Proofreading in printing and publishing
A proof copy is a version of a
manuscriptthat has been typeset after copy-editing. Proof typescripts often contain typographical errorsintroduced by mistyping (hence the word "typo" to refer to misplaced, missing or incorrect characters). Traditionally, a proofreader checks the typeset copy and marks any errors using standard proof correction marks (such as those specified in style manuals, by house style, or, more broadly, by the international standard " ISO 5776", or, for English, the British Standard"BS-5261:2"). This process may be known as a "line edit". The proof is then returned to the typesetter for correction, and in many cases the production of a second proof copy (often known as a "revise"). Proofreading is considered a specific skill that must be learned because it is in the nature of the mind to correct errors automatically. Someone not trained in proofreading may not see errors such as missing words or improper usage because their mind is showing them what it is trained to recognize as correct. "DP Proofreading Guidelines"
The term "proofreading" is sometimes used incorrectly to refer to copy-editing. This is a separate activity, although there is some overlap between the two. Proofreading consists of reviewing any text, either hard copy on
paperor electronic copy on a computer, and checking for typos and formatting errors. This may be done either against an original document or "blind" (without checking against any other source). Many modern proofreaders are also required to take on some light copy-editing duties, such as checking for grammarand consistency issues.
Proofreading in biology
The term proofreading is also used to refer to the error-correcting processes involved in
DNA replication. In bacteria, all three DNA polymerases (I, II, and III) have the ability to proofread, using 3'->5' exonucleaseactivity. In eukaryotes only the polymerases that deal with the elongation (γ, δ and ε) have proofreading ability (3'->5' exonuclease activity).
* [http://www.sfep.org.uk Society for Editors and Proofreaders] (UK)
* [http://www.pgdp.net Project Gutenberg Distributed Proofreaders]
* [http://www.copyediting.co.uk Advice on freelance proofreading and copy editing] (UK)
* [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~germantown/proofread.PDF Word Witch on Proofreading]
* [http://www.espressographics.com/text/proofreader.html Proofreaders' Marks] (USA)
* [http://www.pgdp.net/c/faq/proofreading_guidelines.php DP Proofreaders Guidelines] (USA)
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