Rurik or Riurik ( _ru. Рюрик; IPA-ru|ˈrʲʉrʲɪk; Old East Norse: "Rørik", meaning "famous ruler"; c. 830 – c. 879) was a
Varangianchieftain who gained control of Ladoga in 862, built the Holmgardsettlement near Novgorod, and founded the Rurik Dynastywhich ruled Kievan Rusand then Russiauntil the 16th century.
"Riurik" is the Slavic rendering of the same Germanic name as the modern Anglo-Scots "Roderick", the Welsh
Rhydderchor Spanish and Portuguese "Rodrigo". In old Germanic languagesit had forms such as "Hrodric" ( Old High German) and "Hroðricus" (Old English). In Old Norse, "Hrœrekr" ( Norway, Iceland) and "RøRikR" ( Denmark, Sweden), from which "Riurik" is derived. The name also appears in " Beowulf" as " Hrēðrīk". [ [http://www.sofi.se/SOFIU/lup/urnord.pdf] Dead link|date=March 2008]
There is a debate over how Rurik came to control
Ladogaand Novgorod. The only information about him is contained in the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle, which states that Chuds, Slavs, Merias, Vesesand Krivichs"…drove the Varangians back beyond the sea, refused to pay them tribute, and set out to govern themselves". Afterwards the tribes started fighting each other and decided to invite Rurik to reestablish order.
Rurik remained in power until his death in 879. His successors (the
Rurik Dynasty), however, moved the capital to Kievand founded the state of Kievan Rus, which persisted until 1240, the time of Mongol invasion. A number of extant princely families are patrilineally descended from Rurik, although the last Rurikidto rule Russia, Vasily IV, died in 1612.
There is a large 9th-century funerary barrow in
Novgorod Oblast, reminiscent of the mounds at Old Uppsala. Intricately defended against looting, it remains to be excavated. The local inhabitants refer to it as [http://www.itogi.ru/paper2002.nsf/Article/Itogi_2002_04_27_13_1440f.html/$file/OBSCHESTVO-kamni-7hi.jpg"Rurik's Grave"] .
Even though some historians emphasize
folkloreroots for the Rurik legendand consequently dismiss Rurik as a legendary figure, there is a controversy about his ethnic origins in Eastern Europe.
According to the Primary Chronicle Rurik was one of the Rus, a
Varangiantribe likened by the chronicler to Danes, Swedes, English and Gotlanders. In the 20th century, archaeologists partly corroborated the chronicle's version of events. It was discovered that the settlement of Ladoga, whose foundation has been ascribed to Rurik, was actually established in the mid-8th century. Earthenware, household utensils, and types of buildings from the period of Rurik's foundation correspond to patterns then prevalent in Jutland.
Some Slavic historians (B.A. Rybakov and his followers among them) argue that the account of Rurik's invitation was borrowed by a pro-Scandinavian chronicler from a hypothetical Norse document. For instance, the Primary Chronicle states that Rurik arrived to Slavic lands with two brothers, Sineus and Truvor, and sent them to rule the towns of
Beloozeroand Izborsk, respectively. Instead of connecting Sineus to "Signjotr" and Truvor to "Torvald", they suggest that the chronicler read a hypothetical Scandinavian document and misinterpreted the Norse words 'sine hus' (with house) and 'tru voring' (with loyal guard) as the names of Rurik's brothers: Sineus and Truvor.
There is another theory that Rurik, on account of common intermarriages between Varangians and Slavic women, was of mixed Slavic-Varangian descent. This theory is based on the information of the first modern historian of Russia,
Vasily Tatishchev(a Rurikid himself), who claimed that Rurik was of Wendish extraction. He went so far as to name his mother, Umila; his maternal grandfather, Gostomysl; and a cousin, Vadim. Those who assume good faith on Tatishchev's part point out that he based his account on the lost Ioachim Chronicle.
A current DNA research project by Professor
Andrzej Bajorof Poland, under the auspices of the [http://www.familytreedna.com/public/rurikid/index.aspx?fixed_columns=on Family Tree DNA Rurikid Dynasty Project] , seeks to more accurately place Rurik within the light of history and out of the shadows of legend, while simultaneously trying to find his modern descendants. This project also seeks to study the DNA of male descendants of the medieval Lithuanian ruler Gediminas (Gedymin), whose line includes some of the highest princely families of Russia and Poland. The Gediminids intermarried with the Rurikids, and there is a possibility that they may even descend from Rurik, or at least from one of his ancestors within historical times - the project seeks to answer this question. So far, only two modern Rurikid princes have agreed to take this DNA test. Their results indicate that their male line originated in Upplandprovince in Sweden. So far, one Swede shares 11 of the prince's markers, and he believes that his own male line goes back to the 15th century in Roslagen. The DNA results of modern Rurikid princes indicate that Rurik was of Finno-Ugrian descent (haplogroup N3a1) [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~mozhayski/teksty/ydna.html DNA Testing of the Rurikid and Gediminid Princes] ] . Further genetic studies seem to indicate the existence of two haplogroups among modern Rurikids: the descendants of Vladimir II Monomakh(Monomakhoviches) are of N3a1 group typical for Finno-Ugrian people, while the descendants of Oleg I of Chernigov(Olgoviches) are of R1a group typical for Slavic peoples. According to the Russian Newsweekmagazine it indicates that the official genealogy is probably incorrect but leaves the ethnic origin of Rurik unclear [http://runewsweek.ru/rubrics/print.php?rubric=science&rid=2286 Операция «Чистые Рюрики»] Russian NewsweekN52 January 2008 ]
Hrörek of Dorestad
The only Hrörek described in Western chronicles was
Rorik of Dorestad, a konung from the royal house of Hedeby. Since the 19th century, there have been attempts to identify him with the Viking prince Rurik of Russian chronicles. [Rurik's identification with Hrörek was propagated by Boris Rybakovand Anatoly Kirpichnikov(see А.Н. Кирпичников: Сказание о призвании варягов. Анализ и возможности источника // Первые скандинавские чтения. - СПб., 1997. - С. 7-18). Alexander Nazarenkoobjects to this identification (see Nazarenko A., Rjurik и Riis Th., Rorik // Lexikon des Mittelalters. VII. - Munchen, 1995. - P. 880, 1026.)]
Roerik of Dorestad was born about 810/820 to
Ali Anulo, 9th King of Hedeby. Frankish chroniclers mention that he received lands in Frieslandfrom the Emperor Louis I. This was not enough for him, and he started to plunder neighbouring lands: he took Dorestadin 850, captured Hedeby in 857 and looted Bremen in 859. The Emperor was enraged and stripped him of all his possessions in 860. After that Roerik disappears from the Western sources for a considerable period of time. And at that very moment, in 862, the Russian Rurik arrives in the Eastern Baltic, builds the fortress of Ladoga and later moves to Novgorod.
Roerik of Dorestad reappeared in Frankish chronicles in 870, when his Friesland
demesnewas returned to him by Charles the Bald; in 882 he is already mentioned as dead. The Russian chronicle places the death of Rurik of Novgorod at 879. According to Western sources, the ruler of Friesland was converted to Christianity by the Franks. This may have parallels with the Christianization of the Rus', as reported by Patriarch Photiusin 867.
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