Infobox park
park = Vondelpark

image size = 275px
caption = People relaxing near a pond in the Vondelpark
type = Urban park
location = Amsterdam, Netherlands
coordinates = coord|52|21|30|N|4|52|0|E
size_ha = 47
size_km2 = 0.47
opened = 1865
operator = Amsterdam Oud-Zuid
visitors = 10 million [cite web
title = The Vondelpark
work = [http://www.oudzuid.amsterdam.nl/ www.oudzuid.amsterdam.nl]
publisher = Government of Amsterdam
url = http://www.oudzuid.amsterdam.nl/sport_en_recreatie/overige_paginas/vondelpark_oud/tourist_information
accessdate = 2008-05-07
status = Open all year

The Vondelpark is a public urban park of 47 hectares (120 acres) in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It is located in the "stadsdeel" Amsterdam Oud-Zuid, west from the Leidseplein and the Museumplein. The park was opened in 1865 and originally named the "Nieuwe Park", but later renamed to "Vondelpark", after the 17th century author Joost van den Vondel. Yearly, the park has around 10 million visitors. In the park are a film museum, an open air theatre, a playground, and several "horeca" facilities.


19th century

In 1864 a group of citizens lead by Christiaan Pieter van Eeghen established the "Vereeniging tot Aanleg van een Rij- en Wandelpark" (English: "Association for the Construction of a Park for Riding and Strolling"). They bought several hectares of grass-land and marshes at the rim of the city of Amsterdam, in order to create the new park. They assigned the architect Jan David Zocher to design it, and in 1865 "Het Nieuwe Park" (English: "The New Park") was opened for members of the association and in exchange for a fee also for other citizens.nl icon cite web
title = Chronologie van de 19e eeuw
publisher = Vereniging Vrienden van het Vondelpark
url = http://www.vondelpark.tv/default.asp?PageID=5
accessdate = 2008-05-07

Two years after the park opened, in 1867, a statue of writer and playwright Joost van den Vondel was placed in the park. Sculptor Louis Royer created the sculpture and the architect Pierre Cuypers designed the stand. As a result people started to call the park "Vondelspark" (English: "Vondel's Park").nl icon cite web
title = Geschiedenis
work = [http://www.oudzuid.amsterdam.nl/ www.oudzuid.amsterdam.nl]
publisher = Government of Amsterdam
url = http://www.oudzuid.amsterdam.nl/sport_en_recreatie/overige_paginas/vondelpark_oud/geschiedenis
accessdate = 2008-05-06

In 1873 a bandstand was built. In the same year, brewer Gerard Adriaan Heineken was denied to open a bar in the park, so he builds the "Bierhuis Vondel" (English: "Beer House Vondel") in the street next to the park, what is now Vondelstraat 41.

The last part of the park was designed by Louis Paul Zocher, Jan David Zocher's son, and was realized from 1875 to 1877. The park now became its current size of 47 hectares. Also the English garden style design of the Zochers has been roughly maintained up to now, although in the late 19th century the elongated park had a stream of water from the beginning to the end and contained many small paths and small bushes.

In 1878 the "Pavillon" (English: "Pavilion") was built as a replacement of a wooden chalet built by Louis Paul Zocher. The "Pavillon" is currently known as the "Vondelparkpaviljoen" (English: "Vondelpark Pavilion"). The park's name was officially changed into "Vondelpark" (English: "Vondel Park") in 1880.

Already in the 1880s and 1890s the cycling in the park caused hindrance. First the park management tried to resolve this with restrictive measurements against cyclists, such as special bike paths, limited opening hours, and fines for cyclists that were going faster than a horse's trot. It was only after mediation of the "Algemene Nederlandsche Wielrijders-Bond" (English: "General Dutch Cyclists Union"), that helped fund the park, that a park guard was installed and cyclists were again permitted to cycle normally.

20th century

In 1936, a rose garden was created in the center of the park.

One year later in 1937, the "Blauwe Theehuis" (English: "Blue Tearoom") was opened. This tearoom is a round modernist building, designed by the architectural office Baanders.nl icon cite web
title = Chronologie van de 20e eeuw
publisher = Vereniging Vrienden van het Vondelpark
url = http://www.vondelpark.tv/default.asp?PageID=23
accessdate = 2008-05-07

In the following years the overall maintenance of the park became too expensive for the "Vereniging tot aanleg van een rij- en wandelpark" (English: "Association for the creation of a park for riding and strolling"), due to an intensified use, and in 1953 the association donated the park to the city of Amsterdam. The landscape architect Egbert Mos renovated the Vondelpark for the city in the 1950s. The purpose was improve the park for both usage and maintenance. Small bushes were grouped into larger bushes, superfluous paths were removed, and the rose garden was renovated. Also the stream of water in the "trunk" near the northern entrance of the park was removed.

In the 1960s children's playgrounds were created. During the flower power era in the 1960s/1970s the Vondelpark became a symbol of a place where "everything is possible and (almost) everything is allowed". In the 1980s an open air theatre was built.

The Vondelpark received the status of "rijksmonument" (English: "state monument") in 1996.

21st century

In the 1990s the visitor number grew to circa 10 million visitors every year, the grass used as sports field and the paths as bike paths. This caused the city to start a new renovation that takes place from 1999 to 2010. The purpose is to intensify the monumental value of the park and furthermore to improve the park's durability. The renovation takes more than ten years in order to decrease the hindrance for visitors and for brooding animals. [nl icon cite web
title = Renovatie: 1999 - 2010
work = [http://www.oudzuid.amsterdam.nl/ www.oudzuid.amsterdam.nl]
publisher = Government of Amsterdam
url = http://www.oudzuid.amsterdam.nl/sport_en_recreatie/overige_paginas/vondelpark_oud/renovatie_1999_-
accessdate = 2008-05-06

Starting in September 2008, adults were planned to be legally allowed to have sex in the park, [ [http://www.orange.co.uk/news/quirkies/default.htm?rm=storyitem&storyId=2761207 Quirky News from Ananova ] ] as long as they "take their garbage with them afterwards and never have intercourse near the playground. The sex must be limited to the evening hours and night.", in the words of current Amsterdam Alderman Paul Van Grieken [ [http://www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/story/0,22049,23355279-5013605,00.html Public sex fine, roaming dogs not | The Daily Telegraph ] ] However, Amsterdam Police announced that they would not in fact tolerate this as the law required them to prevent it.


Film museum

The cinema of the Filmmuseum, the national film museum, is located in the Vondelparkpaviljoen, a 19th century pavilion. The films that are screened here range from 19th century silent films to contemporary digital productions. The museum also organizes exhibitions, lectures, debates, and in the summer there are open air films on the terrace. Every two years newly restored films from the collection are screened during the Filmmuseum Biennial. [cite web
title = Filmmuseum
publisher = Filmmuseum
url = http://www.filmmuseum.nl/website/exec/frontpageread/page.html?id=722-6e6c2e66696c6d6d757365756d2e50616765
accessdate = 2008-05-07

Open air theatre

The Vondelpark Openluchttheater is an open air theatre with shows from June until August. There are performances of classical music, pop music, world music, dance, musical theatre, and cabaret. The theatre receives a subsidy from the city government. And although all performances have free entrance, visitors are asked for a donation of one euro.nl icon cite web
title = Vondelpark Openluchttheater
publisher = Vondelpark Openluchttheater
url = http://www.openluchttheater.nl/
accessdate = 2008-05-07


And in the park are several "horeca" facilities (listed in alphabetical order):
*'t Blauwe Theehuis, a bar/restaurant [nl icon cite web
title = 't Blauwe Theehuis
publisher = 't Blauwe Theehuis
url = http://www.blauwetheehuis.nl/theehuis.html
accessdate = 2008-05-07
*Groot Melkhuis, a bar/restaurant [nl icon cite web
title = Groot Melkhuis
publisher = Groot Melkhuis
url = http://www.groot-melkhuis.nl/
accessdate = 2008-05-07
*Vertigo, the bar/restaurant of the film museum [nl icon cite web
title = Vertigo
publisher = Vertigo
url = http://www.vertigo.nl/index1.html
accessdate = 2008-05-07
*Vondeling, the bar/restaurant of the open air theatre
*Vondeltuin, a bar/restaurant [nl icon cite web
title = Vondeltuin
publisher = Vondeltuin
url = http://www.vondeltuin.nl/
accessdate = 2008-05-07


There are some statues in the park:
*"Joost van den Vondel" (1867) by Louis Royer [nl icon cite web
title = Chronologie van de 19e eeuw
publisher = Vereniging Vrienden van het Vondelpark
url = http://www.vondelpark.tv/default.asp?PageID=5
accessdate = 2008-05-07
*"The Fish" (1965) by Pablo Picasso
*"Mama Baranka" (1985) by Nelson Carrilho [nl icon cite web
title = Mama Baranka
publisher = Nelson Carrilho
url = http://www.nelsoncarrilho.com/mamabaranka.html
accessdate = 2008-05-07


Every friday there is the Fridaynightskate that starts in front of the Filmmuseum.

Yearly events include the golf tournament Vondelpark Open and the running contest Vondelparkloop.

The Queen's Day celebrations on 30 April in the Vondelpark focus specifically on children. There is a "freemarket" (Dutch: "vrijmarkt") and there are games and other activities for children.

From June until August there are music and dance performances in the open air theatre.

Popular culture

The park is referenced in Acda en De Munnik's song "Vondelpark vannacht" from the album "Acda en De Munnik" (1997) and in Omar Rodríguez-López's song "Vondelpark bij nacht" from the album "Omar Rodriguez" (2005).


External links

*nl icon [http://www.vondelpark.nl/ Vondelpark]
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&t=k&q=Netherlands&ie=UTF8&ll=52.358514,4.870591&spn=0.012476,0.040169&z=15&om=0 Satellite View from Google Maps]
* [http://www.european-city-parks.com/amsterdam/vondelpark/ Vondelpark Article]
* [http://beeldbank.amsterdam.nl/index.php?qasked=1&qtype=nieuw&q=Vondelpark Historical photographs of the Vondelpark]

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