Politburo, short for "Political Bureau", Russian "Politicheskoye Buro", is the executive organization for a number of political parties, most notably those of communists.

Marxist-Leninist states

In Marxist-Leninist states, the party is seen as "the vanguard of the people" and therefore usually has the power to control the state, and the non-state party officials in the politburo generally hold extreme power.

In the Soviet Union for example, the General Secretary of the Communist Party did not necessarily hold a state office like president or prime minister to effectively control the system of government. Instead, party members answerable to or controlled by the party held these posts, often as honorific posts as a reward for their long years of service to the party. On other occasions, having governed as General Secretary, the party leader might assume a state office in addition. For example, Mikhail Gorbachev initially did not hold the presidency of the Soviet Union, that office being given as an honour to former Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko. Stalin ruled the Soviet Union for well over a decade before assuming the governmental position of Premier of the Soviet Union during World War II.

Officially, the Party Congress elects a Central Committee which, in turn, elects a General Secretary. Under Stalin however, this model was essentially reversed and it was the General Secretary who determined the composition of the Politburo and Central Committee.

Trotskyist parties

In Trotskyist parties, the Politburo is a bureau of the Central Committee tasked with taking day-to-day political decisions, which must later be ratified by the Central Committee. It is appointed by the Central Committee from among its members. The post of General Secretary carries far less weight than in the Stalinist model. See, for example, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party.

See also

*Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee in the Soviet Union
*Politburo of the Communist Party of China
*Politburo of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
*Politburo of the Polish United Workers' Party
*Politburo of the Bulgarian Communist Party
*Politburo of the Romanian Communist Party
*Politburo of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party
*Politburo of the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front

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  • Politbüro — oder Politisches Büro des Zentralkomitees ist die Bezeichnung für das höchste politische Führungsgremium der meisten Kommunistischen Parteien. Von 1952 bis 1966 wurde es in der Sowjetunion als Präsidium bezeichnet und vom Juli 1965 bis zum… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Politburó — (de or. ruso) m. Órgano ejecutivo de ciertos partidos comunistas, en particular el soviético. * * * Politburó, abreviatura de Buró Político, se refiere al máximo órgano ejecutivo de distintos partidos políticos, especialmente de Partidos… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • POLITBURO — POLITBUR Créé à la réunion du comité central du Parti ouvrier social démocrate russe (P.O.S.D.R.) du 10 au 23 octobre 1917 sur la proposition de Dzerjinski, le bureau politique est un organe permanent formé de membres du comité central qui se… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Politburó — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Politburó, abreviatura de Buró Político, se refiere al máximo órgano ejecutivo de distintos partidos políticos, especialmente de partidos comunistas. En los países socialistas, el Politburó era el máximo órgano de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • politburo — POLITBURÓ s.n. 1. (În fosta U.R.S.S.) Organ politic suprem executiv, format din membri aleşi de către Comitetul Central al Partidului Comunist şi însărcinat cu aplicarea hotărârilor politice ale partidului, ratificate de către Comitetul Central.… …   Dicționar Român

  • politburo —  / Politburo  The chief committee of a Communist Party …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Politburo — (n.) highest policy making committee of the U.S.S.R., 1927, from Rus. politbyuro, contracted from politicheskoe byuro political bureau …   Etymology dictionary

  • Politburo — s. m. Escritório político do Comitê Central do Partido Comunista da Rússia (criado em 1917), depois da U.R.S.S …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • politburo — ► NOUN (pl. politburos) ▪ the principal policy making committee of a communist party, especially that of the former USSR. ORIGIN from Russian politicheskoe byuro political bureau …   English terms dictionary

  • Politburo — [pä′lit byoor΄ō, pō′litbyoor΄ō; pō lit′byoor΄ō] n. [< Russ Politbyuro, after Polit(icheskoe) Byuro, political bureau] the executive committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and of certain other nations …   English World dictionary

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