Second War against Napoleon

Second War against Napoleon

The Second War against Napoleon was the second involvement by Sweden in the Napoleonic Wars.

On January 9 1812, French troops occupied Swedish Pomerania to end the illegal trade with England from Sweden. The Swedish administration was replaced by a French one, the Swedish estates were confiscated and Swedish officers and soldiers were taken as prisoners of war in Wolgast and Stralsund. In response, Sweden declared neutrality in the British-French war and signed a secrete Treaty of Petersburg with Russia against France and Denmark on April 5 1812. On July 18 1812, the peace treaty of Orebro ended the war between the United Kingdom on one side and Russia and Sweden form the other. On March 3 1813, the Swedish-British treaty of alliance was signed. Great Britain agreed to Sweden's demands on Norway. Sweden declared War against France, thereby joining the Sixth Coalition, and against Denmark on March 24, 1813. In April, Prussia gave its support for Sweden's territorial demands in Norway.

On May 18 1813, Swedish army under Crown Prince Charles John (former Marshal Bernadotte) landed into Pomerania to take a part in the war against Napoleon. Charles John was given command of the Northern Army of the Coalition. He had victories over French troops at Grossbeeren (August 23) and Dennewitz (September 6) and took part in a bloody battle of Leipzig (October 16) effectively avoiding too much causalities among the Swedes.

In December 1813, the Swedish army attacked Danish troops in Holstein. General Skjuldebrand defeated the Danes at Bornhoeved on December 7 1813. Three days later the Danish Auxiliary Corps had a victory over the Swedes at Sehested near Rendsborg, however, that could not change the course of war. On January 14 1814, Treaty of Kiel was concluded between Sweden and Denmark. Denmark ceded Norway to Charles John, who invaded the country on May 29 1814, the Norwegians established their own constitution and fought the Swedish forces until the Swedes accepted Norway becoming a union partner in the negotiations Convention of Moss joining the two countries.

The fiat Treaty of Paris signed by the Allies and France ended the War of the Seventh Coalition and Sweden’s second war against Napoleon on May 30, 1814.

Upon acceding to the coalition the United Kingdom ceded the island of Guadeloupe to Sweden, which by the Treaty of Paris was replaced by a financial settlement that gave rise to the Guadeloupe Fund.

See also

*First War against Napoleon
*List of Swedish wars
*Union between Sweden and Norway

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