FAPSI ( _ru. ФАПСИ) or Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information (FAGCI) ( _ru. Федеральное Агентство Правительственной Связи и Информации) is a
Russian government agency, one of the successors of KGB. Now - the part of FSB[http://lenta.ru/russia/2004/07/14/fsb/] .
FAPSI was created from the 8th (Government Communications) and 16th (Electronic Intelligence) Chief Directorates of the
KGB. It is the equivalent to the American National Security Agency. On September 25, 1991, the Soviet Union Gorbachevdismantled the KGBinto several independent departments. One of them became the "Committee on Government Communications under President of Soviet Union". On December 24, 1991 after the disbanding of the Soviet Union the organization became the "Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information under President of Russian Federation". On March 11, 2003 the agency was reorganized into the "Service of Special Communications and Information" ( _ru. Служба специальной связи и информации, Спецсвязь России) of FSB.
According to the press, the structure of FAPSI copies the structure of the US
National Security Agency, it includes:
*Chief R&D Directorate (Главное научно-техническое управление)
*Chief directorate of government communications
*Chief directorate of security of communications
*Chief directorate of information technology (Главное управление информационных систем)
*Special troops of FAPSI
*Academy of Cryptography
*Military School of FAPSI in
Voronezh, sometimes referred as the world largest hacker's school
*Military school of communications in
*Moscow Department of Penza Scientific Research Electrotechnics Institute (МО ПНИЭИ), manufacturer of software and hardware used by the above agencies
16th directorate of KGB
*Nikolai Nikolaevich Andreev (1968-1973)
Major-GeneralIgor Vasilievich Maslov (1973-?)
Committee on Government Communications under President of Soviet Union
*General A.V. Starovoitov(1991)
Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information
*General A.V. Starovoitov(1991-1998)
*Vladislav Petrovich Sherstyuk (1998-1999) - former chief of "Radio-electronics intelligence" department of the agency
*Vladimir Georgievich Matykhin (1999-2003) - "a civilian specialist on
cryptographyand "data protection"
ervice of Special Communications and Information
*Yu. P. Kornev (2003-2005)
FAPSI and the Internet
FAPSI was always interested in monitoring of Internet activities.
In 1994 it bought major Russian internet provider of that time
RELCOM. According to their explanation they were not interested in interception of the network traffic, but in Internet experience of the firm and in utilization of "FAPSI's excess computing power and network bandwidth".
In 1995 by decree of President
Boris Yeltsinall cryptographic systems except those licensed by FAPSI were forbidden in the Russian Federation. There are widespread rumors that all systems licensed by FAPSI have backdoors allowing the agency to freely access the encrypted information.
Since 1998 they require that all Internet providers in Russia install their hardware named
SORM(СОРМ — Система Оперативно-Розыскных Мероприятий, System of Operative Investigative Actions) that allows filtering and remote control of internet traffic from FAPSI headquarters. Internet providers must pay for the devices (around US$15,000 [http://www.comnews.ru/index.cfm?id=2986] ) directly to FAPSI. Despite the original resistance of Internet providers they complied. It is claimed, however, that no legal document requires ISPs to provide these services free of charge, and some people report that one large St. PetersburgISP told FSB that it does not decline their request, but is going to bill them appropriately, for which this ISP never saw FSB come back. [http://www.libertarium.ru/libertarium/l_sorm_molpro]
Mishaps of the agency
One of the tasks of the agency is to protect government websites from getting hacked. Often they fail to do it by a very simple scenario - the domain is not paid for in time and becomes a trophy of
In January 2004 site the election site http://www.putin2000.ru registered personally for
Vladimir Putinwas not paid for in time and became a pornographic site. Eventually the site was closed down [ru icon http://www.compromat.ru/main/internet/putin2000.htm] ; as at May, 2008, it operates as a replica of the 2000 election site, with notices that "all materials on this site are presented exactly as they appeared in March 2000" ["News" page of Putin's 2000 election site [http://www.putin2000.ru/news.html] ] .
The agency's site, http://www.fagci.ru/, has become a website of a tourist agency (as retrieved in January 2007).
* [http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/fapsi/index.html FAPSI Operations] - by
Federation of American Scientists
* [http://www.psan.org/document521.html Jonathan Littell, "The Security Organs of the Russian Federation. A Brief History 1991-2004"] Psan Publishing House 2006.
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/library/imint/c80_04.htm Lourdes SIGINT facility in Cuba] , part 1
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/cuba/lourdes-imagery.htm Lourdes SIGINT facility in Cuba] , part 2
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/cuba/oagmc029.htm Cyber Warfare and Telecommunications Espionage]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.