Proofreading traditionally means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. Modern proofreading often requires reading copy at earlier stages as well.

Proofreading in printing and publishing

A proof copy is a version of a manuscript that has been typeset after copy-editing. Proof typescripts often contain typographical errors introduced by mistyping (hence the word "typo" to refer to misplaced, missing or incorrect characters). Traditionally, a proofreader checks the typeset copy and marks any errors using standard proof correction marks (such as those specified in style manuals, by house style, or, more broadly, by the international standard "ISO 5776", or, for English, the British Standard "BS-5261:2"). This process may be known as a "line edit". The proof is then returned to the typesetter for correction, and in many cases the production of a second proof copy (often known as a "revise"). Proofreading is considered a specific skill that must be learned because it is in the nature of the mind to correct errors automatically. Someone not trained in proofreading may not see errors such as missing words or improper usage because their mind is showing them what it is trained to recognize as correct. "DP Proofreading Guidelines"

The term "proofreading" is sometimes used incorrectly to refer to copy-editing. This is a separate activity, although there is some overlap between the two. Proofreading consists of reviewing any text, either hard copy on paper or electronic copy on a computer, and checking for typos and formatting errors. This may be done either against an original document or "blind" (without checking against any other source). Many modern proofreaders are also required to take on some light copy-editing duties, such as checking for grammar and consistency issues.

Proofreading in biology

The term proofreading is also used to refer to the error-correcting processes involved in DNA replication. In bacteria, all three DNA polymerases (I, II, and III) have the ability to proofread, using 3'->5' exonuclease activity. In eukaryotes only the polymerases that deal with the elongation (γ, δ and ε) have proofreading ability (3'->5' exonuclease activity).

See also

* Copy editing
* Distributed Proofreaders
* Fact checker
* Galley proof
* Obelism
* Style guide
* Typographical personification
* Typographical syntax
* Writing circles




External links

* [ Society for Editors and Proofreaders] (UK)
* [ Project Gutenberg Distributed Proofreaders]
* [ Advice on freelance proofreading and copy editing] (UK)
* [ Word Witch on Proofreading]
* [ Proofreaders' Marks] (USA)
* [ DP Proofreaders Guidelines] (USA)

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • proofreading — UK US /ˈpruːfriːdɪŋ/ noun [U] ► the act of finding and correcting mistakes in copies of printed text before the final copies are printed: »Most of the errors were corrected at the proofreading stage …   Financial and business terms

  • proofreading — proofreading. См. коррекция. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • proofreading — ▪ publishing  reading and marking corrections on a proof or other copy of the text of articles and books before publication (publishing, history of). Proofreading dates from the early days of printing. A contract of 1499 held the author finally… …   Universalium

  • proofreading — noun The act or process by which a document is proofread …   Wiktionary

  • proofreading — The property of certain polymerases, e.g., DNA polymerase, to use their exonuclease activity to remove erroneously introduced bases and to replace them with the correct bases …   Medical dictionary

  • proofreading — n. reading and correcting errors, editing, checking for mistakesv. read and mark mistakes; correct, edit, check for errors …   English contemporary dictionary

  • proofreading — The scanning of newly synthesized DNA for structural defects, such as mis matched base pairs. A functional activity of most DNA polymerases …   Glossary of Biotechnology

  • proofreading — proofˈreading noun • • • Main Entry: ↑proof …   Useful english dictionary

  • Conformational proofreading — is a general mechanism of molecular recognition systems, in which introducing a structural mismatch between a molecular recognizer and its target enhances the recognition specificity and quality. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] …   Wikipedia

  • Distributed Proofreading — Die Internet Site Distributed Proofreaders (DP) wurde im Jahr 2000 von Charles Franks ins Leben gerufen, um das internationale Project Gutenberg zu unterstützen. Hierbei versucht man, durch Unterteilung von eingescannten Büchern in einzelne… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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