- Solid-state laser
A solid-state laser is a
laserthat uses a gain medium that is a solid, rather than a liquidsuch as in dye lasers or a gasas in gas lasers. Semiconductor-based lasers are also in the solid state, but are generally considered as a separate class from solid-state lasers (see Semiconductor laser).
Generally, the active medium of a solid-state laser consists of a
glassor crystalline "host" material to which is added a " dopant" such as neodymium, chromium, erbium, or other ions. Many of the common dopants are rare earth elements, because the excited states of such ions are not strongly coupled with thermal vibrations of the crystalline lattice ( phonons), and the lasing thresholdcan be reached at relatively low brightness of pump.
There are many hundreds of solid-state media in which laser action has been achieved, but relatively few types are in widespread use. Of these, probably the most common type is . Neodymium-doped glass (Nd:glass) and
ytterbium-doped glasses and ceramics are used in solid-state lasers at extremely high power (terawatt scale), high energy ( megajoules) multiple beam systems for inertial confinement fusion. Titanium-doped sapphire is also widely used for its broad tunability.
The first material used for lasing was
ruby. Ruby lasers are still used for some applications, but are not common due to their low efficiency. s lase in the mid-infrared.
Solid state lasing media are typically optically pumped, using either a
flashlampor arc lamp, or by laser diodes. Diode-pumped solid-state lasers tend to be much more efficient, and have become much more common as the cost of high power semiconductor lasers has decreased.
Solid-state lasers are being developed as optional weapons for the
F-35 Lightning II, and are reaching near-operational status. [Fulghum, David A. " [http://web.archive.org/web/20040626050316/http://www.aviationnow.com/content/publication/awst/20020708/aw32.htm Lasers being developed for F-35 and AC-130] ." "Aviation Week and Space Technology", ( 8 July 2002). Access date: 8 February 2006.] [Morris, Jefferson. " [http://web.archive.org/web/20040604124353/http://www.aviationnow.com/avnow/news/channel_military.jsp?view=story&id=news/masd0926.xml Keeping cool a big challenge for JSF laser, Lockheed Martin says] ." "Aerospace Daily", 26 September 2002. Access date: 3 June 2007.] [Fulghum, David A. " [http://web.archive.org/web/20040613094437/http://www.aviationnow.com/content/publication/awst/20020722/aw173.htm Lasers, HPM weapons near operational status] ." "Aviation Week and Space Technology", 22 July 2002. Access date: 8 February 2006.]
Notes and references
*cite book | author=Koechner, Walter | title=Solid-State Laser Engineering | publisher=Springer | year=1999 | edition=5th ed.| id=ISBN 3-540-65064-4
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