Panosteitis is a common bone disease in
dogs. It manifests with sudden, otherwise unexplained pain and lameness sometimes shifting from leg to leg, usually between 5 and 14 months of age. [cite book|author=Ettinger, Stephen J.;Feldman, Edward C.|title=Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine|edition=4th ed.|publisher=W.B. Saunders Company|year=1995|id=ISBN 0-7216-6795-3] Signs such as feverand weight loss, and symptoms such as anorexia, and lethargy can also be seen. The cause is unknown, but genetics, stress, infection, metabolism, or an autoimmune component may be factors.cite web | title = Panosteitis | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | date = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/91506.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-01 ] It has also been suggested that rapid growth and high-protein food are involved in the pathogenesis [cite journal |author=Schawalder P, Andres HU, Jutzi K, Stoupis C, Bösch C. |title=Canine panosteitis: an idiopathic bone disease investigated in the light of a new hypothesis concerning pathogenesis. Part 1: Clinical and diagnostic aspects|journal=Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd|volume=144 |issue=3 |pages=115–30|year=2002|pmid=11980379] .
Panosteitis is characterized histologically by an increase in activity of
osteoblasts and fibroblasts in the periosteum, endosteumand bone marrow, resulting in fibrosisand the formation of connective tissuein the medullary cavityof the affected bone. Pain may be caused by increased pressure in the medullary cavity and the stimulation of pain receptors in the periosteum. [cite journal |author=Demko J, McLaughlin R |title=Developmental orthopedic disease |journal=Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract |volume=35 |issue=5 |pages=1111–35, v |year=2005 |pmid=16129135 |doi=10.1016/j.cvsm.2005.05.002]
humerusis most commonly affected.cite journal |author=Baird H, Kerwin S, Henry G, Porterpan B, Johnson M |title=What is your diagnosis? Panosteitis |journal=J Am Vet Med Assoc |volume=226 |issue=6 |pages=871–2 |year=2005 |pmid=15786986] Males are more commonly affected than females.cite web|author=Biery, D.N.; Lenehan, T.M.; Van Sickle, D.C.|year=1985|title=Canine Panosteitis|work=Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics| url=http://www.ivis.org/special_books/ortho/chapter_49/49mast.asp|accessdate=2006-08-19] Diagnosis is made by pain on palpation of the long bones of the limbs. X-rays may show an increased density in the medullary cavity of the affected bones, often near the nutrient foramen(where the blood vessels enter the bone). This evidence may not be present for up to ten days after lameness begins.cite journal | last = Wehrenberg | first = Aaron | coauthors = Elkins, A.D. | title = Juvenile Orthopedics | journal = Veterinary Forum | volume = 23 | issue = 9 | pages = 22–28 | publisher = Veterinary Learning Systems | date = Sept. 2006 ] Pain medication and exercise restriction can help to relieve the symptoms, and the lameness usually goes away after days to weeks without additional treatment. Recurrences up to the age of two years may occur. Larger breeds, such as German Shepherd Dogs, Golden Retrievers, Basset Hounds, Dobermanns, Labrador Retrievers, and Rottweilers, are more prone to this problem.cite web | title = Panosteitis | work = Canine Inherited Disorders Database | publisher = University of Prince Edward Island | date = 1998 | url = http://www.upei.ca/cidd/Diseases/musculoskeletal/panosteitis.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-01 ] There has been one suspected case of panosteitis in a fast-growing six month old camelwith a shifting leg lameness. [cite journal |author=Levine DG, Smith JJ, Richardson DW, "et al" |title=Suspected panosteitis in a camel |journal=J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. |volume=231 |issue=3 |pages=437–41 |year=2007 |pmid=17669048 |doi=10.2460/javma.231.3.437]
Panosteitis is also referred to as eosinophilic panosteitis, enostosis, endosteal proliferation of new bone, and eopan.
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