- Battle of Wuhan
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of Wuhan
Second Sino-Japanese War
caption=Chinese defenders around the
Yangtze Riverduring the Battle of Wuhan.
11 June– 27 October, 1938
National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China
[ [http://www.j-aircraft.com/research/George_Mellinger/soviet_fighters_in_the_sky_of_ch.htm Soviet Fighters in the sky of China] ]
Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japan
strength1=1,100,000 (120 divisions),
casualties1=~400,000 Chinese. [The Tragedy of Wuhan, 1938] , ~100 Soviet.Fact|date=July 2008
casualties2=~140,000. [The Tragedy of Wuhan, 1938]
The Battle of Wuhan (zh-stp|s=武汉会战|t=武漢會戰|p=Wǔhàn Huìzhàn), popularly known to Chinese as the Defense of Wuhan (zh-stp|s=武汉保卫战|t=武漢保衛戰|p= Wǔhàn Baǒwèizhàn), and to the Japanese as the Invasion of Wuhan (Japanese: 武漢攻略戦 "Bukan koryakūsen"), was a large-scale battle of the
Second Sino-Japanese War. More than one million National Revolutionary Armytroops were gathered, with Chiang Kai-shekhimself in command, to defend Wuhanfrom the Imperial Japanese Armyled by Yasuji Okamura. Engagements were in both northern and southern shores of Yangtze River, spreading across vast areas of Anhui, Henan, Jiangxiand Hubeiprovinces. It lasted four and half months, and was the longest, largest and one of the most significant battles of the entire Second Sino-Japanese War.
July 7 1937, the Imperial Japanese Armylaunched the full-scale invasion against China. With the onset of the war, Beijingand Tianjinfell to the Japanese in less than one month, which exposed the entire North China Plainto the Japanese Army. On November 12, the Japanese Army managed to capture Shanghai. Nanjingwas in risk of being besieged, and the Chinese government was forced to transfer its capital to Chongqing. However, the Chinese government did not transfer its elite troops and the war facilities to Chongqing immediately; instead, they were gathered together and setted up in Wuhan. Assistance from the USSR provided additional military and technical resources, including a small band of Soviet Air Force volunteers.
Importance of Wuhan
Wuhan, located in the midstream of
Yangtze River, was the second largest city at the time with a population of two million. [CHINA: 1931-1945 ISBN 7-5633-5509-X Page 192] The city was separated by Yangtze River and Hanshui, which divided Wuhan into three regions: Wuchang, Hankouand Hanyang. Wuchang was the political center, Hankou was mainly for commerce while Hanyang was the industrial estate. After the construction of Yuehan Railway, Wuhan became much more important as the traffic center in the inland China.
When Japan captured Nanjing on
December 13, the Chinese shifted their headquarters to Wuhan. Thus, Wuhan virtually became the political, economical and military center at the time, and the wartime capital of China. Now the Chinese war effort was focused on protecting Wuhan from being captured. The Japanese government and the headquarters of the China Expeditionary Force predicted that the fall of Wuhan for the Chinese would lead to the end of their resistance. [Japanese Imperial Conference, June 15 1938]
The Battle of Wuhan was preceded by the Japanese air strike on
February 28, 1938. [cite web|url=http://surfcity.kund.dalnet.se/sino-japanese.htm|title=Sino-Japanese Air War 1937-45] ["Wuhan Diary" February 28, 1938] It was known as the 2.28 Air battle and the Chinese were able to repel the attack.
March 24,the Diet of Japanpassed the National Mobilization Lawthat authorized unlimited funding of war. As part of the law, the National Service Draft Ordinance also allows the government draft civilians.
April 29, the Japanese air force launched major air strikes on Wuhan to celebrate their Emperor's birthday. [ja icon [http://dic.yahoo.co.jp/dsearch?p=%A4%C6%A4%F3%A4%C1%A4%E7%A4%A6%A4%BB%A4%C4&stype=1&dtype=0&dname=0ss Tenchosetsu] — Japanese national holiday (the birthday of the reigning emperor)] The Chinese, knowing this beforehand, were well prepared. This battle was known as the 4.29 Air battle, one the most intense air battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Chinese air force shot down 21 Japanese planes and lost only 12. ["Wuhan Daily" April 30, 1938.]
After the fall of Xuzhou in May 1938, the Japanese planned an extensive invasion of
Hankouand the takeover of Wuhan, intending to destroy the main force of the National Revolutionary Army. The Chinese, on the other hand, were preparing for the defense of Wuhan. They managed to gather up more than one million troops, around 200 planes and 30 naval ships. [Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)]
In an attempt to win more time for the preparation of the defense of Wuhan, the Chinese opened up the dikes of
Yellow Riverin Huayuankou, Zhenzhouon June 11. The flood, known now as the 1938 Yellow River flood, forced the Japanese to delay their attack on Wuhan. However, it also caused somewhere between 500,000–900,000 civilian deaths. [cite web|url=http://library.thinkquest.org/C003603/english/flooding/tenworst.shtml|title=Ten Worst Floods]
outh of Yangtze River
June 13, the Japanese made a naval landing that captured Anqing, which signalled the onset of the Battle of Wuhan. On the southern shore of Yangtze River, the Chinese 9th Military Region stationed one regiment west of Lake Poyang, another regiment was stationed between the line from Jiangxito Jiujiang. The Japanese 11th Army main force attacked along the southern shore of the River. The Japanese Namita detachment landed in the east of Jiujiang on July 23. The Chinese defenders tried to resist, but they could not stop the 106th Japanese Division from landing as well and Jiujiang was captured on the 26th. The Namita detachment moved eastward along the river, and landed northeast of Ruichangon August 10and began laying siege to the city. The defending 3rd Chinese Army (Group?) were reinforced by the 32nd Army Group and resisted. However, when the Japanese 9th Division entered the action, the Chinese defenders were exhausted and Ruichang was eventually captured on the 24th. The 9th Division and the Namita detachment continued to move eastward along the river, while the 27th Division invaded Ruoxisimultaneously. The Chinese 30th Army and the 18th Army resisted along the Ruichang-Wuning Road and the surrounding area, and the situation was in stalemate for months. On October 5, after the Japanese 27th Division captured Ruoxi, they turned to strike northeast and captured Xintanpuin Hubeion the 18th and began moving toward Dazhi.
In the meantime, the Japanese Army and their supporting river fleet that advanced eastward along the River encountered resistance from the defending Chinese 31st Army Company and 32nd Army Group in the west of Ruichang. When
Matou Townand Fuchikou(in Yangxin County) were captured, the Chinese 2nd Army Group organized 6th, 56th, 75th and 98th along with the 30th Army Group to strengthen the defense of Yangxin region. The battle continued until October 22when Chinese lost all of Yangxin, Dazhi and Hubei City. The Japanese 9th Division and Namita detachment were now approaching Wuchang.
While the Japanese Army was attacking
Ruichang, the 106th Division separately moved southward along the Nanxun Railway( Nanchang- Jiujiang). The defending Chinese 1st and 29th Army Group and the 4th, 8th Army relied on the advantageous terrain of Lu Shanand north of Nanxun Railway to provide resistance. As a result, the Japanese offensive suffered a setback. On August 20, the Japanese 101st Division crossed the Poyang Lakefrom Hukouto reinforce the 106th Division. They breached the Chinese 25th Army's defensive line and captured Xinzhi, coordinating with the 106th Division to attempt to occupy Dean and Nanchang, to protect the south side of the Japanese Army advancing westward. Xue Yue, the commander-in-chief of the Chinese 1st Army Group, used the 66th, 74th, 4th and 29th Army to coordinate with the 25th Army to fight the Japanese in Mahui Summitand north of De-an. The battle was in a stalemate.
Near the end of September, the Japanese 123rd, 145th, 147th, 101st and 149th Regiment of the 106th Division advanced into the
Wanjialingregion, west of Dean. Chinese general Xue Yue commanded the 4th, 66th and the 77th Army to outflank the Japanese. The 27th Division of the Japanese Army attempted to reinforce the position, but were repulsed by the Chinese 32nd Army in Baisui Street, west of Wanjialing. On October 7, the Chinese Army launched their final attack on the encircled Japanese troops. The fierce battle continued for three days, and all Japanese counter-attacks were repelled by the Chinese. Because of their isolation, and the lack of supplies, the four Japanese regiments were annihilated by the 10th. It was known to the Chinese as the Victory of Wanjialing (zh-stp|s=万家岭大捷|t=萬家嶺大捷|p=Wànjīalîng Dàjíe).
North of Yangtze River
In the north of
Yangtze River, the Japanese 6th Division of the 11th Army Group struck Taihu from Anhuion July 24. They breached the defensive lines of Chinese 31st and 68th Army, and captured Taihu, Susong, Huangmei (belonging to Hubei) regions on August 3. After the Japanese continued to move westward, the Chinese 4th Army Group of the 5th Military Region set their main force in Guangji, Hubei and Tianjia Town to intercept the Japanese. The 11th Army Company and the 68th Army were ordered to defend tenaciously on the defensive line in Huangmei region, while the 21st, 26th and the 29th Army Company were shifted south to sideswipe the Japanese.
The Chinese recaptured Taihu, Susong on
August 28. With the momentum, the 11th Army Company and the 68th Army launched counter-offensives but were unsuccessful. They retreated to the Guangjiregion to coordinate with the Chinese 26th, 86th and 55th Army to continue to resist the Japanese Army. The 4th Army Group ordered the 21st, 29th Army Company to sideswipe the Japanese from northeast of Huangmei, but they were unable to stop the Japanese. Guangji and Wuxuewere captured sequentially. The Japanese Army then lay siege to Tianjia Town Fort. The 4th Army Group used the defending 2nd Army to strengthen the 87th Army's base, and the 26th, 48th and 86th Army to coordinate and sideswipe the Japanese. However, they were suppressed by the superior Japanese firepower and experienced high casualties. The Tianjia Town Fort was captured on the 29th, and the Japanese continued to attack. They captured Huangpo on October 24and were now approaching Hankou.
In the north of
Dabie Mountains, the 3rd Army Group of the 5th Military Region stationed the 51st Army, 19th Army Group and the 77th Army in the Liuan, Huoshanregions in Anhui. The 71st Army was stationed in Fujin Mountain, Gushi(belongs to Henan) regions. The 2nd Army Company was stationed in Shang City, Henanand Ma City, Hubei. The 27th Army Group and the 59th Army was stationed in Huang Riverregion, and the 17th Army was in Xinyangregion to organize the defensive works.
The Japanese attacked in late August with the 2nd Group Army marching from Heifei on two different routes. The south route of 13th Division breached the Chinese 77th Army's defensive line and captured Huoshan, turning towards Yejiaji. The nearby 71st Army and the 2nd Army Company used the existing base and forcefully resisted. The Japanese 13th Division was baffled and required the 16th Division to reinforce. On
September 16, the Japanese captured Shang City. The defenders retreated to south of Shang City, relying on the strategic pass of Dabie Mountains and continued to resist. On October 24, the Japanese were approaching Ma City.
The Japanese Army in north route was the 10th Division. They breached the Chinese 51st Army's defensive line and captured Liuan on
August 28. On September 6, they captured Gushi and proceeded to move westward. The Chinese 27th Army Group and the 59th Army gathered up in the area of Huang River to organize resistance. After ten days of struggle, the Japanese captured Huang River on the 19th. On the 21st, the Japanese 10th Division pierced through the base of Chinese 17th Army Group and 45th Army, and captured Luoshan. Then they continue to move westward, but experienced Chinese counter in the east of Xinyang and was forced to withdraw back to Luoshan. The Japanese 2nd Army Group used the 3rd Division to reinforce, and work in coordination with the 10th Division to attack Xinyang. On October 6, a unit of Japanese Army detoured south of Xintang and captured Liulin station of Pinhan Railway. On the 12th, the Japanese 2nd Army Group captured Xinyang, and moved southward along the Pinhan Railway to coordinate with the 11th Army Group on invading Wuhan.
By now the Japanese Army had completed the encirclement of Wuhan. The Chinese Army, hoping to save their existing strength, abandoned the city. The Japanese Army captured Wuchang and
Hankouon the 26th, and captured Hanyangon the 27th. The Japanese completed their conquest of Wuhan.
Use of chemical weapons
Yoshiaki Yoshimiand Seiya Matsuno Emperor Shōwaauthorized by specific orders (rinsanmei) the use of chemical weapons against the Chinese. ["Dokugasusen Kankei Shiryō II, Kaisetsu," Jūgonen sensō gokuhi shiryōshū, Funi Shuppankan, 1997, pp.25–29.] During the battle of Wuhan, Prince Kan'intransmitted the emperor's orders to use toxic gas on 375 separate occasions, from August to October 1938, [Yoshimi and Matsuno, ibid. p.28.] despite Article 23 of the Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907), article 171 of the Versailles Peace Treaty, article V of the Treaty in Relation to the Use of Submarines and Noxious Gases in Warfare[http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Washington_Treaty_in_Relation_to_the_Use_of_Submarines_and_Noxious_Gases_in_Warfare] and a resolution adopted by the League of Nationson May 14condemning the use of toxic gas by the Imperial Japanese Army. [Herbert Bix, "Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan", Perennial, 2001, p.739]
After four months of violent battles, the Chinese air force and naval force was essentially wiped out, and the Japanese occupied Wuhan. However, most of the Chinese troops survived, and the Japanese army was considerably weakened. The Japanese's pre-war hopes for a "final showdown" in Wuhan, to annihilate the main force of Chinese Army and forcing them to yield were unsuccessful.Fact|date=February 2007 With numerous battles around
Changsha, the China theatre now entered the stage of stalemate with no major Japanese offensives until Operation Ichi-Goin 1944.
Order of battle of Battle of Wuhan
Battle of Nanchang
Imperial Japanese Army
National Revolutionary Army
* [http://tw.wrs.yahoo.com/_ylt=A8tUyvSeYMZEI9EAdsBr1gt.;_ylu=X3oDMTB2bGViN2ZsBGNvbG8DZQRsA1dTMQRwb3MDNARzZWMDc3IEdnRpZAM-/SIG=12511dpcc/EXP=1153937950/**http%3a//big5.huaxia.com/js/zzhg/2005/00362849.html Battle of Wuhan: Shatter the Japanese ambitions!]
* [http://tw.wrs.yahoo.com/_ylt=A8tUyvSeYMZEI9EAksBr1gt./SIG=12f3ff0j0/EXP=1153937950/**http%3a//tw.knowledge.yahoo.com/question/%3fqid=1205082319881 Yachoo! Kimo Battle of Wuhan Knowledge]
* [http://museum.mnd.gov.tw/ NRA Museum]
* [http://www.j-aircraft.com/research/George_Mellinger/china_skys_part_4.htm Soviet Fighters in the Sky of China IV]
* [http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=90259 Axis History Forum, Japanese Landing Operations - Yangtze, summer of 1938]
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