- European pornography
Pornography in Europe has been dominated by a few pan-European producers and distributors, the most notable of which is the
Private Media Groupthat had successfully claimed the throne of Color Climax Corporationin early 1990s. Most European countries also have local pornography producers, from Portugal(e.g. "Naturalvideo") to Serbia(e.g. "Hexor"), with varying potentials of competition with international producers. Hungaryis noted for having liberal pornography laws. Czech Republic, with its specialised companies such as the spanking producers "Lupus Pictures", gay pornographylabel "Bel Ami" and for having become the regular European destination of the U.S. and Japanese producers, is a likely rival. Romaniais also considered a "rising star" of European pornography in mid-2000s, mainly thanks to pornographic "auteur" Raul Cristianof "Floyd-Agency".
Women in European pornography typically have a so-called "more natural" look than in American pornography, with less emphasis on
breast implants and hair coloring. The once popular style of Euro-chic pornography represented by directors Lasse Braun, Joe d'Amato, and Michel Gentil has lost ground and the Pierre Woodmanstyle of video porn now attracts a larger audience. A few directors like Luca Damiano, Mario Salieri, and Alain Payetcontinue with the "older" cinematographic and dramatic styles that often distinguish "European" pornography from those of other cultures.
In early 1970s, French viewers had become familiar with stag films shot in the
Netherlands, featuring French actresses such as Claudine Beccarieand Sylvia Bourdon. The first genuine French pornographic film "Les Baiseuses" by Guy Gibert was released in 1975. The first French porn film that met international success was " Le Sexe qui parle" by Claude Mulot, which was released the same year (followed by a sequel two years later). This film was so successful that it was exported to the US, with the name "Pussy Talk".
In 1976, a law that put considerable sanctions on pornographic films in distribution and taxation, known popularly as "Code X" was imposed, creating a situation that forced pornography develop itself on its own right. Since then, pornography has been a growing economy in France, now existing in various forms from magazines to satellite TV broadcasting.
Producers of video pornography can be divided into two segments: companies like "Vidéo Marc Dorcel", which produces "chic" adult feature films for the international market and companies that produce low-budget videos almost exclusively for domestic market ("Œil du Cochon", "Euro Choc", "Ragtime", etc.). The latter type also tends to focus on popular fetishes such as rape, incest, and
fisting(as indicated in the classic series "Viol, inceste & fist-fucking" (Rape, Incest, and Fist-Fucking) by Fabien Lafait).
Early years of German pornography began with the softcore film "Graf Porno und seine Mädchen" (Count Porno and his girls) in 1968. The movie's success (more than 3 million admissions) lead to a whole series of films that was and is refered to in German media as the "Sex-Welle" (sex wave). The most well known film of this period is "
Schulmädchen-Report: Was Eltern nicht für möglich halten" (The School-Girl Report, what the parents don't know) by Ernst Hofbauerin 1970. The sex scenes had become bolder with time and by 1975, when the legal ban of pornography was lifted, the era of German hardcore pornographybegan.
Hans Billianwas the protagonist of the period and the films were usually in line with the so-called "Bavarian porn sex comedies", often depicting male performers as comic characters, like Sepp Gneißl in "Kasimir der Kuckuckskleber" (1977). This era was also characterised by several Josephine Mutzenbacherfilms.
Today's German pornography is generally very similar to the American "
glamour" pornography though often tailored primarily for the German market. In contrast several German labels focus on a more "homemade" amateur flair, often focusing on intense hardcore themes such as gang bangs, bukkakeand urine fetishism(most notably GGG and its sister-labels "666" and "John Thompson").
Contrary to popular belief, fecal pornography known as "
Scheisseporn" (using the German slang word for feces) or, more commonly, as " Kaviar" (a generic term) is not particularly popular in Germany, although companies like "SG-Video" and performers like Veronica Moserthat specialise in the concept do exist
Italyhad accumulated a lot of softcorepornography in 1970s, hardcore pornography was not a usual trend until 1980s. The first pornographic film in Italy was " Il Telefono rosso" (The red telephone) in 1983 by Riccardo Schicchiwith Ilona Staller(aka "Cicciolina"). The film caused much controversy and it was restrained from legal release until 1986 with an alternate revision of Italian censorship laws.
With this atmosphere of liberty, Italian producers rushed to meet on-screen curiosities of viewers to even gain the title of presenting "bestiality" in mainstream pornographic films; a trend shared by
Rocco Siffrediin his 2003 film "Hazardous Duty" (in the European release by "Night Trips"). Italian pornography producers depended on French actresses or expatriates like Marina Hedman(with the notable exception Moana Pozziwith her "Valentina, ragazza in calore" by Raniero di Giovanbattista in 1981) till the arrival of Hungarian Gabriella Kovács (aka "Angelica Bella") in 1991 (and her sister "Veronica Bella" in 1995) but following this, Italy faced an influx of female pornography performers from ex- East Europe.
In today's Italian pornography, the strong emphasis is placed on aggressive
anal sexoften with implied coercion. Many Italian films have no vaginal intercourse at all, being strictly about anal sex. Another popular theme is age disparity between sexual partners, giving way to the "Incesto" films by directors like Andy Casanovaand Eros Cristobaldi. Director Andy Casanova's popular series "Stupri Italiani" also introduces rape as a popular theme.
Russia and Ukraine
Russia(along with Ukraine) is a unique source for international porn producers, in that it has plenty of beautiful Caucasian models with relatively low wages, a situation that allows producing low-budget pornography without possible "ethnic" expressions.
Most Russian porn is produced in
Moscowand in St. Petersburg where the largest adult filmproducer, "SP-Company", is based. The types of Russian adult films may range from gonzo pornographyto adaptations of Russian classics (" Eugene Onegin" (by Tatiana Taneyeva (2003)), " The Master and Margarita" (by Armen Oganezov(2002)), etc.) and these productions basically aim the domestic market. Much of the pornography is produced for the international internet market.
Recently, there have been a proliferation of internet sites featuring Russian porn. The Russian nationality of the models is emphasised by some of these porn sites, but in other cases the model may be presented as "European", "American" or even "Latina". Also, certain internet sites are now featuring Russian porn in the ("
reality porn)" genre. Sites that offer predominantly Russian content routinely block access from the Russian segment of the Internet to maintain the privacy of the models. Some studios also produce or used to produce both adult pornography and child pornography(see 2004 Ukrainian child pornography raids).
In Britain, where pornography is more restricted than it is in many other English-speaking or Western Europe countries, sexual media is easily smeared for an audience that is seldom given an opportunity to see what really is sold under the name of "pornography". [http://www.fiawol.demon.co.uk/FAC/harm.htm] However the current British legislative framework including the
Obscene Publications Act 1959(in England and Wales), the Civic Government (Scotland) Act 1982and the Video Recordings Act 1984leads to a confusing situation in which there is a theoretical ban on the publication and distribution (but not possession) of pornographic material in any form, which is in practice unenforcable due to the vagueness of the legal test of material that "depraves and corrupts". In practice, hardcore material on video and DVD was until recently banned by the requirement under the Video Recordings Act to be certifed by the BBFC, while mainstream hardcore material in other forms such as magazines and websites is essentially unrestricted. European, American and British hardcore pornographic magazines are now openly sold in many British newsagents, for instance. Due to libralisation in BBFC policy, mainstream hardcore DVDs now receive R18 certificates, legalising them but restricting their sale to licensed sex shops such as those in Soho.
British-made pornography tends to focus on a rough-and-ready semi-amateur look rather than the more stylized glamourous look of mainland European pornography.
Producers such as
Ben Doverconcentrate on producing "girl-next-door" or "candid" material. Some British pornography concentrates on sexual fetishism, particularly erotic spankingand rubber fetishism which has been popular in Britain since the 1950s.
Despite the existence of a national porn industry and widespread social acceptance of porn consumption, the UK is still the only Member State of the European Union that prohibits private imports of adult pornography by consumers coming from other Member States of the European Union. In the 2004-2005 fiscal year, the agents of Her Majesty Revenue & Customs seized 96783 items of pornographic media carried by people travelling into the UK". [http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/about/hmrc-report2005.pdf] .
The UK porn industry is estimated to be now worth about 1 billion pounds, compared with 20 billion pounds worldwide. [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/lifestyle/2006-05/30/content_604004.htm]
Pornography by region
Pornography in Japan
Pornography in the United States
Russian Pornography and Erotica
* [http://www.egafd.com/ European Girls Adult Film Database] Website about films and female performers from 1970s to present "Warning: Pornographic content"
* [http://www.eurobabeindex.com/sbandoindex/appendix_2.html Eurobabeindex] Website about Central and Eastern European female performers (listing by country) "Warning: Pornographic content"
* [http://www.europornstar.com/pornstars.html Euro Pornstars] Website about European adult actresses "Warning: Pornographic content"
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