- Ranikot Fort
Ranikot is a large
fortin the region of the Kirthar Range, about 30 km southwest of Sann, was in the Dadudistrict of Sindhnow in district Jamshoro, approximately 90 km north of Hyderabad in Pakistan. It is one of the largest forts in the world. It has an approximate diameter of 6 km. Its walls are on the average 6 meters high and are made of gypsumand lime cut sandstoneand total circumference is about 20 km. While originally constructed for bow and arrow warfare it was later expanded to withstand firearms.
It is reputed to be the largest unexplored fort in the world. The purpose of its construction and the reason for the choice of its location are still unknown.
Ranikot is the most talismanic wonder of
Sindh. Visible from five kilometers away its massive undulating walls twist and dip over the hills. With the circumference of about twenty kilometers, its walls, built with dressed sandstone and reinforced with 45 bastions along the outer wall, of which 7 are rectangular and the remaining are round. All modified through the ages to accommodate the use of gunpowder, this perhaps makes it the largest fort in the world.
Who constructed it first and why? Is an enigma yet to be resolved by researchers. Some archaeologists attribute it to
Arabs,possibly built by a Persian noble under the Abbasidsby Imran Bin Musa Barmakiwho was the Governorof Sindhin 836CE. Others have suggested a much earlier period of construction attributing to at times the Sassanians Persiansand at times to the Greeks. Despite the fact that a prehistoric site of Amri is nearby, there is no trace of any old city inside the fort and the present structure has little evidence of prehistoric origins.
Archaeologists point to
17th centuryCE as its time of first construction but now Sindh archaeologistsagree that some of the present structure was reconstructed by Mir Karam Ali Khan Talpurand his brother Mir Murad Aliin 1812CE at a cost of 1.2 million rupees ( SindGazetteer, 677).
Fort Ranikot is located in
Lakki Mountainsof the Kirtharrange on the right side of the mighty River Indusat a distance of about 30 kilometers from the present day town of Sann. A mountainous ridge, Karo Takkar(Black Hill), running north to south, forms its western boundary and the 'Lundi Hills' forms its eastern boundary. Mohan Nai, a rain-stream enters the fort from its rarely used western 'Mohan Gate', where it is guarded by a small fortification, changes its name to 'Reni' or 'Rani Nai' or rain-stream and gives the fort its name. Ranikot is thus the 'fort of a rain stream' - Rani. It runs through it, tumbles in a series of turquoise pools to irrigate fields and leaves the fort from its most used 'Sann Gate' on the eastern side. It then travels about 33 kilometers more to enter the Lion River - Indus.
Most of the twenty kilometers long wall is made of natural cliffs and barricades of mountainous rocks which at places rise as high as two thousand feet above sea level! Only about 8.25 km portions of its wall are man-made, built with yellow sandstone. This was first measured on foot by Badar Jamal Abro along with local guide "Sadiq Gabol" and later by Mazher Ali Ansari. As one enters the fort, one can find hills, valleys, streams, ditches, ponds, pools, fossils, building structure, bastions, watchtowers, ammunition depots, fortresses - all inside Ranikot, adding more to its beauty and mystery. A spring emerging from an underground water source near the Mohan Gate is named as 'Parryen jo Tarr' (the spring of fairies). According to a tale told by the local inhabitants, fairies come from far and wide on the Ponam Nights (full moon) to take bath at this spring near 'Karo Jabal'! Splashing sounds of water falling on the rocks can be heard at another spring, "Waggun jo Tarr" or "the
Crocodile Spring", named so as crocodiles once lived there.
Within Ranikot, there are two more fortresses - Meeri and Shergarh, both have 5 bastions each. Meerikot takes its name from the word 'Mir' meaning top (for instance the top of a hill, chief of any baloch tribe, etc.). Both the main Ranikot and the inner Meerikot have similar entrances - curved, angulated with a safe tortuous path. "The bridge in front of Ranikot resembles to a smaller bridge in front of a fortress in Verona, Italy" writes Ishtiaq Ansari, the writer of 'Sindh ja koat aaein qillaa' (Forts and Fortresses of Sindh) and a member of Sindh Exploration and Adventure Society. From the military point of view, Meerikot is located at a very safe and central place in the very heart of the Ranikot with residential arrangements including a water-well. Talpur Mirs used Meerikot as their fortified residence. One can explore ruins of the court, harem, guest rooms, and soldiers quarters inside it. Its 1435 feet long wall has five bastions. Every structure in the Ranikot has its own uniqueness and beauty. Looking up from Meerikot one can find another fortified citadel - Shergarh (Abode of Lions) built with whitish stone, it too has five bastions. Though its location at 1480 feet above the sea level makes this fortress a unique structure, it also makes it equally difficult for supply of water, which can only be had from the brooks and rain streams, hundreds of feet below.The steep climb up to Shergarh gives a commanding view down over the whole fort and its entrance and exit points. On a clear day one can even see Indus, 37 kilometers away to the east.
Beside the Mohan Gate and the Sann Gate, there are two more gates, rather pseudo gates. One is towards the side of ancient town of Amri. This 'gate' is called the 'Amri Gate'. Certainly it takes its name from the prehistoric ruins of Amri, but it must have taken this name much later than the times of Amri as the fort itself doesn't appears to be as old as the Amri itself. In fact there is a bridge over rain stream 'Toming Dhoro' exiting from the fort called 'Budhi Mori'. The breach in fort wall due to the river stream has been referred as a gate. Similarly, the Shahpir Gate to the south also appears to be a pseudo gate taking its name from a limestone rock with a rough shape of foot imprinted on it. The sacred footprint supposedly belongs to Hazrat Ali or some other religious personality and is venerated by locals. It seems to be a later breach in the fort wall instead of a formal gate because one can't find any bastion or watchtower or their remains at the site, needed to guard any formal entrance or exit points.
A mosque found in the fort appears to be a later modification of a watchtower or a later construction. Scattered animal skeletons and prehistoric fossils can be found on the top of Lundi Hills. One of the three graveyards has about four hundred graves made of Chowkundi like sandstone with engraved motifs of sunflowers and peacocks. Whether we can call them as theriomorphic and phytomorphic motifs is an open question. Another one appears to be a graveyard of Arabs. The third one, about a mile away from the Sann Gate, had sixteen or seventeen graves earlier but now there are only four graves. The local inhabitants call it the Roman's graveyard.
The fort is notoriously deficient of shelters and shady places but the view of the terrain from the top of 'Shimla Hills' is not only attractive but mystifying too! "The size of Ranikot defies all reasons. It stands in the middle of nowhere, defending nothing" writes Isobel Shaw. So why was this fort built here in the desolate terrain of the Kirthar range? Many theories have been developed to answer this question. According to Ishtiaq Ansari, the Talpurs had sent their families to Thar and Kachchh when Afghan's attacked Sindh during the times of
Kalhoras. However, after acquiring the rule of Sindh, they wanted a safe and secure place where they can send their families during the troubled times. This might have prompted them to rebuild this fort to their needs. Rahimdad Khan Molai Sheedai holds view that its location in Kohistan on the western frontiers of Sindh gave it its strategic value. Talpurs (they are Balouchby origin) had good terms with Khan of Kalat(Head of all Balouch Tribes), Talpurs were helped by them when they attacked Kalhoras and in return they gifted Karachito Khan of Kalat and wanted a secure western frontier.
Mazher Ali Ansari is of the view that
Persians( Achaemenid Empire, 559 BC - 338 BC) were the first to construct this fort to secure their eastern frontier from the Indian rulers, as their empire extended from the Caspian Sea in the west to the River Indusin the east which also served as a natural boundary and barrier. They had constructed a similar wall stretching 155 km called the GorganWall near the Caspian Sea.
Besides this, in olden times a trade route from
Mesopotamia, Iran(Kirman Shah, Hamadan, Sulatanabad, Qum, Bimpur), Mekranand Sindh (Amri, Sehwan, Mohenjo-daro) used to pass from this area. Another branch of this route traversed Thano Arab Khan, Karchat, Sann an Amri, to reach Brahmanabad on the left bank of the mighty River Indus. Hence the importance of the location in earlier times, if the fort existed then. The condition of fort is rapidly deteriorating, as is the case with most of archeological heritage of Sindh. One third of the man-made walls have already collapsed and the rest may soon follow suit.
Access to this man-made marvel of ancient times is possible through a mettled road, which goes up to Meeri Kot. A 4x4 is recommended.
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