- Russian-American telegraph
The Russian American telegraph also known as the Western Union Telegraph Expedition and the Collins Overland telegraph was an $3,000,000 undertaking by the
Western Union Telegraph Companyin 1865- 1867, to lay an electric telegraphline from San Francisco, Californiato Moscow, Russia.
The route was intended to travel from California via
Oregon, Washington Territory, the Colony of British Columbiaand Russian Alaska, under the Bering Seaand across Siberiato Moscow, thus creating a line of communication with the rest of Europe.
Abandoned in 1867, the Russian American Telegraph was considered an economic failure, but history now deems it a "successful failure" because of the many benefits the exploration brought to the regions that were traversed.
Perry Collins and Cyrus West Field
By 1861 the Western Union Telegraph Company had linked the eastern United States by electric telegraph all the way to San Francisco. The challenge then remained to connect North America with the rest of the world. [cite book|last=Barman|first=Jean|title=The West Beyond the West|year=1991|pages=86-87|isbn=0-8020-2739-3]
Working to meet that challenge was
Cyrus West Field's Atlantic Telegraph Company, who in 1858 had laid the first undersea cable across the Atlantic Ocean. However, the cable had broken three weeks afterwards and additional attempts had thus far been unsuccessful. [cite web|author=Atlanticcable.com|title=Atlantic Cable History|url=http://www.atlantic-cable.com/|accessdate=2007-08-13]
Perry Collinsvisited Russia and took note that it was making good progress extending its telegraph lines eastwards from Moscow over Siberia. Upon his return to the States, Collins approached Hiram Sibley, head of the Western Union Telegraph Company with the idea of an overland telegraph line that would run through the Northwestern states, the colony of British Columbia and Russian Alaska. Together, they worked on promoting the idea and obtained considerable support in the US, London and Russia. [cite web|author=Book reviews|title=Perry Collins|url=http://www.eh.net/bookreviews/library/0434.shtml|accessdate=2007-08-11]
July 1, 1864, the American president, Abraham Lincolngranted the company a right of way from San Francisco to the British Columbia border and assigned them the steamship"Saginaw" from the US Navy.The "George S Wright" and the infamous "Nightingale", a former slave ship[cite web|author=Secstate.wa.gov|title=Lewis Dryden Marine|url=http://www.secstate.wa.gov/history/images/publications/SL_lewisdrydenmarine/SL_lewisdrydenmarine_172_0001.txt|accessdate=2007-08-13] were also put into service, as well as a fleet of riverboats and schooners.cite web|author=Stewart Andrew Robb|title=Collins Overland|url=http://ir.lib.sfu.ca/retrieve/1853/b15591827.pdf|accessdate=2007-08-13]
To supervise the construction, Collins chose Colonel
Charles Bulkleywho had been the Superintendent of Military Telegraphs. Being an ex-military man, Bulkley divided the work crews into "working divisions" and an "Engineer Corps". Edward Conwaywas made the head of the project's American route and British Columbia sections. Franklin Popewas assigned to Conway and given the responsibility for the exploring of British Columbia. The task of exploring Russian America went to the Smithsonian naturalist Robert Kennicott. In Siberia, the construction and exploration was under the charge of Russian nobleman Serge Abasa. Assigned to him were Collins Macrae, George Kennan and JA Mahood.
Exploration and construction teams were divided into groups: one was in British Columbia, another worked around the
Yukon Riverand Norton Soundwith headquarters at St. Michael, Alaska, a third explored the area along the on the Amur Riverin Siberia and a fourth group of about 40 men was sent to Port Clarence to build the line that was to cross the Bering Strait to Siberia.cite web|author=Pedersen|title=Alaska Science Forum|url=http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF0/068.html|accessdate=2007-08-12] The colony of British Columbia gave the project its full and enthusiastic support, allowing the materials for the line to be brought in free of duties and tolls. Chosen as the British Columbia terminus, New Westminster gloated over its triumph over its rival, Victoria, and it was predicted in the "British Columbian" that "New Westminster, traduced and dreaded by its jealous neighbor, will now be at the center of all these great systems".
The surveying in British Columbia had started before the line reached New Westminster on March 21, 1865. Edward Conway had walked to Hope and was dismayed by the difficulty of the terrain. In response to Conway's concerns, the colony of British Columbia agreed to build a road from New Westminster to Yale where it would meet the newly completed
Cariboo Road. The telegraph company's only responsibility would be to string wires along it.
Route through Russian Alaska
In Russian Alaska, work began in 1865 but initially, little progress was made. Contributing to this lack of success was the climate, the terrain, supply shortages and the late arrival of the construction teams. Nevertheless, the entire route through Russian Alaska was surveyed by the fall of 1866. Rather than waiting until spring, as was the usual practice, construction began and continued through that winter.
Many of the Western Union workers were unaccustomed to severe northern winters and working in frigid conditions made laying the line a difficult experience. Fires had to be lit to thaw out the frozen ground before holes could dug to place the telegraph poles. For transportation and to haul the supplies, the only option the work crews had was to use teams of
When the Atlantic cable was successfully completed and the first transatlantic message to England was sent in July 1866, the men in the Russian American division were not aware of it until a full year later.
By then telegraph stations had been built, thousands of poles were cut and distributed along the route and over 45 miles of line had been completed in Russian Alaska. Despite the fact that so much progress had been made, in July 1867, the work was officially ceased.
Route through British Columbia
When that section of the line reached New Westminster, British Columbia in the spring of 1865, the first message it carried was of the April 15th of
assassinationof Abraham Lincoln. [cite web|author=Fort Langley|title=Colins Overland Telegraph|url=http://www.fortlangley.ca/langley/2etelegraph.html|accessdate=2007-08-12]
In May 1865 construction began from New Westminster to Yale and then along the
Cariboo Roadand the Fraser Riverto Quesnel. Winter brought a halt to construction, but resumed in the spring with 150 men working northwest from Quesnel. In 1866, the work progressed rapidly in that section, fifteen log telegraph cabins had been built and line had been strung 400 miles from Quesnel, reaching the Kispiox and Bulkley Rivers. The company's sternwheeler, "Mumford", traveled 110 miles up the Skeena Riverfrom the Pacific Coast three times that season, successfully delivering 150 miles of material for the telegraph line and 12,000 rations for its workers.
The line passed
Fort Fraserand reached the Skeena River, creating the settlement of Hazelton when it was learned that Cyrus West Field had successfully laid the transatlantic cable on July 27.
In British Columbia, construction of the overland line was halted on February 27, 1867, as the whole project was now deemed obsolete. [cite web|author=Anton A. Huurdeman
title=The Worldwide History of Telecommunications|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=SnjGRDVIUL4C&pg=PA101&lpg=PA101&dq=collins+overland+telegraph+hazelton&source=web&ots=qGhTnD84N9&sig=sVe6-QvRttI5p53TKb_cA04Wm_o#PPA103,M1|accessdate=2007-08-11]
Nevertheless, left behind in British Columbia was a usable telegraph system from New Westminster to Quesnel, which later would be run to the
Cariboo Gold Rushtown of Barkerville, and a trail that had been beat through what had largely been uncharted wilderness.
In addition, the expedition left behind a vast store of supplies that were put to good use by some of the
First Nationsinhabitants. Near Hazelton, Colonel Bulkley had been impressed by the bridge the Hagwilgets had built across the Bulkley River, but was reluctant to let his work party cross it until it had been reinforced with cable. After the project was abandoned, the Hagwilgets at Hazelton built a second bridge from cable that the company had left behind. [cite book |last=Cline |first=Sperry|title=Pioneer Days in British Columbia:#5:The Bridges at Hagwilget|year=1979|publisher=Heritage House|isbn=0-9690546-2-9|pages=35] Both bridges were considered marvels of engineering and were credited as being "one of the romances of bridge building". [cite book|last=Waddell|first=J.L.|title=Bridge Engineering]
In the long run, the telegraph expedition, while an abject economic failure, provided a further means by which America was able to expand its
Manifest Destinybeyond its national boundaries and may have precipitated the US purchase of Alaska. The expedition was responsible for the first examination of the flora, faunaand geology of Russian Alaska and the members of the telegraph project were able to play a crucial role in the purchase of Alaska by providing useful valuable data on the territory. [Steve Wilcockson in his MA Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1997, believes that the expedition actually was a major cause of the purchase of Alaska by William H. Seward. Seward was a sponsor of the expedition and would have been exposed to the reports coming back from the Smithsonian Institution-sponsored scientists, like Kennicott, of the mineral wealth in the region. It is also no coincidence that among the first arrivals at Nome, Alaska, in its gold rush was a chap called Libby, who had been in the same place some thirty years earlier with the Telegraph Expedition.]
The colony of British Columbia meanwhile could further explore, colonize and communicate with its northern landscapes beyond what had been done by the
Hudson's Bay Company.
Many of the towns in Northwestern British Columbia can trace their initial European settlement back to the Collins Overland telegraph. Some examples of these are Hazelton, [cite web|author=OurBC.com|title=Hazelton|url=http://www.ourbc.com/travel_bc/bc_cities/yellowhead_hwy/hazelton.htm|accessdate=2007-08-13] Burns Lake, [cite web|author=Bell's Travel Guide|title=Burns Lake|url=http://www.bellsalaska.com/burnslake.html|accessdate=2007-08-13] [BCGNIS|id=9887|title=Burns Lake] Telkwa [cite web|author=BC.com|title=Telkwa|url=http://www.britishcolumbia.com/regions/towns/?townID=3676|accessdate=2007-08-13] and Telegraph Creek. [cite web|author=BC.com|title=Telegraph Creek|url=http://www.britishcolumbia.com/regions/towns/?townID=3676|accessdate=2007-08-13]
The expedition also laid a foundation for the construction of the
Yukon telegraphline which was built from Hazelton to Telegraph Creek and beyond to Dawson City, Yukon in 1901.
Places named for the expedition members
* Mount Pope in British Columbia was named for Franklin Pope, who was the Assistant Engineer and Chief of Explorations, responsible for surveying the 1,500 miles section from New Westminster to the Yukon River. [BCGNIS|id=27206|name=Mount Pope]
Kennecott, Alaskaand the Kennicott Glacierare named for the expedition's naturalist, Robert Kennicott. Although Kennicott died on the expedition, on May 13, 1866, his work was publicized by W. H. Dall, another naturalist hired by Robert Kennicott. [cite web|author=SI Archives|title=WH Dall|url=http://siarchives.si.edu/history/exhibits/documents/dall.htm|accessdate=2007-08-12] This publication and the publicity about the Kennicott's death at the age of thirty-one helped Secretary of State William H. Sewardconvince Congress to purchase Alaska from Russia in 1867.
* The Bulkley River, [BCGNIS|id=1662|name=Bulkley River]
Bulkley Valley, Bulkley Mountains [BCGNIS|id=12671|name=Bulkley Mountains] and the settlement of Bulkley Housein British Columbia are named after Colonel Charles Bulkley.
Books and memoirs written about the expedition
Several major works are available documenting the expedition. The scientific travelogue by Smithsonian scientist
W. H. Dallis perhaps the most referenced, while an English travelogue by Frederick Whymperprovides additional information. Among personal accounts members of the expedition are a diary of Franklin Pope. [cite web|author=Telegraph history|title=Franklin Pope|url=http://www.telegraph-history.org/pope/page2.htm|accessdate=2007-08-11] [cite web|author=Telegraph trail|title=Diary of Franklin Pope|url=http://www.telegraphtrail.org/history/section07.htm|accessdate=2007-08-13]
George Kennan and Richard Bush both wrote of the difficulties they encountered during the expedition. Kennan would later become notable for influencing American opinion of the Russian Empire. Originally very much for Russian settlement of the far East, on visiting the exile camps in the 1880s he changed his mind and later wrote "Tent Life in Siberia: Adventures Among the Koryaks and Other Tribes in Kamchatka and Northern Asia". [gutenberg|no=12328|name=Tent Life in Siberia: Adventures Among the Koryaks and Other Tribes in Kamchatka and Northern Asia
1870;reprint 1986ISBN 0-87905-254-6] Richard Bush, aiming to emulate Kennan's success, wrote "Reinder, Dogs and Snowshoes". All documents and books relating to the expedition are of historical value, not only from a travel and discovery perspective but also from a cultural studies standpoint. The ethnocentricdescriptions of aboriginal peoples in the places now known as British Columbia, Yukon Territoryand Alaska, as well as the general region of Eastern Siberia, typify those attitudes of the time. In hindsight, the descriptions create havoc in modern liberal academia, but they can still be useful. Telegraph records provide evidence for native land claims such as those of the Gitxsan Nationof northern British Columbia. Dall's records have helped locate Smithsonian exhibits returned to their original native domiciles.
*cite book|last=Dwyer|first=John|title=To Wire the World: Perry M. Collins and the North Pacific Telegraph Expedition|year=2001|isbn=0-275-96755-7
*cite book|last=Neering|first=Rosemary|title=Continental Dash: The Russian-American Telegraph|year=2000|isbn=0-920-66307-9
*cite book|last=Stuck | first=Hudson | title=Voyages on the Yukon | year=1917
*cite book|last=Dall|first=William H|title=The Yukon Territory: The Narrative of W.H. Dall, Leader of the Expedition to Alaska in 1866-1868 |year=1898
*Kennan, Georgegutenberg|no=12328|name=Tent Life in Siberia: Adventures Among the Koryaks and Other Tribes in Kamchatka and Northern Asia
1870;reprint 1986ISBN 0-87905-254-6
[http://siarchives.si.edu/findingaids/FARU7213.HTM Finding Aid to Western Union Telegraph Expedition Collection, 1865-1867]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.