- Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA)
origin-date =18,500 +/- 3,500 thousand years ago.
Zagros mountains(western Iran), Mesopotamia, the Levant, and AnatoliaC. Cinnioglu "et al." (2004), [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/HG_2004_v114_p127-148.pdf Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia] , Human Genetics 114(2):127-48.] ,O. Semino "et al." (2004), [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2004_v74_p1023-1034.pdf Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area] , American Journal of Human Genetics 74(5):1023-34.] .
Iranians23.3%, North Indians23.5%, Italians23%, Greeks22.8%, Turks27.9% Kurds28.4%, Iraqis25.2%, Ashkenazi Jews23.2%, Sephardic Jews29%, Georgians26.7%, Tajiks18.4%, Pakistanis14.7%In human genetics, Haplogroup J2 (M172) is a Y-chromosome haplogroupwhich is a subdivision of haplogroup J. It is further divided into two complementary clades, J2a-M410 and J2b-M12Sanghamitra Sengupta "et al." (2006), [http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/resolve?AJHG42812ABS Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists] , American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221] .
Haplogroup J2 is widely believed to be associated with the spread of agriculture from
Mesopotamia, the Levant, and AnatoliaC. Cinnioglu "et al." (2004), [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/HG_2004_v114_p127-148.pdf Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia] , Human Genetics 114(2):127-48.] ,O. Semino "et al." (2004), [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2004_v74_p1023-1034.pdf Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area] , American Journal of Human Genetics 74(5):1023-34.] . The age of J2 has been estimated as 18,500 +/- 3,500 thousand years ago. Its distribution, centered in West Asia and Southeastern Europe, its association with the presence of Neolithicarchaeological artifacts, such as figurines and painted pottery R. King and P.A. Underhill (2002), [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/A_2002_v76_p707-714.pdf Congruent distribution of Neolithic painted pottery and ceramic figurines with Y-chromosome lineages] , Antiquity 76:704-714] , and its association with annual precipitationhave been interpreted as evidence that J2, and in particular its J2a-M410 subclade belonged to the agricultural innovators who followed the rainfallJ. Chiaroni "et al." (2008), [http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/ant/082/ant0820281.htm Correlation of annual precipitation with human Y-chromosome diversity and the emergence of Neolithic agricultural and pastoral economies in the Fertile Crescent] , Antiquity Volume: 82 Number: 316 Page: 281–289] .
Haplogroup J2 is found mainly in the northern Fertile Crescent, the Mediterranean (including Southern Europe and North Africa), the
Iranian plateauand Central Asia. More specifically it is found in Greece, Italyand the Iberian PeninsulaF. Di Giacomo "et al." (2003), [http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/italy.pdf Clinal patterns of human Y chromosomal diversity in continental Italy and Greece are dominated by drift and founder effects] , Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28(3):387-95.] , and more frequently in the Province of Kurdistan(28% of the population), Iraq(25% of the population), Saudi Arabia(18.9% of the northern and central-north region)Fact|date=July 2008, in Lebanon(25% of the population)Fact|date=July 2008, in Jordan, in Syria, in Israel, in Turkey, and in the southern Caucasusregion I. Nasidze "et al." (2003), [http://www.eva.mpg.de/genetics/pdf/Y-paper.pdf Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: evidence from the Y-chromosome] , Human Genetics 112(3):255-61.] . According to Semino "et al" and the National Geographic Genographic Project, the frequency of haplogroup J2 generally declines as one moves away from the Northern fertile crescent. Haplogroup J2 is carried by 6% of Europeans and its frequency drops dramatically as one moves northward away from the Mediterranean.
Another important fact about the distribution of Haplogroup J2 is that it appears to have dispersed from a
Middle Eastern homeland to the west through a primarily maritime or littoral route, as it is found in high concentrations among the populations of the coasts of the Mediterranean Seain both Eurasia and Africa, and particularly along the coasts of the eastern Mediterranean in Europe. This distribution may be more consonant with a Neolithic or post-Neolithic maritime dispersal from the Middle East, such as through Greek colonizationF. Di Giacomo "et al." (2004), [http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe] , Human Genetics 115(5):357-71.] or even PhoenicianFact|date=April 2007 commercial and colonial activities.
In Italy, J2 is found in about 23% of southern Italians, and 17% of central-north ItaliansV. Onofri "et al." (2008), Y chromosome J2 subtyping in an Italian sample: Population and forensic implications, Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement] . Turkey is one of the countries with major J2 population. 24% of Turkish men are J2 according to a recent study, with regional frequencies ranging between 10% and 31%. Combined with J1, one third of the total population of Turkish people belongs to Haplogroup J. Haplogroup J2 is also common in neighboring Greece, with regional frequencies ranging between 11% and 46%.
It has been proposed that haplogroup J2a-M410 was linked to populations on by examining the relationship between
Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sitesWikipedia article: Archaeogenetics of the Near East#Crete] . Haplogroup J2b-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece(ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly8.8%, Argolis1.8%) cite journal | last = King | first = R. J. | coauthors = Ozcan, S. S., Carter, T., Kalfoglu, E., Atasoy, S., Triantaphyllidis, C., Kouvatsi, A., Lin, A. A., Chow, C-E. T., Zhivotovsky, L. A., Michalodimitrakis, M., Underhill, P. A., | year = 2008 | url = http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x | title = Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic | journal = Annals of Human Genetics | volume = 72 Issue 2 March 2008 | pages = 205–214 | doi = 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x ] .
Sephardic Jews have about 29% of haplogroup J2 and Ashkenazi Jews have 23%, or 19%D. Behar "et al." (2004), [http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/Behar_contrasting.pdf Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and host non-Jewish European populations] , Hum Genet. 2004 Mar;114(4):354-65] . It has been reported that a sample of Italian
Cohens belong to Network 1.2, a group of Y chromosomes characterized by a value of the DYS413 marker less or equal to 18. This deletion has been placed in the J2a-M410 clade. However, other Jewish Cohens belong to haplogroup J1 (see Cohen modal haplotype).
J2 subclades are also found in the South Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan), Iran, Central Asia, and South Asia.
Typically, modern populations of the southern Middle East (especially Arabic-speaking ones) have a higher frequency of the related haplogroup J1, whereas the great majority of Haplogroup J representatives among the populations of the Northern Middle East, Europe, and India belong to the subclade J2. Haplogroup J2 has been shown to have a more northerly distribution in the Middle East, although it exists in significant amounts in the southern middle-east regions, a lesser amount of it was found when compared to its brother haplogroup, J1, which has a more southerly distribution. This suggests that, if the occurrence of Haplogroup J among modern populations of Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia does reflect Neolithic
demic diffusionfrom the Middle East, the source population is more likely to have originated from Anatolia, the Levantor northern Mesopotamiathan from regions further south.
Haplogroup J2a-M410 in India is largely confined to the upper
casteswith little occurrence in the middle and lower castes and is completely absent from south Indian tribes and middle and lower castes.
Haplogroup J2 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J2a, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J2b, defined by the M12 genetic marker. A subclade of haplogroup J2a, defined by the M92 marker has been implicated in the ancient Greek colonization .
subclades of Haplogroup J2 with their defining mutation, according to [http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_YDNATreeTrunk.html the 2006 ISOGG tree] :
****J2a1a (M47, M322)
****J2a1b (M67 (S51))
*****J2a1b1 (M92, M260)
*****J2a1b2 (M163, M166)
**J2b (M12, M314, M221)
J2 (M-172) is divided into eight sub-Haplogroups defined by mutations M12/M102, M47, M67/M92, M68, M137, M158, M339, and M340 (see Diagram), four of which occur at informative frequencies. The less-heterogeneous J2 (J-M172), which occurs as frequently as J1 (J-M267) in some Middle Eastern populations, is the more prevalent in Europe.
J-M102 illustrates population expansions from the southern Balkans. J-M67 is most frequent in the Caucasus (especially
Armeniaand Georgia), and J-M92, which indicates affinity between Anatolia and southern Italy. Whereas J-M67* and J-M92 show higher frequencies and variances in Europe and in Turkey. Likewise, J-M47 and J-M68 characterize very few Near Eastern and Asian samples.
# Renfrew, A.C. (1987). "Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins", London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6612-5
# A. Nebel "et al." (2001), [http://bioanthropology.huji.ac.il/pdf/Nebel_2001b.pdf The Y chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East] , Americal Journal of Human Genetics 69(5):1095-112.
# P. Malaspina "et al." (2001), [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11592923?dopt=Abstract A multistep process for the dispersal of a Y chromosomal lineage in the Mediterranean area] , Ann Hum Genet. 2001 Jul;65(Pt 4):339-49.
* [http://www.reuters.com/article/scienceNews/idUSL0559096520070910?src=091007_ In Lebanon DNA may yet heal rifts - on the prevalance of J2 marker]
* [http://www.relativegenetics.com/genomics/images/haploMaps/originals/J2_large_RG.jpgMap of J2]
* [https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html?card=my037 Spread of J2 (M172)] from the
* [http://www.j2-ydnaproject.net/ J2 Y-DNA Project] dedicated to haplogroup J2.
* [http://www.m410.net/ M410 Project] dedicated to haplogroup J2a.
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