake Geneva. There is agriculture in the areas away from Lake Geneva. Sugar beet is important around Orbe, tobacco in La Broye Valleyand fruit is grown on the foot of the Jura mountains. Cattle breeding and pasture are common in the Alpsand the Jura mountains. There is a salt mineat Bex. Tourism is important in many towns along the Lake Geneva. Major lakeside resorts include Lausanne, Montreuxand Vevey.
The Canton is home to several renowned universities and schools:
*Swiss Federal institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL)
University of Lausanne(UNIL)
International Institute for Management Development(IMD)
École Cantonale d'Art de Lausanne, Lausanne Art School (ECAL)
Institut Le Rosey
Glion Institute of Higher Education, Glion Institute of higher Education
The American Graduate School of Business
*Business School Lausanne (BSL)
*Château de Bossey
The population is French-speaking and has been overwhelmingly
Protestant(Calvinist) since the early years of the Reformation.
The major population centers of the canton are:
Lausanne(approx. 275,000 inhabitants in 2000), Montreux- Vevey(70,000 inhabitants) and Yverdon-les-Bains. The region around Nyonis often considered part of the agglomeration of Geneva. All of these are on Lake Geneva, except for Yverdon, which is on Lake Neuchâtel.
Other cities and towns include:
Morges, Renens, Rolle.
Municipalities of the canton of Vaud
Lausanne- Capital of the canton.
* [http://www.vd.ch Cantonal government] fr icon
* [http://www.lake-geneva-region.ch/ Vaud Tourist Office]
* [http://www.statistik.admin.ch/stat_ch/ber00/ekan_vd.htm Official Statistics]
* [http://www.vd.ch/observatoire-territoire Maps and Charts of Canton of Vaud]
* [http://www.communal.ch/communal/default.asp?lng=E List of Swiss municipalities]
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