Trimeresurus gramineus

Trimeresurus gramineus
Trimeresurus gramineus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Subfamily: Crotalinae
Genus: Trimeresurus
Species: T. gramineus
Binomial name
Trimeresurus gramineus
(Shaw, 1802)
Synonyms
  • Coluber Gramineus - Shaw, 1802
  • Coluber viridis - Bechstein, 1802
  • Vipera viridis - Daudin, 1803
  • Trimeresurus viridis - Lacépède, 1804
  • [Cophias] viridis - Merrem, 1820
  • Trigonoceph[alus]. viridis - Schinz, 1822
  • Bothrops viridis - Wagler, 1830
  • Trigonoc[ephalus]. viridis - Schlegel, 1837
  • Trimesurus viridis - Gray, 1842
  • [Bothrophis] viridis - Fitzinger, 1843
  • Trigonocephalus gramineus - Cantor, 1847
  • Trigonocephalus (Cophias) viridis - Jerdon, 1854
  • B[othrops]. viridis var. fario - Jan, 1863
  • B[othrops]. viridis var. Genei - Jan, 1863
  • Trimeresurus gramineus - Günther, 1864
  • Crotalus Trimeresurus gramineus - Higgins, 1873
  • Lachesis gramineus - Boulenger, 1896
  • Trimeresurus gramineus gramineus - Stejneger, 1927
  • Trimeresurus occidentalis - Pope & Pope, 1933
  • Trimeresurus gramineus - Taub, 1964
  • Trimeresurus gramineus - Golay et al., 1993[1]
Common names: bamboo viper,[2][3] Indian tree viper,[4] more.

Trimeresurus gramineus is a venomous pitviper species found only in southern India. No subspecies are currently recognized.[5]

Contents

Description

T. gramineus, Katraj Snake Park, Pune.

Rostral scale as deep as broad or broader than deep; upper head-scales small, smooth, imbricate; supraocular scale narrow, rarely broken up; internasals in contact or separated by one or two scales; 8 to 13 scales on a line between the supraoculars; usually one or two, rarely three, series of scales between the suboculars and the labials ; 9 to 12 upper labials, second usually forming the anterior border of the loreal pit, third largest; temporal scales smooth. Scales more or less distinctly keeled, in 21 (rarely 19 or 23) rows. Ventrals 145-175; anal scale entire; subcaudals 53-76. Upper parts usually bright green, rarely yellowish, greyish, or purplish brown, with or without black, brown, or reddish spots ; usually a light, white, yellow, or red streak along the outer row of scales ; end of tail frequently yellow or red; lower parts green, yellow, or whitish.[6]

Grows to a length of 2.5 feet (0.76 m); tail 6-5 inches.[6]

Common names

Bamboo pit viper,[2][3] Indian tree viper,[4] bamboo snake, Indian green tree viper, green tree viper,[7] bamboo viper,[8] bamboo pitviper.[9]

Geographic range

The range of this species has been restricted to southern India. According to Russell (1796), the type locality is "Vizagapatam, India."[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ a b Khaire, N. 2006. A Guide to the Snakes of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. Indian Herpetological Society, Pune, India. Photographic guide with 61 spp.
  3. ^ a b Smith MA. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma (including the whole of the Indo-Chinese sub-region) Vol III - Serpentes. (1943). Taylor & Francis. London. 166 figures.
  4. ^ a b Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
  5. ^ "Trimeresurus gramineus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=634915. Retrieved 27 September 2006. 
  6. ^ a b Boulenger GA. 1890. Fauna of British India: Reptilia and Batrachia.
  7. ^ U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. US Govt. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
  8. ^ Parker HW, Grandison AGC. 1977. Snakes -- a natural history. Second Edition. British Museum (Natural History) and Cornell University Press. 108 pp. 16 plates. LCCCN 76-54625. ISBN 0-8014-1095-9 (cloth), ISBN 0-8014-9164-9 (paper).
  9. ^ Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S. 2004. Asian Pitvipers. GeitjeBooks Berlin. 1st Edition. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.

Further reading

  • Cantor, T. E. 1839 Spicilegium serpentium indicorum [parts 1 and 2]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 7: 31-34, 49-55.
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004 Asian Pit Vipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Shaw, G. 1802 General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History. Vol.3, part 1 + 2. G. Kearsley, Thomas Davison, London: 313-615
  • Stejneger, Leonhard 1927 The green pit viper, Trimeresurus gramineus, in China Proceedings of the United States National Museum 72 (19): 1-10

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