- Liberal Catholic Church
The Liberal Catholic Church (LCC) is a form of
Christianityopen to Theosophical ideas and even reincarnation. It is not connected to the Roman Catholic Church. The title also is applied to various separate and independent denominations throughout the world holding many theosophical ideas in common.
The founding bishop of the Liberal Catholic Church was
J. I. Wedgwoodof the Wedgwood China family, who became a theosophist and was ordained as a priest in the Old Catholicmovement on July 22, 1913by Arnold Harris Mathew(whose membership in the Union of Utrecht was terminated in 1910). Archbishop Mathew was a resigned Roman Catholicpriest who had been consecrated by Archbishop Gerardus Gul of Utrecht on April 28, 1908and appointed as the first Old Catholicbishop in Britain. Thus the Liberal Catholic Church claims to trace its apostolic successionback to Romethrough Old Catholicism. In the end Mathew came to cease all ties with the Utrecht Union of Churches to vow allegiance once more to the Roman Catholic Church(this did not happen) and to advise those of his flock who were Theosophists to resign membership of the Theosophical Society Adyar. This advice was not taken seriously by many of the church's members. Wedgwood was consecrated to the episcopate on February 13, 1916by Bishop Frederick Samuel Willoughby(who had been consecrated by Bishop Matthew), and started the organisation that would later become the Liberal Catholic Church of which Wedgwood became the first Presiding Bishop. Bishop Wedgwood published articles within the Theosophical Societyon ceremonial work. These writings interested Charles Webster Leadbeater, an alleged clairvoyantand Anglican priestwho was consecrated as a Liberal Catholic bishopin 1916. C. W. Leadbeater became the 2nd Presiding Bishop. James I. Wedgwood------------------------------------- Charles Webster Leadbeater
The Liberal Catholic Church is governed by the "General Episcopal Synod" of all bishops. The synod meets formally every three years and it elects a Presiding Bishop from among their ranks as the church's chief executive officer. The current Presiding Bishop of the Liberal Catholic Church worldwide is the Right Reverend Graham Wale. The General Episcopal Synod also elects
priests to the episcopacy, with the approval of the parishes of their respective provinces. The bishops of the Liberal Catholic Church may hold office until the mandatory retirement age of 75.
Each province is governed by a regionary bishop who, in turn, may have one or more
bishops functioning as assistants. A province may also have its own Clerical Synod of deacons, priests and bishops. For the most part these clergy are not financially compensated and hold secular jobs. They also may marry and hold property.
Training for the clergy varies from province to province. The Liberal Catholic Institute of Studies was created to standardise the program of studies for the development of future
deacons and priests, but laypersons may follow the courses as well.
Basis of Teaching
According to church teaching, the Liberal Catholic Church draws the central inspiration of its work from an earnest faith in the living
Christ. It holds that the vitality of a church gains in proportion as its members not only revere and worship a Christwho lived two thousand years ago, but also strive to affirm in their lives the eternal Christ of whom St. John (Chapter 8:58) speaks: "Before Abraham was, I am." It is the Christwho ever lives as a mighty spiritual presence in the world, guiding and sustaining His people.
Liberal Catholicism regards these promises as validating all
Christian worship, of whatever kind, so long as it be earnest and true. But it further holds that while the promise of the presence with individual believers is thus effective, Christ also appointed certain rites or sacraments, called 'mysteries' in the Eastern Church, for the greater helping of his people, to be handed down in the Church as special channels of power and blessing. Through these 'means of grace' The Liberal Catholic Church believes that Christis ever present within His Church, in fellowship and Communion, guiding and protecting them from birthto death.
acraments and apostolic succession
According to the Liberal Catholic Church's "Statement of Principles", "The Liberal Catholic Church recognises seven fundamental
sacraments, which it enumerates as follows: Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Absolution, Holy Unction, Holy Matrimony, Holy Orders. It claims an unbroken apostolic successionthrough the Old Catholic Union of Utrecht and claims that its orders are 'acknowledged as valid throughout the whole of those churchesof Christendomwhich maintain the apostolic successionof orders as a tenet of their faith." The LCC International has modified their Statement of Principles to read "it (the LCC) has preserved an episcopal succession that is valid, as understood throughout the whole of those churches in Christendom that maintain the apostolic succession as a tenet of their faith."
In 1920, C.W. Leadbeater published a book for the use of the clergy of the Liberal Catholic Church called "The Science of the Sacraments". The book has pictures what Leadbeater said he saw with his claimed clairvoyant ability to observe etheric matter with his
third eye. The pictures show the effect of performing the sacraments on the distribution of etheric matter within the vicinity of the .
Unity of all religions
The Liberal Catholic Church believes that there is a body of doctrine and mystical experience common to all the great
religionsof the worldand which cannot be claimed as the exclusive possession of any. Moving within the orbit of Christianityand regarding itself as a distinctive Christian churchit nevertheless holds that the other great religionsof the world are also divinely inspired and that all proceed from a common source, though religionsmay stress different aspects of the various teachings and some aspects may even temporarily be ignored. These teachings, as facts in nature, rest on their own intrinsic merit. They form that true catholic faith which is catholicbecause it is the statement of universal principles. The LCC bases these beliefs on what St. Augustine said: "The identical thing that we now call the Christian religionexisted among the ancients and has not been lacking from the beginnings of the human race until the coming of Christin the flesh, from which moment on the true religion, which already existed, began to be called Christian." (Retract I. XIII,3). The same principle is involved in the declaration of St. Vincent of Lerins: "That let us hold which everywhere, always and by all has been believed: for this is truly and rightly catholic." .
Differences of Opinion
First schism and the LCCI
In 1941, there was a schism in the Liberal Catholic Church in the United States, surrounding a controversy involving Bishop
Charles Hamptonwho, while he was himself a Theosophist, wished to keep adherence to Theosophical tenets optional for the clergy. This was in keeping with what was taken to be the original intent of the church's founders who, although they were Theosophists, wanted the church to remain primarily open to everyone.
The controversy surrounding Bishop Hampton led to a legal battle in the United States which eventually split into two different divisions, both of which claimed to be the Liberal Catholic Church.
Frank W. Pigott, the church's 3rd Presiding Bishop in England, who held to a more Theosophical ideal for the church, removed Hampton and then ordered the confiscation of certain church property at the regionary headquarters in California and forced the resignation of those clergy under Hampton who refused to support his new episcopal replacement. At the time the majority of Liberal Catholics in the United States supported Hampton and saw his removal from the office of regionary and the other subsequent preceding as a breach of canon law and a violation of some of the laws of California under which the church had been incorporated in America. These clergy continued on their own and won the right to be called the Liberal Catholic Church in the U.S. (while being called the Liberal Catholic Church Internationalin the rest of the world). Those who followed Bishop Pigott in England became known in America as The Liberal Catholic Church, Province of the United States of America. Both divisions have similar structures of government and administration.
After Frank W. Pigott retired as the Presiding Bishop, and after attempts at a reconciliation, some of the clergy in the LCCI returned to the
Liberal Catholic Church, Province of the United States of America. Bishop Hampton died before the litigation was settled. While some clergy wish for more cooperation between the two divisions, they still exist independently.
LCC Theosophia Synod
Right Reverend Ernest W. Jackson had been the Regionary Bishop of The Liberal Catholic Church Province of Canada, (London, England). Without consultation with or agreement, the General Episcopal Synod attempted to depose him and dissolve the Province of Canada. Certain members of the synod subjected him to harsh and un-Christian political maneuvers and attacks.
Bishop Jackson was a devout, humble, and dedicated man, and wanted no part of these political machinations. It saddened him to see this, and other evidences of creeping authoritarianism happening within our church.
It saddened him to see that the synod had lost the original vision and purpose of the church as intended by our founding Bishops Wedgwood and Leadbeater.
Motivated to restore and maintain the "Original Vision and Purpose" of Bishops Wedgwood and Leadbeater, Bishop Jackson organized the Liberal Catholic Church Theosophia Synod on Advent, 1982.
Bishop Jackson consecrated Bishop John Schwarz to succeed him. Bishop Schwarz consecrated Bishops Judson Saas and James Lippert. Bishop Schwarz retired from leadership of the Church in 2005 and is no longer active. Bishop Judson Saas is the Episcopal Vicar General of The Liberal Catholic Church - Theosophia Synod
Liberals and Conservatives
In 2003 the issue of the limitation of the right of a bishop to ordain candidates of his choice gave rise to a schism into two groups: a 'conservative' and a more 'liberal' one. The ordination of women was the primary point of conflict. The parishes in the Dutch, Belgian and Canadian provinces elected their own Episcopal Synod under the presidency of the Right Reverend Tom Degenaars, claiming use of the name the Liberal Catholic Church. In 2002 the 'conservative' wing opened 'The Order of Our Lady' as an alternative for women seeking ordination. Since both groups call themselves The Liberal Catholic Church, distinguishing between the two is confusing. In 2003 the 'liberal' Episcopal Synod declared that women may be ordained. In 2007 the 'liberal' wing is represented in the Netherlands, Belgium, Canada, Austria, Denmark, Germany, Cameroon, both Congos, and Sweden.
In the United Kingdom another Liberal Catholic Jurisdiction exists under the leadership of Bishop Richard Palmer. This Church was founded by mandate in May 1999 and is known as the 'The Reformed Liberal Catholic Church (
Old Catholic)'. The RLCC doesn't emphasise theosophy, vegetarianismnor belief in the Masters as it holds that the individual has the right to choose whether to subscribe to these beliefs and practices.
Palmer was consecrated to the episcopate in the 'conservative' wing in 1997 and subsequently
consecratedProfessor Elizabeth Stuart of University of Winchesteras a bishop in the Open Episcopal Church on 10 April 2003 at the chapel of Royal Holloway, Egham assisted by Bishop Jonathan Blake and Bishop Michael Wilson. Stuart has since left the Open Episcopal Church and has been appointed the regionary bishopfor the British Province of the Liberal Catholic Church International.
In 2006 another reform resulted in the formation of a new group called the Young Rite. The past Presiding Bishop of the "mother" Liberal Catholic Church, Johannes van Alphen, who had resigned from the LCC in 2002, had consecrated Mario Herrera (in 2002) who in turn had consecrated Benito Rodriguez (in 2005). These three bishops consecrated Markus van Alphen, a former priest of the Dutch Liberal Catholic Church, in June 2006 in Hilversum, The Netherlands. In March of 2007 various bishops of the Independent Liberal Catholic Fellowship (formed in 2007) consecrated another Young Rite member (Aristid Havilcek of Slovenia) to the episcopacy. [ [http://www.independentoldcatholic.org/news.html The Liberal Rite - An independent Liberal Catholic community ] ]
Markus started the Young Rite as an autocephalous group operating within the Liberal Catholic tradition, yet separate from any of the Liberal Catholic Church organisations. Although the Young Rite shares many beliefs and customs with the Liberal Catholic Church and derives its apostolic succession from it, they are not affiliated with any of the Liberal Catholic Church organisations. The major difference between the traditional LCC and the Young Rite lies in the abolition of the separation between clergy and congregation. Everyone is allowed to request and receive ordination up to and including the priesthood. The Young Rite operates in the Netherlands, Nigeria, Slovenia and South Africa.
The Liberal Rite and the LCAC
The roots of The Liberal Rite go back to 1999, and the foundation of a small autocephalous group of Christians that was first called the British Liberal Free Church, later renamed the Society of the Divine Spirit. Subsequent developments saw the evolution of SDS into the English Liberal Free Church. In 2006, several major changes took place. The changes in ELFC, and specifically those to its ministerial team, set in place a re-organisation and renewal of mission that was largely complete by the end of 2006. Having used the name IOCCUS (Independent Old Catholic Church of the Utrecht Succession) in the interim period, the Presiding Bishops announced that from 1 January 2007, the denomination would bear the name The Liberal Rite. As independent Liberal Catholics within the esoteric tradition, the denomination has had no affiliation with other current denominations using variations of that name, but remained autocephalous throughout. In 2008, following a year of significant growth and development, The Liberal Rite Renamed the Liberal Catholic Apostolic Church.
OCC of British Columbia
The Old Catholic Church of British Columbia was established in 1921 as in independent communion. They use the
Liberal Ritein their church. In 2006, the church was granted conditional status as a member of the Utrecht Union. This lasted only a short period, as they withdrew from the Union the following year due to differences of opinion.
In April 2007, former LCCI Presiding Bishop Dean Bekken, several priests and St Francis Parish of San Diego left the LCCI to form the Liberal Catholic Church of California, now the Universal Catholic Church.
Differences of various Branches
The General Episcopal Synod of The Liberal Catholic Church worldwide requires its
clergyto believe in such Theosophical tenets as reincarnationand the ascended masters. It encourages its priests and its bishops to have a vegetariandiet and to refrain from using tobaccoas well as alcohol. Significantly it also continues to require deacons, priests and bishops to be male.
The Liberal Catholic Church International does not as a group require any belief in theosophical tenets, while it continues to accept them if they are the personal choice of the individual. Since 2004, the Liberal Catholic Church International opens the
ordination of womento all Holy Ordersup to and including bishop. The reformed movement in the Liberal Catholic Church (Dutch, Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, Sweden), retains the emphasis on the tenets defined by the founders of the Liberal Catholic Church, but practices the ordination of womento the Holy Orders, including the episcopate.
The Reformed Liberal Catholic Church began facilitating the ordination of women to all orders before other branches of the Liberal Catholic Church. It doesn't emphasise theosophy but holds that theosophy is a lense through which we can gain a deeper and broader understanding of religion. Clergy and laity are free to accept or reject this, but are expected to accept those who have differing views. Currently the RLCC is forming new Provinces around the world.
Warren Prall Watters
Free Church of Antioch
* Old Catholic Church
Liberal Catholic Church International
Liberal Catholic Church, Province of the United States of America
The Reformed Liberal Catholic Church (Old Catholic)
* [http://members.tripod.com/~LiberalCatholic/facts.htm] LCC Church USA
* [http://www.liberalcatholic.org/contacts.html] LCC Church International (Contacts)
* [http://www.independentoldcatholic.org/news.html] Independent Liberal Catholic Fellowship
* [http://www.independentoldcatholic.org/ilcf.html] ILCF Information
* [http://www.reformedlcc.org] The Reformed Liberal Catholic Church (Old Catholic)
* [http://TheLiberalCatholicChurch.org/ The Liberal Catholic Church] overview of the entire Liberal Catholic movements, regardless of jurisdiction
* [http://TheLiberalCatholicChurch.org/ApostSuccession.html LCC Apostolic succession] Data base of the Liberal Catholic Apostolic Successions since 1630
* [http://www.thelcc.org/ The Liberal Catholic Church, Province of the USA] The American branch of the more traditional church which emphasizes theosophical tenets
* [http://www.liberalcatholic.org/ Liberal Catholic Church International] the church in which theosophical tenets are allowed but not emphasized
* [http://www.lcc-orlando.org Liberal Catholic Church—Theosophia Synod] Orlando, Florida
* [http://www.reformedlcc.org/ The Reformed Liberal Catholic Church (Old Catholic)] the first Liberal Catholic Jurisdiction to Ordaine and Consecrate Women.
* [http://www.independentoldcatholic.org Liberal Catholic Apostolic Church] An independent Catholic church in the liberal tradition
* [http://www.youngrite.org/ The Young Rite]
* [http://www.oldcatholicbc.com Old Catholic Church of BC]
* [http://www.sophiacircle.org/ The Sophia Circle] clergy in the Esoteric Christian Tradition
* [http://www.universalcatholic.org Universal Catholic Church]
* [http://freechurchofantioch.org/ The Free Church of Antioch]
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