- Implicit function
In

mathematics , an**implicit function**is a generalization for the concept of a function in which thedependent variable has not been given "explicitly" in terms of theindependent variable . To give a function "f"**explicitly**is to provide a prescription for determining the value of the function "y" in terms of the input value "x"::: "y" = "f"("x").By contrast, the function is**implicit**if the value of "y" is obtained from "x" by solving an equation of the form:::"R"("x","y") = 0.Formally, a function "f":"X"→"Y" is said to be an**implicit function**if it satisfies the equation::"R"("x","f"("x")) = 0for all "x"∈"X".**Introduction**Implicit functions can often be useful in situations where it is inconvenient to solve explicitly an equation of the form "R"("x","y") = 0 for "y" in terms of "x". Even if it is possible to rearrange this equation to obtain "y" as an explicit function "f"("x"), it may not be desirable to do so since the expression of "f" may be much more complicated than the expression of "R". In other situations, the equation "R"("x","y") = 0 may fail to define a function at all, and rather defines a kind of

multiple-valued function . Nevertheless, in many situations, it is still possible to work with implicit functions. Some techniques fromcalculus , such asdifferentiation , can be performed with relative ease using "implicit differentiation".The

implicit function theorem provides a link between implicit and explicit functions. It states that if the equation "R"("x", "y") = 0 satisfies some mild conditions on itspartial derivative s, then one can in principle solve this equation for "y", at least over some small interval. Geometrically, the graph defined by "R"("x","y") = 0 will overlap locally with the graph of a function "y" = "f"("x").Various

numerical methods exist for solving the equation "R"("x","y")=0 to find an approximation to the implicit function "y". Many of these methods are iterative in that they produce successively better approximations, so that a prescribed accuracy can be achieved. Many of these iterative methods are based on some form ofNewton's method .**Examples****Inverse functions**Implicit functions commonly arise as one way of describing the notion of an

inverse function . If "f" is a function, then the inverse function of "f" is a solution of the equation:$x=f(y)\; implies\; y\; =\; f^\{-1\}(x)$for "y" in terms of "x". Intuitively, an inverse function is obtained from "f" by interchanging the roles of the dependent and independent variables. Stated another way, the inverse function is the solution "y" of the equation:$R(x,y)\; =\; x-f(y)\; =\; 0.$**Examples.**

# Thenatural logarithm "y" = ln("x") is the solution of the equation "x" - "e"^{"y"}= 0.

# Theproduct log is an implicit function given by "x" - "y" "e"^{"y"}= 0.**Algebraic functions**An

**algebraic function**is a solution "y" for an equation "R"("x","y") = 0 where "R" is apolynomial of two variables. Algebraic functions play an important role inmathematical analysis andalgebraic geometry . A simple example of an algebraic function is given by the unit circle::$x^2+y^2-1=0.$Solving for "y" gives:$y=pmsqrt\{1-x^2\}.$Note that there are two "branches" to the implicit function: one where the sign is positive and the other where it is negative. Both branches are thought of as belonging to the implicit function. In this way, implicit functions can be "multiple-valued."**Caveats**Not every equation $R(x,y)\; =\; 0$ has a graph that is the graph of a function, the circle equation being one prominent example. Another example is an implicit function given by "x" - "C"("y") = 0 where "C" is a

cubic polynomial having a "hump" in its graph. Thus, for an implicit function to be a true "function" it might be necessary to use just part of the graph. An implicit function can sometimes be successfully defined as a true function only after "zooming in" on some part of the "x"-axis and "cutting away" some unwanted function branches. A resulting formula may only then qualify as a legitimate explicit function.The defining equation "R" = 0 can also have other pathologies. For example, the implicit equation "x" = 0 does not define a function at all; it is a vertical line. In order to avoid a problem like this, various constraints are frequently imposed on the allowable sorts of equations or on the domain. The implicit function theorem provides a uniform way of handling these sorts of pathologies.

**Implicit differentiation**In

calculus , a method called**implicit differentiation**can be applied to implicitly defined functions. This method is an application of thechain rule allowing one to calculate the derivative of a function given implicitly.As explained in the introduction, $y$ can be given as a function of $x$ implicitly rather thanexplicitly. When we have an equation $R(x,y)=0$, we may be able to solve it for $y$ and then differentiate. However, sometimes it is simpler to differentiate $R(x,y)$ with respect to $x$ and then solve for $dy/dx$.

**Examples****1.**Consider for example:$y\; +\; x\; =\; -4\; ,$This function normally can be manipulated by using

algebra to change thisequation to an explicit function::$f(x)\; =\; y\; =\; -x\; -\; 4\; ,$

Differentiation then gives $frac\{dy\}\{dx\}=-1$. Alternatively, one can differentiate the equation:

:$frac\{dy\}\{dx\}\; +\; frac\{dx\}\{dx\}\; =\; frac\{d\}\{dx\}(-4)$

:$frac\{dy\}\{dx\}\; +\; 1\; =\; 0$

Solving for $egin\{matrix\}frac\{dy\}\{dx\}end\{matrix\}$:

:$frac\{dy\}\{dx\}\; =\; -1.$

**2.**An example of an implicit function, for which implicit differentiation might be easier than attempting to use explicit differentiation, is:$x^4\; +\; 2y^2\; =\; 8\; ,$

In order to differentiate this explicitly, one would have to obtain (via algebra)

:$f(x)\; =\; y\; =\; pmsqrt\{frac\{8\; -\; x^4\}\{2$,

and then differentiate this function. This creates two derivatives: one for $y\; >\; 0$ and another for $y\; <\; 0$.

One might find it substantially easier to implicitly differentiate the implicit function;

:$4x^3\; +\; 4yfrac\{dy\}\{dx\}\; =\; 0$

thus,

:$frac\{dy\}\{dx\}\; =\; frac\{-4x^3\}\{4y\}\; =\; frac\{-x^3\}\{y\}$

**3.**Sometimes standard explicit differentiation cannot be used and, in order to obtain the derivative, another method such as implicit differentiation must be employed. An example of such a case is the implicit function $y^3\; -\; y\; =\; x$. It is impossible to express $y$ explicitly as a function of $x$ and $egin\{matrix\}frac\{dy\}\{dx\}end\{matrix\}$ therefore cannot be found by explicit differentiation. Using the implicit method, $egin\{matrix\}frac\{dy\}\{dx\}end\{matrix\}$ can be expressed::$3y^2frac\{dy\}\{dx\}\; -\; frac\{dy\}\{dx\}\; =\; 1$

factoring out $frac\{dy\}\{dx\}$ shows that

:$frac\{dy\}\{dx\}(3y^2\; -\; 1)\; =\; 1$

which yields the final answer

:$frac\{dy\}\{dx\}=frac\{1\}\{3y^\{2\}-1\}$ where $y\; e\; pmfrac\{1\}\{sqrt\{3$

**Formula for two variables**"The Implicit Function Theorem states that if $F$ is defined on an open disk containing $(a,b)$, where $F(a,b)=0$, $F\_y\; (a,b)\; ot\; =\; 0$, and $F\_x$ and $F\_y$ are continuous on the disk, then the equation $F(x,y)\; =\; 0$ defines $y$ as a function of $x$ near the point $(a,b)$ and the derivative of this function is given by..." cite book

last = Stewart

first = James

title = Calculus Concepts And Contexts

publisher = Brooks/Cole Publishing Company

year = 1998

isbn = 0-534-34330-9] rp|§ 11.5:$frac\{dy\}\{dx\}\; =\; -frac\{partial\; F\; /\; partial\; x\}\{partial\; F\; /\; partial\; y\}\; =\; -frac\; \{F\_x\}\{F\_y\}$.::$F\_\{var\}$ indicates the derivative of $F$ with respect to $\{var\}$

The above formula comes from using the generalized chain rule to obtain the

total derivative —with respect to $x$—of both sides of $F(x,y)=0$::$frac\{partial\; F\}\{partial\; x\}\; frac\{dx\}\{dx\}\; +\; frac\{partial\; F\}\{partial\; y\}\; frac\{dy\}\{dx\}\; =\; 0\; =\; frac\{partial\; F\}\{partial\; x\}\; +\; frac\{partial\; F\}\{partial\; y\}\; frac\{dy\}\{dx\}$.

**Implicit function theorem**It can be shown that if $R(x,y)$ is given by a "smooth"

submanifold $M$ in $R^2$, and $(a,b)$ is a point of this submanifold such that thetangent space there is not vertical (that is $frac\{partial\; R\}\{partial\; y\}\; e0$), then $M$ in some small enough neighbourhood of $(a,b)$ is given by aparametrization $(x,f(x))$ where $f$ is asmooth function . In less technical language, implicit functions exist and can be differentiated, unless the tangent to the supposed graph would be vertical. In the standard case where we are given an equation$F(x,y)\; =\; 0$

the condition on $F$ can be checked by means of

partial derivative s.cite book

last = Stewart

first = James

title = Calculus Concepts And Contexts

publisher = Brooks/Cole Publishing Company

year = 1998

isbn = 0-534-34330-9] rp|§ 11.5**ee also***

Level set

*Isosurface **References***cite book

last=Rudin

first=Walter

authorlink=Walter Rudin

title=Principles of Mathematical Analysis

publisher=McGraw-Hill

year=1976

id=ISBN 0-07-054235-X

*cite book

last=Spivak

first=Michael

authorlink=Michael Spivak

title=Calculus on Manifolds

publisher=HarperCollins

year=1965

id=ISBN 0-8053-9021-9

*cite book

last=Warner

first=Frank

title=Foundations of Differentiable Manifolds and Lie Groups

publisher=Springer

year=1983

id=ISBN 0-387-90894-3

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