- English nationalism
English nationalism is the name given to a nationalist
political movementin Englandthat desires national independencefor England.
In recent years this has been advocated via a devolved English Parliament. Some English nationalists go further, and seek the re-establishment of an independent sovereign state of
England, via the dissolution of the United Kingdom. England is the only constituent countryof the United Kingdom and the only Home Nationof the British Islescurrently lacking a devolved administrative government or assembly, although the Greater Londonregion has similar powers. A referendum was held in 2004 over whether to grant such a status to North East England, as the first of a plan to implement similar regional assemblies across the country; after the vote was defeated, similar plans in other regions were cancelled.
The history of English nationalism is a contested area of scholarship. The historian
Adrian Hastingshas written that: "One can find historians to date 'the dawn of English national consciousness' (or some such phrase) in almost every century from the eighth to the nineteenth". [Adrian Hastings, "The Construction of Nationhood. Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism" (Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 35.]
Patrick Wormald has claimed that England was a nation by the time of the Venerable Bede, who wrote the "
Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum" ("Ecclesiastical History of the English People") around 730. [Patrick Wormald, 'The Venerable Bede and the "Church of the English"', Geoffrey Rowell (ed.), "The English Religious Tradition and the Genius of Anglicanism" (Wantage: Ikon, 1992), p. 26.] Wormald attributes Bede with a decisive "role in defining English national identity and English national destiny". [Wormald, p. 26.] Bede uses the label "English" to describe the Germanic peoples who inhabited Britain: Angles, Saxons and Jutes and excludes Britons, Scots and Picts. [Hastings, p. 37.] In the final paragraph to the preface of the "Ecclesiastical History of the English People" Bede departs from the usual word "gens" and instead uses the word "natio" to describe the "historia nostrae nationis": the history of our own nation. This is the first verbal appearance of the English nation. [Hastings, p. 38.]
The Anglo-Saxon poem "
The Battle of Maldon" described the said battle between the Anglo-Saxon forces of Ethelred the Unreadyagainst a Vikinginvasion in 991. The poem praises the Anglo-Saxons defence of "their land, the land of Ethelred the King, the place and the people" and Byrhtnoth, earl of Essex, is attributed as saying: "Shall our people, our nation, bear you to go hence with our gold?" [Hastings, p. 42.]
Both Hastings and James Campbell believe England was a nation-state during late Anglo-Saxon times. Campbell writes that by the
Norman conquestof 1066, "England was by then a nation-state". [James Campbell, 'The United Kingdom of England: The Anglo-Saxon Achievement', Alexander Grant and Keith J. Stringer (eds.), "Uniting the Kingdom? The Making of British History" (London: Routledge, 1995), p. 31.]
The Norman conquest introduced a ruling class over England who displaced English land owners and clergy, and who spoke only French.
William of Malmesbury, a chronicler of mixed Anglo-Norman descent writing in the twelfth century, described the Battle of Hastingsas: "That fatal day for England, the sad destruction of our dear country ["dulcis patrie"] . [M. T. Clanchy, "England and Its Rulers: 1066–1272" (Blackwell, 1998), p. 24.] He also lamented that "England has become the habitation of outsiders and the dominion of foreigners. Today, no Englishman is earl, bishop, or abbott, and newcomers gnaw away at the riches and very innards of England; nor is there any hope for an end of this misery". [Hugh M. Thomas, "The English and the Normans: Ethnic Hostility, Assimilation and Identity 1066–c.1220" (Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 56.] Another chronicler, Robert of Gloucester, recorded in the mid to late thirteenth century:
...the Norman could not speak anything then except their own speech, and they spoke French as they had done at home, and had their children taught it, too, so that important men in this country who come from their stock all keep to that same speech that they derived from them; because, unless a man knows French, he is thought little of. But humble men keep to English and their own speech still. I reckon there are no countries in the whole world that do not keep to their own speech, except England only. [Basil Cottle, "The Triumph of English 1350–1400" (London: Blandford Press, 1969), p. 16.]
King Edward I, when issuing writs for summon parliament in 1295, claimed that the King of France planned to invade England and extinguish the English language, "a truly detestable plan which may God avert". [Hastings, p. 45.] [" [Rex Franciae] "linguam anglicam, si conceptae iniquitatis proposito detestabili potestas correspondeat, quod Deus avertat, omnino de terra delere proponit"." William Stubbs, "Select Charters" (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1946), p. 480.]
In the "
Cursor Mundi", an anonymous religious poem in northern Middle English dating from approximately 1300, appears the words: "Of Ingland the nacion". [Hastings, p. 15.] The Prologue starts:
Efter haly kyrces state
Þis ilke bok it es translate,
Into Inglis tong to rede,
For þe love of Inglis lede,
Inglis lede of Ingeland,
For þe commun at understand.
Frankis rimes here I redd
Comunlik in ilk a sted;
Mast es it wroght for Frankis man—
Quat is for him na Frankis can?
Of Ingeland þe nacioun,
Es Inglis man þar in commun.
Þe speche þat man with mast may spede,
Mast þarwith to speke war nede.
Selden was for ani chance
Praised Inglis tong in France;
Give we ilk an þar langage,
Me think we do þam non outrage.
To lauid Inglis man I spell...
This can be translated into modern English as:
This same book is translated, in accordance with the dignity of Holy Church, into the English tongue to be read, for love of the English people, the English people of England, for the common people to understand. I have normally read French verses everywhere here; it is mostly done for the Frenchman—what is there for him who knows no French? As for the nation of England, it is an Englishman who is usually there. It ought to be necessary to speak mostly the speech that one can best get on with. Seldom has the English tongue by any chance been praised in France; if we give everyone their own language, it seems to me we are doing them no injury. I am speaking to the English layman... [Cottle, p. 17.]
During the later decades of the fourteenth century English started to come back into official use. The
Pleading in English Act 1362sought to replace French with English for all pleas in courts. The Mercers' Petition to Parliament of 1386 is the oldest piece of parliamentary English; the earliest English wills at the London Court of Probate date from 1387; the earliest English returns of the ordinances, usages, holdings of the gilds are from 1389 and come from London, Norwichand King's Lynn. [Cottle, pp. 17-18.] John Trevisa, writing in 1385, noted that: "...in all the grammar schools of England children are dropping French and construing and learning in English...Also gentlemen have now largely stopped teaching their children French". [Cottle, pp. 20-21.]
Hundred Years' Warwith France (1337–1453) aroused English nationalist feeling. [Hastings, p. 47.] May McKisackhas claimed that "The most lasting and significant consequences of the war should be sought, perhaps, in the sphere of national psychology...For the victories were the victories, not only of the king and of the aristocracy, but of the nation". [May McKisack, "The Fourteenth Century 1307–1399" (Oxford University Press, 1959), p. 150.] When the Ordinance of Normandy(in which the French King called for the elimination of the English nation and language in a second Norman conquest of England) was discovered in 1346 it was used for propaganda purposes by England. After the Siege of Calaisof 1346, King Edward III expelled the inhabitants of that city because, in his words, "I wolde repeople agayne the towne with pure Englysshmen". [William Paton Ker (ed.), "The Chronicle of Froissart. Translated out of French by Sir John Bourchier, Lord Berners", i, (London: David Nutt, 1901–3), p. 322.] When King Henry V conquered Harfleurin 1415, he ordered the inhabitants to leave and imported English immigrants to replace them. [W. G. Boswell, "Shakespeare's Holinshed. The Chronicle and the Historical Plays Compared" (Chatto and Windus, 1907), p. 181, n. 1.] Edward III promoted Saint Georgeduring his wars against Scotland and France. Under Edward I and Edward II, pennons bearing the Cross of Saint George were carried, along with those of Saint Edmund the Martyr and Saint Edward the Confessor. However Edward III promoted St George over the previous national saints of St Edmund, St Edward the Confessor and Saint Gregory the Great. [Ian Mortimer, "The Perfect King. The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation" (Vintage, 2008), p. 60.] [Henry Summerson, ‘ [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/60304 George (d. c.303?)’] , "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Oct 2007, accessed 3 Oct 2008.] On 13 August 1351 St George was celebrated as "the blessed George, the most invincible athlete of Christ, whose name and protection the English race invoke as that of their patron, in war especially". [Summerson.] In Chichesterin 1368 a guild was founded "to the honour of the holy Trinity and of its glorious martyr George, protector and patron of England". [Summerson.] The Cross of St George was used by Edward III as banners on his ships and carried by his armied. St George became and patron saint of England and his cross eventually became the flag of England. [Mortimer, p. 398.] Laurence Minot, writing in the early fourteenth century, wrote patriotic poems celebrating Edward III's military victories against the Scots, French, Bohemians, Spaniards, Flemings and the Genoese. [Cottle, p. 61.] [Douglas Gray, ‘ [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/18812 Minot, Laurence (fl. early 14th cent.)] ’, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 13 Sept 2008.]
After the English victory at Cressy in 1346, a cleric wrote a Latin poem criticising the French and extolling the English:
:Francia, foeminea, pharisaea, vigoris idea:Lynxea, viperea, vulpina, lupina, Medea...:Anglia regna, mundi rosa, flos sine spina:Mel sine sentina, vicisti bella marina. [Hastings, p. 49.]
In English, this is:
:France, womanish, pharisaic, embodiment of might:Lynx-like, viperish, foxy, wolfish, a
Medea...:Realm of England, rose of the world, flower without thorn,:Honey without dregs; you have won the war at sea. [Thomas Beaumont James and John Simons (eds.), "The Poems of Laurence Minot 1333–1352" (University of Exeter Press, 1989), p. 86, p. 93.]
:Deo gratias Anglia redde pro victoria!
:Owre Kynge went forth to Normandy:With grace and myght of chyvalry:Ther God for hym wrought mervelusly;:Wherefore Englonde may call and cry
:Deo gratias::Deo gratias Anglia redde pro victoria.
John Wycliffe(1320s–1384), the founder of the reformist Lollard movement, argued against the power of the Pope over England: "Already a third and more of England is in the hands of the Pope. There cannot be two temporal sovereigns in one country; either Edward is king or Urban is king. We make our choice. We accept Edward of England and refuse Urban of Rome". [Rev. James Aitken Wylie, "The History of Protestantism. Volume I" (London: Cassell, 1878), p. 67.] Wycliffe justified his translating the Bible into English: "The gospels of Crist written in Englische, to moost lernyng of our nacioun". [Hastings, p. 15.]
The historian of the Tudor period,
Geoffrey Elton, has asserted that the "Tudor revolution in government" under King Henry VIII and his chief minister Thomas Cromwell has as its chief ingredient a concept of "national sovereignty". [G. R. Elton, "England under the Tudors. Third Edition" (London: Routledge, 1991), p. 160.] The Act in Restraint of Appeals1533 famous preamble summarised this theory:
"Where by divers sundry old authentic histories and chronicles it is manifestly declared and expressed that this realm of England is an empire...governed by one supreme head and king having the dignity and royal estate of the imperial crown of the same, unto whom a body politic, compact of all sorts and degrees of people divided in terms and by names of spiritualty and temporalty, be bounden and owe to bear next to God a natural and humble obedience". [G. R. Elton (ed.), "The Tudor Constitution. Documents and Commentary. Second Edition" (London: Cambridge University Press, 1982), p. 353.]
By declaring England to be an "empire" this meant that England was a state entirely independent of "the authority of any foreign potentates". Elton claimed that "We call this sort of thing a sovereign national state". [Elton, "England under the Tudors", p. 161.] The Act outlawed appeals from courts within the realm to courts outside the realm. The
English Reformationdestroyed the jurisdiction of the Pope over England. England was now completely independent. [Elton, "England under the Tudors", p. 162.] For this reason Sir Thomas Morewent to his death, because in his words: "This realm, being but one member and small part of the Church, might not make a particular law dischargeable with the general law of Christ's holy Catholic Church, no more than the City of London being but one poor member in respect of the whole realm, might make a law against an act of Parliament". He later said: "I am not bounden...to conform my conscience to the Council of one realm against the General Council of Christendom. For of the foresaid holy bishops I have...above one hundred; and for one Council or Parliament...I have all the Councils made these thousand years. And for this one kingdom, I have all other Christian realms". [A. G. Dickens, "Thomas Cromwell and the English Reformation" (London: The English Universities Press, 1959), pp. 64-65.]
When Mary (daughter of Henry and Catherine of Aragon) became Queen in 1553, she married
Philip II of Spainand sought to return England to Roman Catholicism. Elton has written that "In the place of the Tudor secular temper, cool political sense, and firm identification with England and the English, she put a passionate devotion to the catholic religion and to Rome, absence of political guile, and pride in being Spanish". [Elton, "England under the Tudors", p. 214.] Mary wanted to marry a Spaniard and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, chose Philip II (also his son and heir). With this marriage, England would become a Habsburg dominion (arranged marriages such as these in the sixteenth century had built up the Habsburg empire). England "played barely the part of a pawn" in the diplomatic battle between the great European powers (France opposed the match) and the marriage was widely unpopular in England, even with Mary's own supporters such as Stephen Gardiner, who opposed reducing England to "a Spanish colony". [Elton, "England under the Tudors", p. 215.] Ian Archer has argued that "the possibility that England might become another Habsburg milch cow was very real". [Ian W. Archer, ‘ [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30112 Wyatt, Sir Thomas (b. in or before 1521, d. 1554)] ’, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Oct 2006, accessed 6 Sept 2008.] A courtier, Sir Thomas Wyatt, headed a rebellion to try and stop the marriage, motivated by a "nationalist resentment at the proposed foreign king". [Elton, "England under the Tudors", p. 217.] Supporters of the insurgency urged Londoners to join to stop the English becoming "slaves and vilaynes", which was met with the response that "we are Englishmen". [Archer.] The uprising was defeated, and Wyatt at his trial justified his actions by saying: "Myne hole intent and styrre was agaynst the comyng in of strangers and Spanyerds and to abolyshe theym out of this realme". [Archer.] Mary vigorously persecuted Protestants, recorded by John Foxein his " Book of Martyrs", which were unprecedented in English history and resulted in an "undying hatred of the pope and of Roman Catholicism which became one of the most marked characteristics of the English for some 350 years". [Elton, "England under the Tudors", p. 220.]
Elizabeth I (who succeeded Mary in 1558) made a speech to Parliament on 5 November, 1566, emphasising her Englishness:
"Was I not born in this realm? Were my parents born in any foreign country? Is there any cause I should alienate myself from being careful over this country? Is not my kingdom here?" [L. S. Marcus, J. Mueller, and M. B. Rose (eds.), "Elizabeth I: Collected Works" (University of Chicago Press, 2002), p. 95.]
The excommunication of Elizabeth by
Pope Pius V's papal bull (" Regnans in Excelsis") of 1570; the St. Bartholomew's Day massacreof 1572; the publication of Foxe's "Book of Martyrs"; the Spanish Armadaof 1588; and the Gunpowder Plotof 1605 all contributed to an English nationalism which was "thoroughly militant and Protestant". [Hastings, p. 55.] An example of this nationalism can be seen in Lord Chancellor Sir Christopher Hatton's opening speech to Parliament in 1589 in the aftermath of the defeat of the Armada. It has been described as "an appeal designed to rouse both patriotic and ideological responses". [Wallace T. MacCaffrey, ‘ [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/12605 Hatton, Sir Christopher (c.1540–1591)] ’, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 6 Sept 2008.] It was fiercely anti-Catholic (the Pope was a "wolfish bloodsucker"), execrated Englishmen who turned against their native country, and appealed for England's defence: "Shall we now suffer ourselves with all dishonour to be conquered? England hath been accounted hitherto the most renowned kingdom for valour and manhood in all Christendom, and shall we now lose our old reputation?". [J. E. Neale, "Queen Elizabeth" (London: The Reprint Society, 1942), pp. 283-4.] In 1591 a John Phillips published "A Commemoration on the life and death of the right Honourable, Sir Christopher Hatton...", which included the lines:
:You noble peeres, my native Countrimen,:I need not shew to you my bloud nor birth ...:Was not his hart bent for his Countries weale? ...:Take courage then, maintaine your Countries right, ...:To straungers Yoakes, your neckes doe never bow. ...:Our gratious Queene, of curtesie the flowre,:Faire Englands Gem: of lasting blisse and joye: ...
Walter Raleigh, in his "A Discourse of War", wrote that "if our King "Edward" III. had prospered in his "French" Wars, and peopled with "English" the Towns which he won, as he began at "Calais", driving out the "French"; the Kings (as his Successors) holding the same Course, would by this Time have filled all France with our Nation, without any notable emptying of this Island". [Thomas Birch (ed.), "The Works of Sir Walter Ralegh, Kt.", ii, (London: 1751), p. 27.] Hastings has claimed that this usage of the word "nation" (used by Dr. Johnson in his "Dictionary") is the same as the modern definition. [Hastings, p. 14.]
The idea of the
Norman yokebecame increasingly popular amongst English radicals in the seventeenth century. They believed that Anglo-Saxon England was a land of liberty but that this liberty was extinguished by the Norman conquest and the imposition of feudalism. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/conquest/after_norman/norman_yoke_04.shtml] John Milton, writing in the 1640s, used nationalist rhetoric: "Lords and Commons of England, consider what nation it is whereoff ye are" and on another occasion: "Methinks I see in my mind a noble and puissant nation raising herself like a strong man after sleep". [Hastings, p. 15.]
The English nationalist movement has its roots in a perception amongst many people in England that they are primarily or exclusively English rather than British. The perceived rise in English identity in recent years, as evidenced by the increased display of the English flag (particularly during international sporting competitions), is sometimes attributed in the media to the increased devolution of political power to
Scotland, Walesand Northern Ireland.
One possible incentive for supporting the establishment of self-governing English political institutions is the
West Lothian question: the constitutional inconsistency whereby Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish MPs in the UK Parliament are able to cast votes on bills which will apply only to England while English MPs have no such rights in relation to Scottish, Welsh or Northern Irish legislation, which is handled by the devolved legislatures.
Contemporary English nationalism differs significantly from Scottish, Welsh and Cornish nationalism (but is similar to some strands of Irish nationalism) insofar as it is associated with support for right-of-centre economic and social policies. Nationalists elsewhere in the UK tend towards a social democratic political stance. English nationalism is also often associated with
Euroscepticism, one reason for opposition to the EU being the belief that England is being subdivided into regions at the behest of the European Union. [ [http://www.johnredwoodsdiary.com/2008/02/08/the-defence-of-england/ The defence of England] ]
While there is in principle no conflict between the objectives of English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish nationalism, there is an inherent incompatibility between English nationalism and Cornish nationalism, since
Cornwallis seen by English nationalists as being an integral part of England. To the extent that it advocates the political separation of England from the (remaidner of the) UK, it would also seem that English nationalism is not compatible with Scottish and Northern Irish Unionism.
A MORI opinion poll commissioned jointly by the
English Democratsand the Campaign for an English Parliamentunder the English Constitutional Convention Banner indicated that support for the creation of an English Parliament with the same powers as the existing Scottish Parliament had risen, with 41% of those questioned favouring such a move. [cite web | url = http://www.mori.com/polls/2006/ecc.shtml | title = 41% in favour of English Parliament | publisher = Mori 2006-07-09 | date = accessdate = 2007-05-26 ]
In the same month an ICM Omnibus poll commissioned by the Progressive Partnership (a Scottish research organisation) showed that support for full English Independence had reached 31% of those questioned. [cite web | url = http://www.snp.org/snpnews/2005/snp_press_release.2006-07-17.1680089069 | title = 31% Support English Independence | publisher =
Scottish National Party| year = 2006 | accessdate = 2006-07-15 ]
In November 2006, another ICM poll commissioned by the Sunday Telegraph, showed that support for an English Parliament had reached 68% and support for full English Independence had reached 48% of those questioned. [cite web | year = 2006 | url = http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/11/26/nunion26.xml | title = Britain wants UK break up, poll shows (68% in favour of English Parliament, 48% support a complete independence of England from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) | publisher = Daily Telegraph | date = 2006-11-27 | accessdate = 2007-05-26 ]
Politics of England
Cornish self-government movement
Free England Party
Kingdom of England
Parliament of England
West Lothian question
*Ian W. Archer, ‘ [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30112 Wyatt, Sir Thomas (b. in or before 1521, d. 1554)] ’, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Oct 2006, accessed 6 Sept 2008.
*Thomas Birch (ed.), "The Works of Sir Walter Ralegh, Kt.", ii, (London: 1751).
*W. G. Boswell, "Shakespeare's Holinshed. The Chronicle and the Historical Plays Compared" (Chatto and Windus, 1907).
*James Campbell, 'The United Kingdom of England: The Anglo-Saxon Achievement', Alexander Grant and Keith J. Stringer (eds.), "Uniting the Kingdom? The Making of British History" (London: Routledge, 1995).
*M. T. Clanchy, "England and Its Rulers: 1066–1272" (Blackwell, 1998).
*Basil Cottle, "The Triumph of English 1350–1400" (London: Blandford Press, 1969).
*A. G. Dickens, "Thomas Cromwell and the English Reformation" (London: The English Universities Press, 1959).
*G. R. Elton (ed.), "The Tudor Constitution. Documents and Commentary. Second Edition" (London: Cambridge University Press, 1982).
*G. R. Elton, "England under the Tudors. Third Edition" (London: Routledge, 1991).
*Douglas Gray, ‘ [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/18812 Minot, Laurence (fl. early 14th cent.)] ’, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 13 Sept 2008.
*Adrian Hastings, "The Construction of Nationhood. Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism" (Cambridge University Press, 1997).
*Thomas Beaumont James and John Simons (eds.), "The Poems of Laurence Minot 1333–1352" (University of Exeter Press, 1989).
*William Paton Ker (ed.), "The Chronicle of Froissart. Translated out of French by Sir John Bourchier, Lord Berners", i, (London: David Nutt, 1901–3).
*Wallace T. MacCaffrey, ‘ [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/12605 Hatton, Sir Christopher (c.1540–1591)] ’, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 6 Sept 2008.
*L. S. Marcus, J. Mueller, and M. B. Rose (eds.), "Elizabeth I: Collected Works" (University of Chicago Press, 2002).
*May McKisack, "The Fourteenth Century 1307–1399" (Oxford University Press, 1959).
*Ian Mortimer, "The Perfect King. The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation" (Vintage, 2008).
*J. E. Neale, "Queen Elizabeth" (London: The Reprint Society, 1942).
*Henry Summerson, ‘ [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/60304 George (d. c.303?)’] , "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Oct 2007, accessed 3 Oct 2008.
*William Stubbs, "Select Charters" (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1946).
*Hugh M. Thomas, "The English and the Normans: Ethnic Hostility, Assimilation and Identity 1066–c.1220" (Oxford University Press, 2003).
*Patrick Wormald, 'The Venerable Bede and the "Church of the English"', Geoffrey Rowell (ed.), "The English Religious Tradition and the Genius of Anglicanism" (Wantage: Ikon, 1992).
*Rev. James Aitken Wylie, "The History of Protestantism. Volume I" (London: Cassell, 1878).
* [http://www.thecep.org.uk/ The Campaign for an English Parliament]
* [http://www.englishconstitutionalconvention.com/ English Constitutional Convention]
* [http://www.englishdemocrats.org.uk/ The English Democrats]
* [http://www.englishindependenceparty.com/ English Independence Party]
* [http://www.efp.org.uk/ England First Party]
* [http://www.justiceforengland.com/ Justice for England Campaign]
* [http://www.wearetheenglish.com/ We Are The English]
* [http://www.crossofstgeorge.net The Cross of St George]
* [http://www.uepengland.com/bbs/ Anglo-Saxon Foundation]
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