- Rotator cuff
Name = Rotator cuff
GraySubject = 123
Caption = Muscles on the dorsum of the scapula, and the Triceps brachii.
Caption2 = The scapular and circumflex arteries.
The rotator cuff (rotor cuff) is an anatomical term given to the group of
muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. Along with the teres major and the deltoid, the four muscles of the rotator cuff make up the six scapulohumeral (those that connect to the humerusand scapula) muscles of the human body.
These muscles arise from the
scapulaand connect to the head of the humerusforming a cuff at the shoulder joint. They are important because they hold the head of the humerus in the small and shallow glenoid fossaof the scapula. The glenohumeral jointis often likened to a golf ballsitting on a golf tee. During elevation of the arm, the rotator cuff compresses the glenohumeral joint in order to allow the large deltoid muscleto further elevate the arm. In other words, without the rotator cuff, the humeral head would ride up partially out of the glenoid fossa, lessening the efficiency of the deltoid muscle.
Muscles composing rotator cuff
mnemonic"SITS," sometimes written "SItS" as an additional hint that the teres minor is a member, is often used to remember the four muscles of the rotator cuff.
Rotator cuff tear
This group of tendons can become torn, leading to
painand restricted movement of the arm. A torn rotator cuff can occur following a trauma to the shoulder or it can occur through "wear and tear" of the tendons (most commonly that of the supraspinatus) under the acromion. It is an injury frequently sustained by athletes whose duties involve making repetitive throws, such as baseball pitchers, American football quarterbacks, volleyball(due to their swinging motions), swimmers, boxers, kayaking, fast bowlers in cricket, and tennis players (due to their service motion). It is commonly associated with motions that require repeated overhead motions or forceful pulling motions.
Rotator cuff impingement
systematic reviewof relevant research found that the accuracy of the physical examination is low.cite journal |author=Hegedus EJ, Goode A, Campbell S, "et al" |title=Physical Examination Tests of the Shoulder: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis of Individual Tests |journal= |volume= |issue= |pages=80|year=2007 |pmid=17720798 |doi=10.1136/bjsm.2007.038406] The Hawkins-Kennedy test [cite web |url=http://www.shoulderdoc.co.uk/education/article.asp?article=580 |author=ShoulderDoc.co.uk Shoulder and Elbow Surgery | title=Hawkins-Kennedy Test|accessdate=2007-09-12 |format= |work= (video)] cite web |url=http://www.clinicalsportsmedicine.com/chapters/14d.htm |title=Chapter 14: Shoulder Pain |accessdate=2007-08-30 |format= |work=|author=Brukner P, Khan K, Kibler WB] has a sensitivity of approximately 80% to 90% for detecting impingement. The infraspinatusand supraspinatus[cite web |url=http://www.shoulderdoc.co.uk/education/article.asp?article=582 |title=Empty Can/Full Can Test|author=ShoulderDoc.co.uk Shoulder and Elbow Surgery |accessdate=2007-09-12 |format= |work= (video)] tests have a specificity of 80% to 90%.
Reduce pain and swelling
As with all muscle injuries, R.I.C.E. is the modality recommended by MDs, DOs, Physical Therapists, Athletic Trainers, and Chiropractors.Fact|date=June 2008
* "Rest" means ceasing movement of the affected area.
* "Icing" uses ice to reduce inflammation.
* "Compression" limits the swelling.
* "Elevation" involves placing the area higher to reduce inflammation and swelling.
Cold compression therapyis very useful for all muscle tears and strains as it reduces pain and swelling. Using a cold compression therapy wrap for 15 minutes before sleeping can aid in reducing the pain which causes a restless nights sleep.Fact|date=June 2008
The rotator cuff can be strengthened to rehabilitate shoulder injuries, and prevent future ones. There are different exercises to target the individual rotator cuff muscles.
Strengthening the rotator cuff allows for increased loads in a variety of exercises. When weightlifters are unable to increase the weight they can lift on a pushing exercise (such as the
bench pressor military press) for an extended period of time, strengthening the rotator cuff can often allow them to begin making gains again. It also prevents future injuries to the glenohumeral joint, balancing the often-dominant internal rotators with stronger external rotators. Finally, exercising the rotator cuff can lead to improved posture, as without exercise to the external rotator, the internal rotatorscan see a shortening, leading to tightness. This often manifests itself as rounded shoulders in the population.
When the rotator cuff is torn, surgery is usually required to reattach the tendon to the bone. [http://www.orthop.washington.edu/rotatorcuff]
* [http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-04/foas-fwt041907.php Free weight training gets workers with rotator cuff injuries back on the job] Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
* [http://blogbytravis.com/fitness/rotator-cuff-exercises/ Rotator Cuff Exercises]
* [http://www.howardluksmd.com/faq-shoulder/ Shoulder pain, Rotator Cuff, and Surgery]
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