- Vézelay Abbey
Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Vézelay, Church and Hill
State Party = FRA
Type = Cultural
Criteria = i, vi
ID = 84
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 1979
Session = 3rd
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/84
Coordinates = coord|47|27|59|N|3|44|55|E|type:landmark|display=inline,title
Vézelay Abbey (now known as Basilique Sainte-Marie-Madeleine) was a Benedictine and
Cluniacmonastery in Vézelayin the Yonne"département" in Burgundy, France. The Benedictine abbey church of Ste-Marie-Madeleine (or Basilica of St. Mary Magdalene), with its complicated program of imagery in sculpted capitals and portals, is one of the outstanding masterpieces of Burgundian Romanesque art and architecture, though much of its exterior sculpture was defaced during the French Revolution. The church and hill at Vézelay were added to the UNESCOlist of World Heritage Sitesin 1979.
Benedictine abbeyof Vézelay was founded, [The primary source for the history of Vézelay is a codex compiled in the twelfth century, containing the abbey's annals, a cartulary, a history of the early counts of Nevers, and much besides, in the Bibliothèque municipal, Auxerre, MS 227; it was edited by R. B. C. Huygens, in his magisterial "Monumenta Vizeliacensia: Textes relatifs à l'histoire de l'abbaye de Vézelay" (Corpus Christianorum) Turnhout, Belgium, 1976.] as many abbeys were, on land that had been a late Roman villa, of Vercellus ("Vercelle" becoming "Vézelay"). The villa had passed into the hands of the Carolingiansand devolved to a Carolingian count, Girart, of Roussillon. His two convents were looted and dispersed by Moorish raiding parties in the 8th century, and a hilltop convent was burnt by Norman raiders. In the ninth-century, the abbey was refounded under the guidance of Badilo, who became an affiliate of the reformed Benedictine order of Cluny. Vézelay also stood at the beginning of one of the four major routes through France for pilgrims going to Santiago de Compostelain Galicia, in the north-western corner of Spain.
About 1050 the monks of Vézelay began to claim to hold the relics of
Mary Magdalene, brought, they related, from the Holy Land either by their 9th-century founder-saint, Badilo, or by envoys despatched by him. A little later a monkof Vézelay declared that he had detected in a crypt at St-Maximin in Provence, carved on an empty sarcophagus, a representation of the Unction at Bethany, when Jesus' head was anointed by a woman of Bethany, assumed in the Middle Ages to be Mary Magdalene. The monks of Vézelay pronounced it to be Mary Magdalene's tomb, from which her relics had been translated to their abbey. Freed captives then brought their chains as votive objects to the abbey, and it was the newly-elected Abbot Geoffroy in 1037 who had the ironwork melted down and reforged as wrought iron railings surrounding the Magdelen's altar. Thus the erection of one of the finest examples of Romanesque architecture which followed was made possible by pilgrims to the declared relics and these tactile examples demonstrating the efficacy of prayers. Mary Magdalene is the prototype of the penitent, and Vézelay has remained an important place of pilgrimagefor the Catholic faithful, though the actual relics were torched by Huguenotsin the 16th century.To accommodate the influx of pilgrims a new abbey church was begun, dedicated on April 21 1104, but the expense of building so increased the tax burden in the abbey's lands that the peasants rose up and killed the abbot. The crush of pilgrims was such that an extended narthex(an enclosed porch) was built, inaugurated by Pope Innocent IIin 1132 to help accommodate the pilgrim throng.
Bernard of Clairvauxpreached there in favor of a second crusade at Easter 1146, in front of King Louis VII. Richard I of Englandand Philip II of Francemet there and spent three months at the Abbey in 1190before leaving for the Third Crusade. Thomas Becketin exile, chose Vézelay for his Whitsundaysermon in 1166, announcing the excommunication of the main supporters of his English King, Henry II, and threatening the King with excommunication too. The nave, which had burnt once, with great loss of life, burned again in 1165, after which it was rebuilt in its present form.
Vézelay was a plum. Its litigious monastic community was prepared to defend its liberties and privileges against all comers: [This occasioned the compiling of the codex now at Auxerre.] the bishops of Autun, who challenged its claims to exemption; the counts of Nevers, who claimed jurisdiction in their court and rights of hospitality at Vézelay; the
abbey of Cluny, which had reformed its rule and sought to maintain control of the abbot within its hierarchy; the townsmen of Vézelay, who demanded a modicum of communal self-government.
The start of the decline of Vézelay coincided with the well-publicized discovery in 1279 of the body of Mary Magdalene at
Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baumein Provence, given regal patronage by Charles II, the Angevine king of Sicily. When Charles erected a Dominican convent at La Sainte-Baume, the shrine was marvellously found intact, even with an explanatory inscription stating why the relics had been hidden. The local Dominican monks soon compiled an account of miracles that these relics had wrought. This discovery seriously undermined Vézelay's position as the main shrine of Magdalen in Europe.
After the Revolution, Vézelay stood in danger of collapse. In 1834 the newly-appointed French inspector of historical monuments,
Prosper Mérimée(more familiar as the author of " Carmen"), warned that it was about to collapse, and the young architect Eugène Viollet-le-Ducwas appointed to supervise a massive and successful restoration, undertaken in several stages between 1840 and 1861, during which his team replaced a great deal of the weathered and vadalised sculpture. The flying buttresses that support the nave are his.
Since 1920 it has carried the title
Interpretation of the Tympanum
The tympanum of La Madeleine de Vézelay is different from its counterparts across Europe. From the beginning, its tympanum was specifically designed to function as a spiritual defense of the
Crusadesand to portray a Christian allegory to the Crusaders' mission. When compared to contemporary churches such as St. Lazare d'Autun and St. Pierre de Moissac, the distinctiveness of Vézelay becomes apparent.
George Zarneckiwrote, "To most people the term Romanesque sculpture brings to mind a large church portal, dominated by a tympanum carved with an apocalyptic vision, usually the Last Judgment." [Zarnecki, George. Romanesque Art. New York: University Books, 1971. Pg. 57] This is true in most cases, but Vézelay is definitely an exception. Unlike its contemporaries, which tend to depict the Second Coming of Christ, the subject of Vézelay’s tympanum is the Pentecostal Mission of the Apostles. Its tympanum reflects its unique importance in the development of the Crusades.
Thirty years before the Vézelay tympanum was carved,
Pope Urban IIplanned on announcing his call for a crusade at La MadeleineFact|date=August 2008. In 1095, Urban altered his plans and preached for the First Crusadeat the Council of Clermont, but Vézelay remained a central figure in the history of the crusades. The tympanum was completed in 1130. Fifteen years after its completion, Bernard of Clairvauxchose Vézelay as the place from which he would call for a Second Crusade. Vézelay was even the staging point for the Third Crusade. It is there that King Richardthe Lionheart of England and King Philip Augustusof France met and joined their armies for a combined western invasion of the holy land. It is appropriate, therefore, that Vézelay’s portal reflect its place in the history of the crusades.
The lintel of the Vézelay portal portrays the "ungodly" people of the world. It is a depiction of the first Pentecostal Mission to spread the word of God to all the people of the world. The figures in the tympanum who have not received the Word of God are depicted as not fully human. Some are shown with pig snouts, others are misshapen, and several are depicted as dwarves. One pygmy in particular is depicted as mounting a horse with the assistance of a ladder. On the far right, there is a man with elephantine ears, while in the center we see a man covered in feathers. The architects and artisans depicted the unbelievers as physically grotesque in order to provide a visual image of what they saw as the non-believers' moral terpitude. This is a direct reflection of Western perceptions of foreigners such as the Moors, who were being specifically targeted by the Crusaders. Even Pope Urban II, in his call for a crusade, helped promote this ethnocentric perception of the Turks by calling on westerners to, "exterminate this vile race." [Geary, Patrick. Readings in Medieval History. Canada: Broadview Press, 1997. Pg. 388] Most Westerners had absolutely no idea what the Turks and Muslims looked like, and they assumed that an absence of Christianity must coincide with repulsive physical attributes. It has also been argued that the disbelievers were carved as deformed monsters in an effort to dehumanize them. By dehumanizing their enemies in art, the Crusaders' mission to capture the holy land and convert or kill the Muslims was glorified and sanctified. The Vézelay lintel is, therefore, a political statement as well as a religious one.
Comparison With Other Contemporary Portals
Vézelay’s political motivation becomes all the more apparent when compared with contemporary portal designs from other churches around France. The Vézelay lintel is distinct, but some comparisons can be made between it and other Romanesque portal sculptures of the time. Vézelay’s lintel is comparable to the St. Lazare lintel in
Autunin that both show humans who have sinned. While the Vézelay lintel is devoted to the depiction of "heathens," the Autun lintel shows the damned souls on Judgment Day. The similarity between both lintels is due in large part to the fact that the same master artisan, Master Gislebertus, was the primary architect on both sites. “Gislebertus...began his career at Cluny, then worked on the original west facade at Vézelay, and c. 1120 moved to Autun.” [Marilyn Sostad. Medieval Art] In addition, the two tympana are similar in that they follow the tradition of placing the exaggerated Christ in the center of the image. Here is where the similarity stops, however. Autun is more traditional and typical of the Romanesque portal carvings. It depicts the Second Coming, which is a popular and typical depiction in Romanesque art. Frightful images of demons abound. The goals of the two different tympana are reflected in their design; Autun is designed to frighten people back to church while Vézelay is designed as a political statement to support the crusades.
The Lower Compartments
The lower four compartments of the Vézelay tympanum show the nations that had already received the Gospels. They include the
Byzantines, Armenians, and Ethiopians. The inclusion of the Byzantines is particularly important because it was the Byzantines who initially requested a Crusade to the holy land. The Byzantines had lost Jerusalemto the SeljukTurks through warfare, and they were eager to seek western military support to reclaim that territory.
The characters in the lower Vézelay compartments are regal and well proportioned. They are a direct contrast to their "heathen" counterparts in the lintel. They are human as opposed to monstrous. In the eyes of the designers, they had received God’s grace and are thus pictured as fully human in every detail. These compartments can, therefore, can be seen as an allegory for the crusading nations. The Crusader armies were comprised of many different nationalities bound only by faith in the same God. Nations that had previously warred with one another were suddenly united for a common goal. The lower tympanum compartments are an expression of this newfound solidarity.
The Upper Compartments
While the lower four compartments represent the Christian nations, the upper four compartments are a representation of the second mission of the Apostles. According to the Bible, "many wonders and signs were done by the apostles." [The Acts. 2.43] These wonders included the healing of the sick and the casting out of demons and devils. These acts are represented in the upper four compartments of the Vézelay tympanum. In one compartment, a pair of lepers is shown with looks of astonishment as they compare limbs that have been miraculously healed. The demons are analogous to the non-Christians inhabiting the holy land. In reference to the Turkish take-over of the holy lands, Pope Urban said, "What a disgrace that a race so despicable, degenerate, and enslaved by demons should thus overcome a people endowed with faith in Almighty God!" [Geary, Patrick. Readings in Medieval History. Canada: Broadview Press, 1997. Pg. 388] It is not difficult to see the parallel between the Apostles’ mission of casting out demons, and the dsigner's view of the crusaders' mission of casting out "a race…enslaved by demons." It is further evidence of the Vézelay portal’s peculiar political motives.
The Central Portal
The central portion of the Vézelay tympanum continues this process of politicizing religion. The central tympanum shows a benevolent
Christconveying his message to the Apostles, who flank him on either side. This Christ is distinct in Romanesque architecture. He is a stark contrast to the angry Christ of the St. Pierre de Moissactympanum. The Moissac Christ is a forbidding figure that sits upon the throne of judgment. It is another example of the typical Romanesque Christ. His face is without caring or emotion. He holds the scrolls containing the deeds of mankind, and he stands ready to execute punishment on the damned. The Vézelay Christ, however, is pictured contraposto with arms wide. He is delivering a message, not exacting punishment. The Vézelay tympanum is remarkable because it is so different. The Vézelay Christ is sending the Crusaders out—he is not judging them. Indeed, the Crusaders were guaranteed remission of all sins if they participated in the Crusades. A forbidding Christ placed upon the throne of judgment would have been out of place at Vézelay. That is why the traditional Romanesque Christ, with its angry stare, was replaced at Vézelay by a kind and welcoming Christ with arms wide open.
* [http://www.beloit.edu/~arthist/historyofart/gothic/vezelay.htm Vézelay: La Madeleine] : art-historical introduction
* [http://vezelay.cef.fr The monastic community of Jerusalem in Vézelay] : monks and nuns in Vezelay today
* [http://images.library.pitt.edu/cgi-bin/i/image/image-idx?c=vezelay&page=index Gallery of detailed images]
* [http://www.paradoxplace.com/Photo%20Pages/France/Vezelay/Vezelay.htm Adrian Fletcher's Paradoxplace – Vezelay Page - Photos]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.