- Technology Integration
Technology Integration is a term used by
educatorsto describe effective uses of technologyby teachers and studentsin K-12and university classrooms. Teachers use technology to support instruction in languagearts, social studies, science, math, or other content areas. When teachers effectively integrate technology into their classroom practice, learners are empowered to be actively engaged in their learning.
When technology is integrated into the classroom, educators are taking the constructivist approach to learning. The amount of available information is doubling every three years according to statistics. [http://www.electronic-school.com/199901/0199f4.html] By the time kids graduate from high school, today's students will have been exposed to more information than their
grandparentswere in a lifetime. It has been claimed that ninety percent of the technology we will use in the next decadehas not been invented or currently there is no access to at the moment.
Promise and Challenge
Nobody really needs convincing these days that the computer is an innovation of more than ordinary magnitude that are announced every day in the papers or on television. It is an event of major magnitude.-- Herbert Simon, in an address to a research conference on "Computers in Education: Realizing the Potential", August 1983.
...the very real support service crisis emerging... Rapid advances in hardware technology fuel new opportunities in applications, raise unrealistic expectations, and create unstable and unmanageable technological environments. Support services are expected to deliver everything that's new, virtually instantly; continue support of legacy systems beyond their reasonable lifetimes; assure interoperability of disparate and sometimes incompatible applications; and do it all with resources that are rapidly dwindling in proportion to the work at hand.--Gilbert, Steven W., "Making the Most of a Slow Revolution: Recommendations form the AAHE Teaching, Learning, and Technology Roundtable Program," "Change", March/April 1996 see [http://staff.valpo.edu/myohe/papers/96crisis/crisisa.txt Information Technology Support Services: Crisis or Opportunity?] by J. Michael Yohe, Director, Information Systems and Computing Service, 1996
The use of technology depends on the critical aspect of training. Providing professional development for school staff requires an investment of time. Time is a key factor in determining whether there is successful training. Because change is a process, it takes 3 to 5 years before you may see the positive results from all the training.
ICT in Education(India)-The Bhartiyavidya Initiative
Case study on Integrating Technology in the Classroom (really?)
If we want to understand how to improve learning in schools, we need to pay more attention to the interfaces that are specially designed to be used by a teacher seamlessly with his/her wisdom as well as all other conventional teaching aids during a classroom teaching process.
“Bhartiyavidya” is a system that can be used by the teachers for more effective classroom teaching along with other conventional teaching methods and tools that include the teacher’s wisdom, teacher’s voice, chalk and blackboard.
The system comprises Computer Hardware, Hardware-Software Interfaces, Security Devices, Colour Television, Computer-Television Interface, Secure Databases, specifically designed User Interface Software and custom made Multimedia Audio-Visual aids (known as Capsules in ‘Bhartiyavidya’ terminology) based on in-house researched school curriculum based teaching modules. The multimedia content has certain distinct features like expandability, scalability, and absence of voice over and use of minimal amount of text with specified minimum font size. The voice over has been intentionally avoided so that the solution does not become a substitute to the teacher since the solution is meant only for aiding the teacher in effectively communicating the academic subjects to the students. The system allows single button stop and play as well as functionality of Digital Chalk for the teacher to reinforce/ focus on specific areas in a given visual frame. Further the present invention is a multimedia solution that works along with the black/white board since the display device for students is a 29’’ colour TV (which works on the principle of light emission) and provides the teacher the flexibility to switch from the black/white board to multimedia content and vice versa any number of times as required during a teaching period even in a well-lit classroom.
Most research in technology integration has been criticized for being a-theoretical and ad-hoc, driven more by the affordances of the technology rather than the demands of pedagogy and subject matter. One approach that attempts to address this concern is a framework aimed at describing the nature of teacher knowledge for successful technology integration. The
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledgeor TPCK framework has recently received some positive attention.
The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) [http://www.iste.org] has established standards for students [http://cnets.iste.org/students/s_stands.html] , teachers [http://cnets.iste.org/teachers/] , and administrators [http://cnets.iste.org/administrators/a_stands.html] about the use of technology in K-12 classrooms. This professional organization is a leader in helping teachers become more effective users of technology in their teaching. ISTE espouses the following principal: The effective use of technology can help change the current educational paradigm in the following ways:
NEW PARADIGM Teacher-centered instruction Student-centered learning Single sense stimulation Multi-sensory stimulation Single path progression Multi-path progression Single media Multimedia Isolated work Collaborative work Information delivery Information exchange Passive, receptive learning Active, inquiry-based learning Factual, knowledge-based Critical thinking, informed decision making Reactive response Proactive, planned Isolated, artificial context Authentic, real-world context
Constructivism in Technology Integration
Constructivism, is a crucial component of Technology Integration. It is a learning theory that describes the process of students constructing their own knowledge through collaboration and [http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/ inquiry based learning] . Students learn more deeply and retain information longer when they have a say in what and how they will learn. Technology Integration is more than just putting computers in classrooms. It is imperative that teachers and administrators be trained to make good use of the computers and other equipment and software. Also, teachers must not be afraid to learn along with their students. Many teachers use a constructivist approach in their classrooms [http://www.west.asu.edu/achristie/530/constructivism3.html] assuming one or more of the following roles: facilitator, collaborator, curriculum developer, team member, community builder, educational leader, or information producer. See a Powerpoint presentation for more detail [http://www.alicechristie.org/edtech/learning/constructivism/index.htm] .
Cognitive Flexibility, a theory that has its roots in Constructivism, presents a non-linear approach to learning. [http://www.kdassem.dk/didaktik/l4-16.htm] Through the use of hyperlinking, wikis, and blogs, to name a few new technologies, multiple learning syles are being addressed in ways that were not possible a few years ago.
Interactive whiteboards are used in many schools as replacements for standard whiteboards and provide a way to show and allow students to interact with material on the computer, including the full breadth of educational software, web sites, and other media. Projectors, which are used on interactive whiteboards, can also be connected to a video recorder or DVD player thus eliminating the need for a television in the classroom.
In addition, some interactive whiteboards software allow teachers to record their instruction and post the material for review by students at a later time. This can be a very effective instructional strategy for students who benefit from repetition, who need to see the material presented again, for students who are absent from school, for struggling learners, and for review for mid-terms and finals. Brief instructional blocks can be recorded for review by students—they will see the exact presentation that occurred in the classroom with the teacher's audio input. This can help transform learning and instruction.
3D virtual environments are also making their way to interactive whiteboards as a way for students to interact with 3D virtual learning objects employing kinetics and haptic touch to 3D virtual environments in the classroom. The best example of the use of this technique is the opensource [http://edusim3d.com Edusim] project.
Research has been carried out to track the worldwide Interactive Whiteboard market by Decision Tree Consulting (DTC) a worldwide research company
* Interactive Whiteboards continue to be the biggest technology revolution in classrooms
* Across the world there are over 1.2 million boards installed
* Over 5 million classrooms are forecast to have Interactive Whiteboards installed by 2011
* Americas are the biggest region closely followed by EMEA
Enciclomediaproject to equip 145,000 classrooms is worth US$1.8 billion and is the largest education technology project in the world
With the unprecedented rapid adoption of Interactive Whiteboards in the UK, Mexico and the USA a large body of evidence is emerging regarding their value.
While some may argue that Interactive Whiteboards simply support an old fashioned "sage on the stage" paradigm - the opportunities presented by the integration of Student Response Devices that allow for the management of planned and ad-hoc assessments, polls and surveys and Remote Control Slates combine to support greater student engagement and interaction with the media displayed on the board.
As with any learning technology the key element is Professional Development in ensuring the most effective use of this technology and that they are not used as mere presentational tools.
The most effective users of Interactive Whiteboards confidently exploit the rich and easy to use annotating and recall functions of the Interactive Whiteboard to scaffold effective lessons - using the board not as a simple 'interactive projector' but as an interactive 'group space' where learning objectives, negotiated success criteria, ideas, viewpoints and rich media can all be brought into the social constructivist environment for sharing and analysis.
The marketing of some Interactive Whiteboards as an Audio Visual device option and a focus on 'teacher control and presentation' benefits in research often hides the fact that there are significant differences between Interactive Whiteboard systems available - with some manufacturers such as
Prometheanoffering an integrated suite of physical and virtual tools specially designed for education that allows students to interact with the content and media along with a range of professional development and skills based training.
Student Response Systems
Student Response Systemsconsist of handheld remote control units, which are operated by individual students, and an infrared or radio frequency receiver which is attached to the teacher's computer and collects the data submitted by students. Teachers can then display the data in chart format to the entire class through the use of an LCD projector.
Almost 4 million handsets were installed worldwide according to Decision Tree Consulting who have been tracking the market for 4 years.
These systems have been used in higher education science courses since the 1970s and have become popular in K-12 classrooms beginning in the early twenty-first century. In a 2005 SRI International report [http://ctl.sri.com/publications/downloads/Teaching_with_Audience_Response_Systems_Brief_Report.pdf] , the authors indicated that K12 teachers using student response systems use them primarily in two different ways: (1) as an assessment tool to provide data to the teacher and (2) as a way to engage students in collaborative discussions. It is important to note that this report as well as research at the college level indicates that the most powerful aspect of the student response systems is that they can be used to actively engage students and stimulate peer and classroom discussion, resulting in increased student understanding. [http://aa.uncw.edu/chemed/papers/srs/confchem/confchem_srs.htm]
The use of Digital Cameras and Digital Media in K-12 classrooms is an excellent example of how "technology tools can extend learning in powerful ways." An ASU professor, Dr. Alice Christie, has worked extensively with multimedia in K-12 classrooms. Her Digital Media Resources [http://www.west.asu.edu/achristie/dmedia/] is a collection of examples of K-12 students using digital media, tips and tutorials, lesson planning and assessment, articles, opportunities for professional development, and free online materials to assist teachers. Her article entitled "Language Arts Comes Alive as Middle School Learners Become Information Producers" [http://ncsu.edu/meridian/win2004/laalive/print.html] is published in the Winter 2004 issue of Meridian Middle School Computer Technologies Journal [http://ncsu.edu/meridian/index.html] . An update of this article [http://ncsu.edu/meridian/win2005/living/index.html] includes three videos created by middle school students and their mentors.
Digital cameras, both videoand still, can be used for a variety of presentations. For example, if used for giving a speech on a process, a student can show the process using video and still images. Incorporated into a PowerPoint presentation, the speech would have a multi-mediavisual aid. This would make it more convenient to present topics on subjects that could not be illustrated in the classroom--things like shoeing a horseor rock climbing. Students are also able to use still digital camera shots to show students' work on the daily announcements that are viewed on the television throughout the day. They could also use digital cameras, video or still, in creating a student commercial type broadcast for upcoming events or past highlights. These could also be shown on the announcements.
Digital cameras are used in a variety of ways in the classroom. They are tools that are easy to use even in the lower grades. Third graders can use digital cameras to capture events that are happening at their school. The images can then be transferred into a school newspaper that is run by the students. Images can also be used for
persuasive, narrative, and informational writing assignments. Special Education and ELL students and can benefit a great deal from the use of digital photos and video. Having both written words and photos or video to go along with it can help these students to understand concepts by presenting them in several ways. These students can also communicate their ideas effectively by having images to go with their writing. Creating vocabulary "books" for ELL learners and Special Education students is one type of digital media activity that can be completed in the classroom.
Digital media can be use in any phase of lesson, in introducing phase of any topic [http://coe.west.asu.edu/students/grandhawa/547/vtrip.htm] , in task phase [http://coe.west.asu.edu/students/grandhawa/gfolio/canada1.mov] [http://coe.west.asu.edu/students/grandhawa/gfolio/4th.mov] , in research phase [http://coe.west.asu.edu/students/grandhawa/gfolio/canyon.mov] , in evaluation phase, and even we can use in giving specific examples to the class [http://coe.west.asu.edu/students/grandhawa/gfolio/grose.htm] , explaining how different effects we can produce in a single software.
The use of digital video in the classroom can be very beneficial. Not only do students have a chance to take charge of their learning, but its use allows them to express themselves in a non-traditional method. Some ways that digital video may be used in the classroom include:
*video important happenings (
Schools have began to use digital cameras more and more as they are educated in how they can be used effectively. The following website gives links to claymations, student activities, how to use digital cameras tutorials, and more; [http://www.tech4learning.com/services/teachingwithdigitalcameras.htm]
The use of digital cameras and digital video in a classroom can enhance the learning environment in a number of ways. By giving the students the opportunity to capture real-life allows them to directly relate to their learning. No longer are the left to imagine what something may look like or see something through someone else's eyes. Students can have an ownership over what they learn which in turn will give them a sense of attachment that can't come from a picture they see in a book. Also, using digital cameras and videos in the classroom challenges the student's creativity. Now that pictures are taken or video is filmed, what is the student going to do with it? The doors are open for a range of ideas and uses for the student's work. They can make movies, they can make photo galleries, they can implement their work into a PowerPoint; the list goes on and on.For some interesting ideas for how digital cameras and video can be used in the classroom, check out the following website [http://www.wacona.com/digicam/digicam.html#Lesson]
Digital cameras can be used in other unconventional ways in traditional and non-traditional classrooms. Digital photography is an entirely new medium for students creativity. Through the use of photo-editing software, digital photographs become a new artform. Within seconds of taking a picture the
artist/student is manipulating the picture as new means of expression.
One of the best things about digital cameras are the instant replays. If you don't get what you want the first time, just shoot it again! You are instantly able to see the picture you have just taken. Schools can also use digital photography to put photos of students in a
databaseof names and pictures. This would be especially useful to a substitute. There would be no way that Bobby could say he was Timmy if the sub had pictures and names at hand. Photo seating charts would come in handy as well. In addition, if you use a digital camera to take pictures throughout the year, it is very easy to label, modifyand catalog them. They can then be burned to a CD and sent to a yearbook company for publication. Sending one CD is a lot cheaper than mailinga ton of printed photos or rolls of film. Plus, the schoolhas more control on exactly what photos are used and how they are enhanced.
Teachers need to stop thinking of technology as the goal and move beyond it to seeing information
literacyas the goal and purpose. The value of technology lies in its ability to enhance student thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving. However, this only happens when the teacher uses technology and blends it into their everyday teaching. By emphasizing information, literacy we are showing students how to think for themselves and help them understand how to interpret the information that is flowing into their lives.
The educational possibilities are limitless. Kindergartners as well as adults can create and use them. Teachers can create them for student use, students can create them as educational curriculum-based products. Groups together can combine files to create broadcasts, and they can be added while editing video or other multimedia products. Podcasts are available to purchase and use much as books on tape in the classroom, or teachers can create and use their own. A collection of educational podcasts can be found at [http://www.epnweb.org/ EPN: The Educational Broadcast Network] and [http://digg.com/podcasts/view/education Digg's Education Podcasts] . [http://www.education-world.com/a_tech/sites/sites074.shtml Education World's Sites to See: Podcasting] provides a variety of resources and information on podcasting in education.
Information on [http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Podcasts Podcasts] is also available on [http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/ UIUC's WikEd] pages.
Blogs(short for Web log) is a relatively new communicationtool that integrates technology. This tool has widespread use due to the ease of publishing to the Internet through what is usually free software or a free service, such as Blogger [http://www.blogger.com/start] . This availability provides many possible uses in an educational system. One such use is a communication tool between teachers. Given the isolation from other adults most teachers face during the work day, and the time constraints on schedules after school hours; teachers can be hard-pressed to find time to collaborateand share ideas with peers. Having a common place to share ideas has the potential to support an educational system through an online professional learning community. Teachers who post entries on a web log are not limited to a single topic, but can reflect, argue, share opinions and their own experience, as well as read others’ postings to improve the quality of their teaching. This tool take time to use when considering the reading and writing that is involved, which may not be as effective as a face-to-face discussion. However, it does provide the opportunity to share or to learn from others in a virtual environment that does not have limitations to meeting times and place. Online learning communities can include members far beyond the confines of a school’s staff, district or even state or country.Blogging can be beneficial to communicate among colleagues, especially since timeis a factor. However, it may be difficult to speak freely since the information posted is public. It is not hard to write a better blog [http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writebetter] . Simple guidelines helps a lot in developing good blog, no matter what your audience size is.Not only can blogging be beneficial for professionals to collaborate and communicate, it can also be a valuable tool for teachers to use with their students. Students, just as teachers, can post their ideas in a blog, as well as view and comment on other students ideas, creating both a constructivist environment and promoting peer-collaboration. (For instance, a language arts teacher can have students 'journaling' writing themes/ideas in a blog as a brainstorming activity, then at other times, students can view other writing ideas as well as collaborate with each other to further develop their ideas.)
Blogs can be collected in an aggregator to be easily read.
[http://webquest.org/ Web Quests] are student-centered, Web-based curricular units that are interactive and use quite a variety of Internet resources. The purpose of a WebQuest is to use information on the web to support instruction in the classroom. WebQuests can be used to build context, provide background, assess learning or to provide the "meat" of a unit. WebQuests can integrate cross-curricular activities as well as appeal to [http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr054.shtml multiple intelligences] . Also, these activities appeal to students because they can be constructed as project, problem or inquiry-based learning. There are thousands of WebQuests online [http://www.west.asu.edu/achristie/wqmatrix.html] that can serve as models for constructing your own. There are many people who create or put together activities that they say are WebQuests, but in reality, do not fit the definition at all. Some have merely taken a
paperand pencilassignment they have always done and put it into a form that utilizes pictures, video and graphics to spice it up and then call it a WebQuest. While it is commendable that they are trying, it does a disservice to true WebQuests.
A true WebQuest consists of an Introduction, a Task (or final project that students complete at the end of the WebQuest), Processes (or instructional activities), Web-based Resources, Evaluation of learning, Reflection about learning, and a Conclusion. WebQuests also provide Teacher Notes that show linkage to content and technology standards, additional resources for teachers, and hints on classroom management of the WebQuest. "In Search of a Hero" [http://coe.west.asu.edu/students/lcooper/wpheroesmenu.htm] shows how each of the components of a WebQuest fit and work together to provide students with authentic learning and assessment in technology-integrated classrooms. To view useful information about WebQuests, visit the following page [http://www.west.asu.edu/achristie/webquest.html] with extensive information about WebQuests. To view useful information about how to create a WebQuest visit the following link [http://webquest.org/questgarden/author/] .
Web-based Inquiry Science Environment(WISE) provides a platform for creating inquiry science projects for middle school and high school students using evidence and resources from the Web. Funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, WISE has been developed at The University of California, Berkeley from 1996 until the present. WISE provides a user-friendly interface to enable the authoring of Web-based inquiry projects, which are typically developed by partnerships of educational researchers, natural scientists and teachers. WISE inquiry projects include diverse elements such as online discussions, data collection, drawing, argument creation, resource sharing, concept mapping and other built-in tools, as well as links to relevant Web resources. Projects are further customizable by teachers through a user-friendly authoring tool in to better meet the needs of their students. The WISE library currently contains over forty publicly available projects created by partnerships including UC Berkeley researchers, NASA, NOAA, and the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Individuals are also free to author their own new inquiry projects which they can share with any WISE teachers and can submit for publication in the WISE library. The [http://wise.berkeley.edu WISE] Web site (http://wise.berkeley.edu) provides rich descriptions of the WISE learning environment, the project library, the teacher supports, and an introductory slide show.
Teachers can use
Wikipediaas a culminating project with their students. As a class project, students can research a specific topic, collaborate to bring their ideas together, then contribute their new knowledge within an article in Wikipedia.
A [http://www.asbj.com/2002/08/0802technologyfocus.html Technology Rich Classroom] integrates technology with best teaching practices for optimal student-centered learning. Research indicates that certain technologies may be more valuable than others in the classroom. The most important hardware in the classroom includes: computer (one per two students), printers, and digital cameras, followed by: document camera,
projector, cd player/burner, and vcr. In addition, hardware such as an interactive whiteboard or digital data projector also prove to valuable classroom assets. To view useful lessons for using an interactive whiteboard, visit the following link [http://www.waukesha.k12.wi.us/WIT/SmartBoard/specificapps.htm Using Electronic Whiteboards in Your Classroom] . Information and resources for teachers, administrators and school district buyers may be found at [http://www.interactivewhiteboardsoftware.com Interactive Whiteboard Software] Vital software includes: a cluster-skills program (Microsoft Office) including word processing, web browser, presentation software, followed by: photo manipulation, Inspirations, and graphic application with paintcapabilities. The advantages of a technology rich classroom are: student's technology skills improve, they work more effectively on their own, and have more meaningful cooperative interaction. In addition, the teachers are able to construct more dynamic presentations and enhance student learning. To view useful ideas on how to integrate technology visit the following link [http://www.remc11.k12.mi.us/bcisd/classres/intideas.htm] .
Despite the push for more technology in the classroom, many teachers are still working with only one or two computers in their classrooms. This makes integrating technology and teaching needed technology skills a real challenge. A trip to the computer lab may or may not be feasible or even available within the schedule of the day. Creativity is the key to integrating technology and giving students the experiences necessary to be successful and responsible technology users. Some teachers are using their one or two computers for learning stations or as parts of larger group projects. To see some other ideas on how teachers are functioning in one computer classrooms read the article "One Computer Classroom." [http://www.sandi.net/enrollmentoptions/workshops/informationquest/onecomputer.html] A section in "Wikis and Literacy Development", an article by Keith McPherson, also discusses the difficulties schools face when they have insufficient Internet access. It provides some temporary solutions to this problem.
McPherson, K. (2006).Wikis and literacy development. "Teacher Librarian 34" (1), 67-69.
Virtual Field Trip
A Virtual Field Trip is a website that enhances the curriculum by allowing the students to experience places, idea, or objects beyond the constraints of the classroom. Unlike traditional field trips, students have the opportunity to visit and explore worlds outside their own communities. Because the trip is virtual, there are no limits to the destinations and no restrictions on time. Other advantages include: no cost, no liabilities, and no permission slips or sack lunches. Teachers can bring new worlds to their students either by visiting existing virtual tours or creating their own. Vacations take on new meaning for teachers and students because they can "bring" the rest of the class with them through a virtual field trip. Students can be given "passports" to visit other countries such as Burma (an Asian country). [http://coe.west.asu.edu/students/csoemyint/eprtfolo/fieldtrip.ppt] See the following links for other examples. [http://wwww.kaibab.org/geology/gc_geol.htm] Grand Canyon Explorer [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/explore/] Explore a pyramid.
Not only can you take a virtual field trip online, but you can actually visit a location, take pictures or video footage and create a virtual field trip using other applications such as PowerPoint. Even if you are not a digital camera user, you can still use a film camera and scan your pictures into digital format. Virtual field trips are more flexible and can incorporate the personality of the creator rather than a rehearsed tour guide. They are easy enough to create that your students could share their holiday trip with the class. This is a great way to balance out the push for test scores with the desire to produce well-rounded students.
The ePortfolio is a promising framework for enduring learning, self-assessment and construction of value across a student's educational path. Learners learn by doing, and by constructing knowledge, meaning, ownership and value from the act of learning. An ePortfolio is a selection of work put together to show what a student has learned over a period of time. The student decides which pieces of work to include and how to present their work. Besides choosing pieces of work the student will write a reflection on what he or she learned through completing the work and creating the ePortfolio. EPorfolios may be put together using programs such as PowerPoint and FrontPage. The program used to put an ePortfolio together must have the ability to link between programs and document. Teachers could also benefit from the use of ePortfolios. It could be used professionally as a self-assessment of what was accomplished within a school year. Components would include lesson plans, student samples, and personal reflections of various tasks, projects, and/or assignments. Visit [http://www.west.asu.edu/achristie/547/CarmeanChristie.pdf] and [http://www.west.asu.edu/achristie/547/Moritz-Christie.pdf] for more information.
Parents gain a new perspective about their child from portfolios. It allows parents to see accomplishments, strengths, and needs of their child. Portfolios are great tools for assessment. Teachers implement plans based on the use of portfolios.
Understanding by Design
Understanding by Design is a model that a teacher can use to develop a unit. Developed by Wiggins and McTighe, today over 250,000 educators own the book, "Understanding by Design", and "more than 150 university education classes use the book as a text." [(nd) [http://www.grantwiggins.org/ubd.html Authentic Education] . GrantWiggins.Org.]
The Need for Web Site Evaluations
The amount of information being placed on the web is
doublingevery twelve months.Fact|date=December 2007 Due to the rapid increase of information, it is essential that students know how to discern valuable sources. To ensure that students make valid educational choices, it is necessary to provide guidelines. These [http://www.electronic-school.com/199901/0199f4.html seven steps] are an excellent resource.
*Identify the right questions
*Organize the search
*Select appropriate search tools
*Analyze online resources
*Synthesize, sort, and sift
*Publishing new information
New Teaching Methodologies Are Needed
In today's world of
video games, cable and satellite tv, and high action digital video, teachers need to integrate technology in order to keep the attention of their students. The old methods of text book, pencil and paper are just not "flashy" enough for the "digital" generation. Students want to see their lessons on a big screen with action and sound or come up and physically interact with it on an Interactive Whiteboardusing [http://edusim3d.com Edusim] . They want to be making PowerPoint and iMoviepresentations. Now a child with a fear of speaking in front of their peers can make a presentation with a voice over and not worry about messing up the words or losing their notes. Technology is here to stay and teachers of all levels of experience need to realize this.
While the need for technology and equipment is obvious, simply throwing money at the issue will not solve it. The proper research and evaluation needs to be completed in order to address the needs of the staff and students. The first priority of a district is to evaluate how technology will affect the success of the students. They must also determine the experience and willingness of their teachers when it comes to implementing a technology plan. Teacher buy-in, planning time and training is vital to making any technology plan successful. It is easy to get trapped into a cycle of upgrading expensive
softwareand hardwarewithout assessing the needs. Also it is crucial to provide teachers with support and training to integrate the technology into their current curriculum instead of starting over. Jamie MacKenzie has written an article that further addresses this issue [http://www.electronic-school.com/2000/03/0300f1.html link title] .
Information literacyis a very important but also a very difficult concept for students to grasp. Anyone can post anything on the web. They can appear to be an expert, even if they know nothing at all. Students think that if it is on the web it must be true. Teaching them to evaluate the information they find is an important part of education today. A good starting point is asking familiar questions, such as: is the source? am I getting? was it created? am I (on the web)? am I there? can I distinguish qualityinformation from junk?
Our society is becoming an
information age. This is changing the role of education from teaching information to teaching information management. In today's society, we have to be able to know how and where to find the information we need. The major problem today is not that we cannot find information, but that we find "too much" information. The amount of available information doubles every twelve months. We can become paralyzed by the amount of information we find. This can cause information overload and anxiety making the information lose all meaning for us. Educators need to teach students the skills to narrow the information from a tidal wave to a trickle that is easily used. For more information on the subject go to "We Have the Information You Want, But Getting It Will Cost You: Being Held Hostage by Information Overload". [http://info.acm.org/crossroads/xrds1-1.html]
Although the One Computer Classroom is not an ideal situation it can still work. There are different strategies that a teacher can use with only one computer available. One idea is to divide students into groups and allow each group a limited amount of time to accomplish a small task. Limiting the time will give them, at least, some experience with using the computer, especially if school is the only opportunity the students have to use a computer. Similarly, the instructor may use the computer as a station for independent skill development and assessment. Another idea is to use the computer as a presentation Station. This can be done by connecting the computer to the TV for display. The presentation station is a great way to grab and keep student's attention, as the instructor brings information to life. These are only two ideas of many that are available to those who are limited on the amount of technology they have access to. Don't be discouraged, the more you use it the more the students will love it!
In order to choose or evaluate the suggested technology for the classroom teacher has to discover various venues of assessing the appropriateness of this technology. They have to examine course related knowledge and skills, age and attitude of the students, and learner reaction to instructions. Our selection of technology should be based upon a choice which would make problem solving easy and relevant data gathering can be accommodated by its use.
[http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/teachers/wa_teachers/fact_or_folly_teachers/index.cfm?RenderForPrint=1] Anybody can post information on the Internet, making it possible to find "proof" of any ideas or beliefs you can imagine. Yet to many students, "If it's on the Internet, it must be true."How to find good informationWith millions of pages already published, and thousands more being posted every day, finding information can be daunting. Some online searches produce hundreds of results and many legitimate-sounding Web sites may not be what they appear to be. A good start is to use dependable sources, such as bookmarks collections from library and educational sites.Evaluating online informationThe resources listed in the right sidebar include strategies to help students think critically about online information. Using the template The Five Ws of Cyberspace as a guide, young people can examine the authorship, purpose, perspective and presentation of Web sites, in order to determine their credibility. Deconstructing Web Pages provides a step-by-step application of the five Ws to an actual Web site with some interesting results. And finally, Quick Tips for Authenticating Online Information offers some simple and effective strategies for assessing sites.The two background documents (Evaluating Internet-Based Information: A Goals-Based Approach, and Evaluating Internet Research Sources, by educators David Warlick and Robert Harris), provide strategies and templates for disseminating online information, and for integrating Internet research into classroom assignments.
Plagiarism is hardly a new issue in the classroom. However, the Internet makes it easy to locate ready-made information to cut and paste into research papers. That may make cheating a tempting proposition for some students. The Internet is forcing teachers to rethink how they assign and evaluate student research. For more information visit Plagiarism.org [http://www.plagiarism.org/] Teachers can easily check for plagiarism for free by putting a phrase or sentence from a student's assignment in the Google search box, enclosed in quotes. They can also search at http://www.PlagiarismChecker.com/ Advanced
paid servicessuch as http://www.TurnItIn.com check for plagiarism by comparing students' papers with each other.
Another great website http://www.duplichecker.com/ on which you can check if your content is plagiarized or not! And it is the only website available on the whole web-world where you can check your content before uploading it. It checks each and every word of the written content on multiple search engines. And you can also avail the opportunity of checking with quotes and without quotes.
Copyright is a complex issue, especially as it concerns the Internet. However, there are some excellent online resources available. The Council of Ministers of Education, the Canadian School Boards Association and the Canadian Teachers' Federation have created a handy reference for teachers called "Copyright Matters!" And the Telus "2 learn" Web site has an extensive section on digital copyright called "What Every Teacher Should Know about Copyright." Links to these sites, and to the University of Berkley's "Style Sheets for Citing Internet and Electronic Resources," are provided in the right sidebar.
Purchasing Technology for Schools
A school can't simply buy and install technology and think that it is going to make huge changes. As the article, Beyond Technology* [http://www.electronic-school.com/2000/03/0300f1.htm] ) mentions, there are a number of things that have to occur in addition to the buying and installing of technology. Of all the reasons the author listed, teacher training and motivation is one of the biggest problems. There are still a large amount of teachers who prefer to teach in a traditional method and are unwilling and uncomfortable moving to more of a constructivist methodology. The authors strategy's for implementing and using technology were great explanations as to how the transition can be smooth. One interesting strategy was:Strategy 3: Invest in staff growth. The most powerful strategies to promote staff enthusiasm and competence are informal. Instead of falling into what I call the "software trap," we should offer a rich menu of learning opportunities that match the diverse styles, interests, and skill levels of our teachers.If there is an adaptation to accommodate the differences among teachers and their teaching styles, then it would be so much easier to implement and use technology efficiently.
[http://www.electronic-school.com/199901/0199f4.html] Integrated technology does not exist in a void. Its power lies in the ability to identify supporting concepts. Here are six ideas supporting information literacy:
* Collaboration should be part of the learning process. Teaching interdependence is natural in the process of information literacy. Students as well as teachers must learn how to use technology as a tool for communication, creation, and collaboration. Learning as a team and how to work in partnerships are key.
* The teacher's role as guide is essential. Teachers must take on the roles of motivator, mentor, and co-learner if they want to produce information-literate students. Acting as a mentor is critical. (See telementoring at the National School Network Exchange site.)
Ethicsplay a role in the development of information literacy. Students must understand the ethical issues raised by the use and misuse of the Internet. In addition to plagiarism, slander, and pornography, ethical issues include unlicensed copying of software (theft); flamingvia e-mail (poor netiquette); hacking into school records (unlawful entry); and creating viruses that corrupt files (destruction of property).
* Technology must become part of the
curriculum. Students must develop an understanding of how technology influences our lives. Much of the material included in courses on communication, transportation, or production (tech ed) can be useful to students in a college prep curriculum that has little or no reference to technology. Unfortunately, many schools see tech ed and tech prep as a separate curriculum to be kept strictly apart from the college prep curriculum.
* Students must learn communication skills, including presentation and motivation skills. They should be able to communicate with technological media -- text, graphics, video, and sound. They must learn how to arrange information and motivate learners with more than the written and spoken word. Understanding the motivation of providing and receiving information will be one of the great challenges of information literacy.
* Visual literacy is essential. This includes knowing how to create, organize, and display print, video, audio, and graphics. Learning how to use color, style, placement, and font size are important. Once they understand specific content, students must learn to articulate their knowledge both visually and verbally. -- G.B. and D.L.
Districts need to allocate all the funds necessary to successfully integrate technology. They need to take the initiative of training staff, focusing on how to bring information literacy skills and experiences into daily routines. Overall devoting more developmental time and attention to curriculum opportunities and teaching strategies.Here are ten effective strategies mentioned in the article [http://www.electronic-school.com/2000/03/0300f1.html Beyond Technology: Making a Difference in Student Performance]
*Put learning first
*Invest in staff growth
*Focus and Provide adequate resources
*use assessment to steer programs
*Shed the ineffectual
*Remember the lessons of the past
*Ask good questions
* [http://tpck.org/ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) Wiki]
* [http://www.edu-cyberpg.com/ Educational CyberPlayGround] Site of articles about teaching, including the use of technology
* [http://www.scott.k12.ky.us/technology/digitalstorytelling/ds.html digital storytelling]
* [http://www.west.asu.edu/achristie/tech_int/index.htm PowerPoint presentation] on technology integration.
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