- List of leaders of the Soviet Union
An approximately chronological list of leaders of the Soviet Union (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and
President of the Soviet Union).
The formal structure of power in the
Soviet Unionconsisted of three main branches that gave rise to three top positions.
The first position of importance was that of the
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, informally translated as President of the Soviet Union. Theoretically it was the highest position, since the Supreme Sovietwas an interim organ of the Congress of Soviets, the latter being the supreme power of people, according to the Constitution of the Soviet Union.
The head of the government was the
Premier of the Soviet Union. This was the most important position in Lenin's time.
In practice, the leader of the Communist Party used to occupy another position, which led to confusion in the West as to who the number one person in the USSR was: Lenin, Stalin and Malenkov preferred the post of the premier, while Khrushchev, Brezhnev and his successors preferred that of the president (called Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and transformed to President of the Soviet Union in 1990).
The post of General Secretary was created in April 1922 but did not come to signify the party leader or leader of the country until after Stalin won the struggle with
Trotskyand Kamenevto succeed Lenin (1925). The title was informal between 1934 and 1953, since it was officially abolished by the XVII Party Congress, and was called First Secretary between September 1953 and April 1966. The "Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet" was the equivalent of President of the state while "Chairman of the Council of Ministers" and "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars" were equivalent to Premier or Prime Minister.
March 14 1990, the newly created (1989) Congress of People's Deputiesvoted to end the Communist party's control over the government and elected Gorbachev President of the Soviet Union.
Leaders of post-Soviet independent states
For details of the leaders of the 15 independent states that replaced the Soviet Union, see the following articles:
Armenia- President of Armenia
Azerbaijan- President of Azerbaijan
Belarus- Leaders of Belarus
Estonia- President of Estonia
* Georgia -
President of Georgia
Kazakhstan- President of Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan- President of Kyrgyzstan
Latvia- List of Presidents of Latvia
Lithuania- List of Lithuanian rulers
Moldova- President of Moldova
Russia- List of Presidents of Russia
Tajikistan- List of Presidents of Tajikistan
Turkmenistan- President of Turkmenistan
Ukraine- President of Ukraine
Uzbekistan- President of Uzbekistan
List of Leaders of Russia
History of the Soviet Union
USSR Heads of State
* [http://www.archontology.org/nations/ussr Heads of State and Government of the Soviet Union (1922-1991)]
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