John Eliot (statesman)

John Eliot (statesman)

name = Sir John Eliot
residence =
other_names =

image_size = 200px
caption =
birth_name =
birth_date = birth date|1592|04|11
birth_place = Cuddenbeak, Port Eliot, Cornwall, England
death_date = death date and age|1632|11|27|1592|04|11
death_place = Tower of London, England
death_cause = tuberculosis
known =
occupation =
title = Lord Eliot
salary =
term =
predecessor =
successor =
party =
boards =
religion =
spouse = Radigund Gedie (various spellings)
partner =
children = John Eliot (18 October, 1612 - March 1685)
Richard Eliot (c. 1614 - unknown)
Elizabeth Eliot (c. December 1616 - unknown)
Edward Eliot (c. July 1618 - unknown)
Bridget Eliot (c. April 1620 - unknown)
Radigunda Eliot (c. October 1622 - unknown)
Susanna Eliot (c. October 1624 - unknown)
Thomas Eliot (c. September 1626 - unknown)
Nicholas Eliot (c. June 1628 - unknown)
parents = Richard Eliot and Bridget Carswell
relations =
website =
footnotes =
employer =
height =
weight =

Sir John Eliot (11 April, 1592 - 27 November, 1632), English statesman, son of Richard Eliot (1546 - 22 June, 1609) and Bridget Carswell (c. 1542 - March 1617), was born at Cuddenbeak, a farm on his father's Port Eliot estate at St Germans in Cornwall. He was baptised on 20 April at St Germans Church, immediately next to Port Eliot. The Eliot family were an old Devon family that had settled in Cornwall.

John Eliot was educated at Blundell's School, Tiverton, and matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford, on 4 December, 1607, and, leaving the university after three years, he studied law at one of the Inns of Court. He also spent some months travelling in France, Spain and Italy, in company, for part of the time, with young George Villiers, afterwards 1st Duke of Buckingham. Eliot was only twenty-two when he began his parliamentary career as Member of Parliament for St Germans in the "Addled Parliament" of 1614. In May 1618, he was knighted, and next year through the patronage of Buckingham he obtained the appointment of Vice-Admiral of Devon, with large powers for the defence and control of the commerce of the county. It was not long before the characteristic energy with which he performed the duties in his office involved him in difficulties. After many attempts, in 1623, he succeeded by a clever but dangerous manoeuvre in entrapping the famous pirate John Nutt, who had for years infested the southern coast, inflicting immense damage upon English commerce. However, the pirate, having a powerful protector at court in Sir George Calvert, the secretary of state, was pardoned; while the Vice-Admiral, upon charges which could not be substantiated, was flung into the Marshalsea prison, and detained there nearly four months.

A few weeks after his release, Eliot was elected Member of Parliament for NewportConrad Russell, ‘Eliot, Sir John (1592–1632)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Oct 2006 [ accessed 16 Dec 2007] ] (February 1624). On 27 February 27, he delivered his first speech, in which he at once revealed his great powers as an orator, demanding boldly that the liberties and privileges of Parliament, repudiated by James I in the former Parliament, should be secured. In the first Parliament of Charles I, in 1625, he urged the enforcement of the laws against the Roman Catholics. Meanwhile he had continued the friend and supporter of Buckingham and greatly approved of the war with Spain.

Buckingham's incompetence, however, and the bad faith with which both he and the King continued to treat the parliament, alienated Eliot. Distrust of his former friend quickly grew in Eliot's mind to a certainty of his criminal ambition. Returned to the parliament of 1626 as Member for St Germans, Eliot found himself, in the absence of other leaders of the opposition whom the King had secured by nominating them sheriffs, the leader of the House. He immediately demanded an inquiry into the recent disaster at Cádiz. On 27 March, he made an open and daring attack upon Buckingham and his administration. He was not intimidated by the King's threatening intervention on 29 March, and persuaded the House to defer the actual grant of the subsidies and to present a remonstrance to the King, declaring its right to examine the conduct of ministers. On 8 May, he was one of the managers who carried Buckingham's impeachment to the Lords, and, on 10 May 10, he delivered the charges against him, comparing him in the course of his speech to Sejanus. wikisource|Speech on the Petition of Right|Speech of Sir John Eliot against Buckingham

Next day, Eliot was sent to the Tower. When the Commons declined to proceed with business as long as Eliot and Sir Dudley Digges (who had been imprisoned with him) were in confinement, they were released, and Parliament was dissolved on 15 June. Eliot was immediately dismissed from his office of Vice-Admiral of Devon, and, in 1627, he was again imprisoned for refusing to pay a forced loan, but liberated shortly before the assembling of the Parliament of 1628, to which he was returned as Member for Cornwall. He joined in the resistance now organized to arbitrary taxation, was foremost in the promotion of the Petition of Right, continued his outspoken censure of Buckingham, and after the latter's assassination in August, led the attack, in the session of 1629, on the ritualists and Arminians.

In February the great question of the right of the King to levy tonnage and poundage came up for discussion. On the King ordering an adjournment of Parliament, the speaker, Sir John Finch, was held down in the chair by Denzil Holles and Benjamin Valentine while Eliot's resolutions against illegal taxation and innovations in religion were read to the House. In consequence, Eliot, with eight other members, was imprisoned on 4 March in the Tower. He refused to answer in his examination, relying on his parliamentary privilege and, on 29 October, was again sent to the Marshalsea. On 26 January, he appeared at the bar of the King's Bench, in front of Lord Chief Justice Sir Nicholas Hyde, with Holles and Valentine, to answer a charge of conspiracy to resist the King's order, and refusing to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the court (see "R v. Eliot, Hollis and Valentine".) He was fined £2000 and ordered to be imprisoned during the King's pleasure and till he had made submission. This he steadfastly refused. While some of the prisoners appear to have had certain liberty allowed to them, Eliot's confinement in the Tower was made exceptionally severe. Charles's anger had always been directed chiefly against him, not only as his own political antagonist but also as the prosecutor and bitter enemy of Buckingham; "an outlawed man," he described him, "desperate in mind and fortune."

Eliot languished in prison for some time, during which he wrote several works:
*"Negotium posterorum", an account of the parliament in 1625;
*"The Monarchie of Man", a political treatise;
*"De jure majestatis, a Political Treatise of Government";
*"An Apology for Socrates", his own defence.

In the spring of 1632, he fell into a decline. In October he petitioned Charles for permission to go into the country, but leave could be obtained only at the price of submission and was finally refused. He died of consumption on 27 November, 1632, and was buried at St Peter's Ad Vincula Church within the Tower.

When his son requested permission to move the body to St Germans, Charles refused, saying: "Let Sir John Eliot be buried in the church of that parish where he died." The suspicious manner of Eliot's death, as the result of the King's implacability and severe treatment, had more effect, probably, than any other single incident in embittering and precipitating the dispute between King and parliament. Eliot was a great orator, inspired by enthusiasm and high ideals, which he was able to communicate to his hearers by his eloquence, but he was inferior to John Pym both as a party leader and as a statesman.

In 1668, the House of Lords reversed his conviction, restating the law in Strode's case, affirming that the conviction "...was an illegal judgement, and against the freedom and privilege of Parliament".


In 1611, Eliot married Radigund or Rhadagund, (c. 1595 - June 1628), daughter of Richard Gedie of Trebursye in Cornwall, by whom he had five sons and four daughters:
*John Eliot (18 October, 1612 - March 1685)
*Richard Eliot (c. 1614 - unknown)
*Elizabeth Eliot (c. December 1616 - unknown)
*Edward Eliot (c. July 1618 - unknown)
*Bridget Eliot (c. April 1620 - unknown)
*Radigunda Eliot (c. October 1622 - unknown)
*Susanna Eliot (c. October 1624 - unknown)
*Thomas Eliot (c. September 1626 - unknown)
*Nicholas Eliot (c. June 1628 - unknown)

Peregrine Nicholas Eliot, 10th Earl of St Germans, (b. 1941) is descended from the youngest son, Nicholas.


*The "Life of Sir J. Eliot", by J Forster (1864)as supplemented and corrected by
*Gardiner's "History of England", vols. v.-vii., and the article in the
*Dictionary of National Biography, by the same author.
*Eliot's writings, together with his Letter-Book, have been edited by Dr Grosart.

NAME = Eliot, John
SHORT DESCRIPTION = Member of Parliament, Statesman, Vice-Admiral of Devon
DATE OF BIRTH = 1592-04-11
PLACE OF BIRTH = Cuddenbeak, Port Eliot, St Germans, Cornwall
DATE OF DEATH = 1532-11-27
PLACE OF DEATH = Tower of London, London

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • John Eliot — may refer to:*Sir John Eliot (statesman) (1592 ndash;1632), English politician *John Eliot (missionary) (c. 1604 ndash;1690), English Puritan minister and missionary *John Eliot (psychologist) *John Eliot Historic District, Massachusetts, U.S.A.… …   Wikipedia

  • Eliot — /el ee euht, el yeuht/, n. 1. Charles William, 1834 1926, U.S. educator: president of Harvard University 1869 1909. 2. George (Mary Ann Evans), 1819 80, English novelist. 3. John ( the Apostle of the Indians ), 1604 90, American colonial… …   Universalium

  • Eliot —   [ eljət],    1) Charles William, amerikanischer Bildungspolitiker, * Boston (Massachusetts) 20. 3. 1834, ✝ Northeast Harbor (Me.) 22. 8. 1926; war 1869 1909 Präsident der Harvard University, die er durch umfangreiche Reformen zur führenden… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • John Enoch Powell — [dʒɔn i:nɔk pauəl] (* 16. Juni 1912 in Strechford, Birmingham; † 8. Februar 1998 in London), MBE, war ein britischer Politiker. Umstritten während der Karriere, währte seine Amtszeit nur kurz. Seine Fähigkeiten als Polemiker und Redner sicherten… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Eliot, T.S. — ▪ Anglo American poet Introduction in full  Thomas Stearns Eliot  born September 26, 1888, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S. died January 4, 1965, London, England  American English poet, playwright, literary critic, and editor, a leader of the modernist… …   Universalium

  • John Middleton Murry — For other people with a similar name, see John Murray (disambiguation). For his son who was also a writer, see John Middleton Murry, Jr.. Grave of John Middleton Murry at Thelnetham Church in Suffolk John Middleton Murry (6 August 1889 – 12 March …   Wikipedia

  • John Maynard Keynes — Keynes redirects here. For other uses, see Keynes (disambiguation). John Maynard Keynes Keynesian economics John Maynard Keynes Born …   Wikipedia

  • John Maynard Keynes — « Keynes » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Keynes (homonymie). John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes (à droite) avec le peintre Duncan Grant …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Eliot — I. biographical name Charles William 1834 1926 American educator; president Harvard U. (1869 1909) II. biographical name George 1819 1880 pseudonym of Mary Ann (or Marian) Evans English novelist III. biographical name Sir John 1592 1632 English… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • T. S. Eliot — Infobox Writer name = T. S. Eliot birthname = Thomas Stearns Eliot birthdate = birth date|1888|9|26|df=y birthplace = St. Louis, Missouri, United States deathdate = death date and age|1965|1|4|1888|9|26|df=y deathplace = London, England, United… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”