Horticulture is the art and science of plant cultivation. Horticulturists (or horticuluralists) work and conduct research in the fields of
plant propagationand cultivation, crop production, plant breedingand genetic engineering, plant biochemistry, and plant physiology. The work particularly involves fruits, berries, nuts, vegetables, flowers, trees, shrubs, and turf. Horticulturists work to improve crop yield, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses.
The word horticulture is a 17th century English adaptation of the
Latin"hortus" ( garden) and "cultura" (culture). Horticulture is the art of gardeningor plant growing, in contrast to agronomy(the cultivation of field crops such as cereals and animal fodder), [ [http://www.enviroeducation.com/majors-programs/agron.html EnviroEducation.com - Environmental Majors and Programs - Agronomy ] ] forestry(cultivation of trees and products related to them), [Janick, Jules. 1979. "Horticultural science", p. 1. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.] or agriculture(the practice of farming).
The study of horticulture
Horticulture involves eight areas of study, which can be grouped into two broad sections - ornamentals and edibles:
Arboriculturethe study and selection, planting, care, and removal of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants.
Floriculture(includes production and marketing of floral crops),
*Landscape horticulture (includes production, marketing and maintenance of landscape plants).
Olericulture(includes production and marketing of vegetables).
Pomology(includes production and marketing of fruits)
Viticulture(includes production and marketing of grapes).
Postharvest physiology(involves maintaining quality and preventing spoilage of horticultural crops). Horticulturists can work in industry, government or educational institutions or private collections. They can be cropping systems engineers, wholesale or retail business managers, propagators and tissue culture specialists (fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, and turf), crop inspectors, crop production advisers, extension specialists, plant breeders, research scientists, and of course, teachers.
Disciplines which complement horticulture include
biology, botany, entomology, chemistry, mathematics, genetics, physiology, statistics, computer science, and communications, garden design, planting design. Plant science and horticulture courses include: plant materials, plant propagation, tissue culture, crop production, post-harvest handling, plant breeding, pollination management, crop nutrition, entomology, plant pathology, economics, and business. Some careers in horticultural science require a masters (MS) or doctoral (PhD) degree.
Horticulture is practised in many gardens, "plant growth centres" and nurseries. Activities in nurseries range from preparing seeds and cuttings to growing fully mature plants. These are often sold or transferred to ornamental gardens or market gardens.
Horticulture and anthropology
The origins of horticulture lie in the transition of human communities from nomadic
hunter-gatherers to sedentary or semi-sedentary horticultural communities, cultivating a variety of crops on a small scale around their dwellings or in specialized plots visited occasionally during migrations from one area to the next. (such as the " milpa" or maize field of Mesoamericancultures [von Hagen, V.W. (1957) The Ancient Sun Kingdoms Of The Americas. Ohio: The World Publishing Company] ). In forest areas such horticulture is often carried out in swiddens (" slash and burn" areas) [McGee, J.R. and Kruse, M. (1986) Swidden horticulture among the Lacandon Maya [videorecording (29 mins.)] . University of California, Berkeley: Extension Media Center] . A characteristic of horticultural communities is that useful trees are often to be found planted around communities or specially retained from the natural ecosystem.
Horticulture sometimes differs from agriculture in (1) a smaller scale of cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than large field of single crops (2) the cultivation of a wider variety of crops, often including fruit trees. In pre-contact North America the semi-sedentary horticultural communities of the Eastern Woodlands (growing maize, squash and sunflower) contrasted markedly with the mobile
hunter-gatherercommunities of the Plains people. In Central America, Maya horticulture involved augmentation of the forest with useful trees such as papaya, avocado, cacao, ceibaand sapodilla. In the cornfields, multiple crops were grown such as beans (using cornstalks as supports), squash, pumpkins and chilli peppers, in some cultures tended mainly or exclusively by women [Thompson, S.I. (1977) Women, Horticulture, and Society in Tropical America. American Anthropologist, N.S., 79: 908-910] .
The Genesee Farmer
History of gardening
Journal of applied horticulture
Royal Horticultural Society
* [http://www.culturesheet.org The CultureSheet Project] - an online encyclopedia of plant horticulture
* [http://www.ahs.org/ American Horticultural Society]
* [http://www.aih.org.au/ Australian Institute of Horticulture]
* [http://www.aushs.org.au/ Australian Society of Horticultural Science]
* [http://www.ashs.org/ ASHS - American Society for Horticultural Science]
* [http://www.bl.uk/collections/business/hortindu.html British Library - finding information on the horticulture industry]
* [http://hcs.osu.edu/history/history/034.html History of Horticulture]
* [http://www.postharvest.com.au/ Horticultural crop names and alternate names - Australia]
* [http://www.fao.org/hortivar HORTIVAR - The FAO Horticulture Cultivars Performance Database]
* [http://www.globalhort.org Global Horticulture Initiative - GlobalHort]
* [http://www.ishs.org/ ISHS - International Society for Horticultural Science]
* [http://webgarden.osu.edu/ Ohio State WebGarden - Horticulture resources - USA]
* [http://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/ Dept. of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University]
* [http://www.rhs.org.uk/ Royal Horticultural Society - United Kingdom]
* [http://www.theenglishgarden.co.uk/ The English Garden Magazine]
* [http://www.horticultureresearch.net/ The Journal of Applied Horticulture - USA]
* [http://www.lifestylehort.org/ The Australian Centre for Lifestyle Horticulture- Head Office Queensland]
* [http://www.ngiq.asn.au/ The Nursery & Garden Industry Queensland (NGIQ)]
* [http://www.flowersqueensland.asn.au/ Flower Association of Queensland Incorporated (FAQI)]
* [http://www.irrigation.org.au/ Irrigation Australia Limited (IAL)]
* [http://www.landscapequeensland.com.au/ Landscape Queensland Ind.(LQI)Syn.QALI]
* [http://www.parks-leisure.com.au/ Parks and Leisure Australia (PLA)]
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