Izhorians

Izhorians

The Izhorians (sg. "ižoralaine", "inkeroine", "ižora"), along with the Votes are an indigenous people of Ingria. They can still be found in the Western part of Ingria, between the Narva and Neva rivers.

The history of Izhorians is bounded to the history of Ingria. It is supposed that shortly after 1000, the Izhorians moved from Karelia to the west and south-west. In 1478, the Novgorod Republic, where Ingrians had settled, was united with the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and some of the Izhorians were transferred to the east. The establishment of St. Petersburg in 1703 had a great influence on Izhorian culture. Deportations in 1929–1931 changed dramatically the demographics of Ingria. World War II had the biggest impact on Izhorian culture, as devastating battles (Siege of Leningrad) took place nearby.

In 1848, P. von Köppen counted 17,800 Izhorians, in 1926 there lived 26137 Izhorians in the Russian SFSR. 1100 Izhorians were counted in USSR by the census of 1959. In 1989, 820 self-designated Izhorians, thereof 302 speakers of their Finnic language, (known as Ingrian or Izhorian) were registered. 449 Izhorians lived on the territory of the USSR. According to the 2002 Russian Census, there were 327 Izhorians in Russia, of whom 177 lived in Leningrad oblast and 53 in St. Petersburg.

The language, close to Karelian, is used primarily by members of the older generation. Izhorian, along with Finnish, Karelian and Vepsian, belongs to the Northern Baltic-Finnic group of the Finno-Ugric languages. Izhorian consists of four dialects: Soikola, Hevaha (or Heva), lower-Luuga and Oredezhi — from the names of Soikola (Soikino) peninsula, Heva, Luuga (Lauga) and Oredezhi rivers.

In 1932–1937, Latin letters based written Izhorian language existed, it was taught in schools of the Soikino Peninsula and the area around the mouth of the Luga River.Kurs, Ott (1994). [http://www.springerlink.com/content/r5302p2n2802g742/fulltext.pdf Ingria: The broken landbridge between Estonia and Finland] . "GeoJournal" 33.1, 107-113.] . Several textbooks were published, in 1936 even a grammar book was published. However, in 1937 theIzhorian written language was abolished and mass repressions of the peasantry were started.

The Izhorians and the Votes are generally Orthodox, while the other Finnic inhabitants of Ingria, the Ingrian Finns, are Lutheran. Some pre-Christian traditions exist, also.

References

External links

* [http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/izhorians.shtml Izhorians] in the "Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire"
* [http://www.erm.ee/?node=647 Estonian National Museum] et icon


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Izhorians — noun indigenous people of Ingria …   Wiktionary

  • Ingria — This article is about the region in the Baltic. For the Italian municipality, see Ingria, Piedmont. Ingria and the Lutheran parishes in the Saint Petersburg Governorate ca. 1900.[1] …   Wikipedia

  • Toksovo — ( ru. Токсово; fi. Toksova) is an urban type settlement in Vsevolozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located twenty kilometers to the north of St. Petersburg on Karelian Isthmus. It is served by two neighbouring stations of the Saint… …   Wikipedia

  • Ingrian — can refer to:*Of or pertaining to the region of Ingria *The Ingrians, which can refer to: **Ingrian Finns, descendants of Finnish immigrants to Ingria in the 17th century **Izhorians, an indigenous people of Ingria *The Ingrian language (also… …   Wikipedia

  • Military history of Leningrad Oblast during World War II — which replaced the Ingria (Ingermanland) after a temporary autonomy during the 1920s and 1930s, documents the level of destruction suffering during World War II by its infrastructure and population. Initial period of warOn 27 June 1941 the… …   Wikipedia

  • Finnish-Novgorodian wars — were a series of poorly documented conflicts that took place between unspecified Finnic groups and the Republic of Novgorod from the 11th or 12th century to early 13th century. The wars seem to have contributed to the eventual Swedish conquest of …   Wikipedia

  • Ethnic groups in Europe — See Demography of Europe for population statistics. The ethnic groups in Europe are the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. European ethnology is the field of anthropology focusing on Europe. Pan and Pfeil (2004) count 87… …   Wikipedia

  • Finnish–Novgorodian wars — The Finnish–Novgorodian wars[citation needed] were a series of conflicts that took place between Finnic tribes in eastern Fennoscandia called Yem , and the Republic of Novgorod from the 11th or 12th century to early 13th century. The wars seem to …   Wikipedia

  • Demographics of Estonia — The demographics of Estonia in the twenty first century are the result of historical trends over more than a thousand years, just as for most European countries, but have been disproportionately affected by events in the last half of the… …   Wikipedia

  • List of lists of ethnic groups — The following is a list of lists of ethnic groups: By region * Africa ** North Africa ** Horn of Africa ** Sub Saharan Africa * Americas (indigenous) ** Brazil ** USA *** Alaska *** Hawaii ** Canada * Asia ** Southeast Asia *** Vietnam *** Laos… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”