Jiddu Krishnamurti

Jiddu Krishnamurti

Infobox Person
name = Jiddu Krishnamurti



image_size = 250px
caption = J. Krishnamurti cir. the 1920s
birth_date = May 11, 1895
birth_place = Madanapalle, India
death_date = February 17, 1986 (aged 90)
death_place = Ojai, California
education =
occupation = public speaker, author, philosopher
title =
spouse =
parents = Narianiah and Sanjeevamma Jiddu
children =
nationality = Indian
website =

Jiddu Krishnamurti (Telugu: జిడ్డు కృష్ణ మూర్తి) or J. Krishnamurti (Telugu: జే . కృష్ణ మూర్తి ), (May 11, 1895–February 17, 1986) was a world renowned writer and speaker on philosophical and spiritual subjects. His subject matter included: the purpose of meditation, human s, the nature of the mind, and how to enact positive change in global society.

Krishnamurti was born into a Telugu Brahmin family in what was then colonial India. In early adolescence, he had a chance encounter with prominent occultist and high-ranking theosophist C.W. Leadbeater in the grounds of the Theosophical Society headquarters at Adyar in Madras (now Chennai). He was subsequently raised under the tutelage of Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater, leaders of the Society at the time, who believed him to be a "vehicle" for an expected World Teacher. As a young man, he disavowed this idea and dissolved the world-wide organization (the Order of the Star) established to support it. He claimed allegiance to no nationality, caste, religion, or philosophy, and spent the rest of his life traveling the world as an individual speaker, speaking to large and small groups, as well as with interested individuals. He authored a number of books, among them "The First and Last Freedom", "The Only Revolution", and "Krishnamurti's Notebook". In addition, a large collection of his talks and discussions have been published. At age 90, he addressed the United Nations on the subject of peace and awareness, and was awarded the 1984 UN Peace Medal. His last public talk was in Madras, India, in January 1986, a month before his death at home in Ojai, California.

His supporters, working through several non-profit foundations, oversee a number of independent schools centered on his views on education – in India, England and the United States – and continue to transcribe and distribute many of his thousands of talks, group and individual discussions, and other writings, publishing them in a variety of formats including print, audio, video and digital formats as well as online, in many languages.

Biography

Family Background and Childhood

Jiddu [ "Jiddu" (alternately spelled "Geddu") was Krishnamurti's family name.] Krishnamurti came from a family of Telugu-speaking Brahmins. His father, Narianiah Jiddu, was employed as an official of the then colonial British administration. Krishnamurti was very fond of his mother, Sanjeevamma, who died when he was ten. [ "Krishnamurti: The Years of Awakening", by Mary Lutyens, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux hardcover edition 1975, p 5. Lutyens was an authorized biographer and close confidante of Krishnamurti.] His parents were second cousins, having a total of eleven children, only six of whom survived childhood. They were strict vegetarians, even shunning eggs, and throwing away any food that the "shadow of an Englishman had crossed". [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Discus Books reprint 1983, p 1.]

He was born on May 11, 1895 (May 11 according to the Brahminical calendar), in the small town of Madanapalle in Chittoor District in Andhra Pradesh, about 150 miles (250 km) west of Madras (now Chennai). As the eighth child, who happened to be a boy, he was, in accordance with common Hindu practice, named after Sri Krishna. [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Discus, p 1. "Krishnamurti" means "in the image (or form) of Krishna".]

In 1903, the family settled in Cudappah, where Krishnamurti during a previous stay had contracted malaria, a disease with which he would suffer recurrent bouts over many years. He was a sensitive and sickly child; "vague and dreamy", he was often taken to be mentally retarded, and was beaten regularly at school by his teachers and at home by his father. [ Lutyens, "Awakening", ch 1.] Several decades later, Krishnamurti reminisced about his state of mind during childhood: "No thought entered his mind. He was watching and listening and nothing else. Thought with its associations never arose. There was no image-making. He often attempted to think but no thought would come." [ "Krishnamurti's Journal", by J. Krishnamurti, Harper & Row 1982. In most of his writings, Krishnamurti refers to himself in the third person. In his later public talks and discussions he consistently referred to himself as "the speaker", or as "K".] Writing about his childhood and early adolescence in memoirs he composed when he was eighteen years old, Krishnamurti described psychic experiences, such as "seeing" his sister, who had died in 1904, and also his mother, who had passed away in 1905. [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Discus, p 5. Quoting from Krishnamurti's memoirs, "...'I may mention that I frequently saw her [my mother] after she died.'"] [ Krishnamurti was highly affected by the death of his mother, whom he describes as also having psychic experiences. See Lutyens, "Awakening", Discus, p 5.]

Krishnamurti's father Narianiah retired at the end of 1907, and, being of limited means, wrote to Annie Besant, then president of the Theosophical Society, seeking employment at the Theosophical headquarters estate at Adyar. (Even though an observant orthodox Brahmin, Narianiah had been a member of the Theosophical Society since 1882). [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Discus, p 7, see "...Theosophy embraced all religions".] He was eventually hired by the Society as a clerk, and he moved his family there in January, 1909. [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Discus, p 8.] Narianiah and his sons were at first assigned to live in a small cottage that lacked adequate sanitation and which was located just outside the Theosophical compound. As a result of poor living conditions, Krishnamurti and his brothers were soon undernourished and infested with lice. [ "Star In The East: The Invention of A Messiah", by Roland Vernon, Palgrave 2001, p 41.]

The "Discovery" and its Consequences

It was in April of 1909, a few months after the last move, that Krishnamurti first met C.W. Leadbeater, who claimed clairvoyance. During his forays to the Theosophical estate's beach at the nearby Adyar river, Leadbeater had noticed Krishnamurti (who also frequented the beach with others), and was amazed by the "most wonderful aura he had ever seen, without a particle of selfishness in it". [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 21. According to occult/theosophical lore, "auras" are invisible emanations related to each individual's "subtler" planes of existence, as well as his/her "normal" plane. Thanks to his claimed clairvoyant abilities, Leadbeater would be able to discern a person's aura.] [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 21. Quoting Leadbeater's description to assistant Ernest Wood.] This strong impression was notwithstanding Krishnamurti's outward appearance, which, according to eyewitnesses, was pretty common, unimpressive, and unkempt. The boy was also considered "particularly dim-witted"; he often had "a vacant expression" that "gave him an almost moronic look". Leadbeater remained "unshaken" that the boy would become "a great teacher". [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 21. Leadbeater was a fascinating and complicated character who remained a mystery even to those close to him.]

Pupul Jayakar, in her biography of Krishnamurti, [ "Krishnamurti: A Biography", by Pupul Jayakar, Harper & Row 1986, hardcover edition. Jayakar, one of the authorized biographers, and a close confidante of Krishnamurti, in chapter 2 questions at length the account of the boy Krishnamurti's physical appearance, implying that the cultural background of the English theosophists might have influenced their impressions. She considers young Krishnamurti "beautiful", based on contemporary photographs. Even if that was the case, it could be said that Krishnamurti was "chosen" despite the theosophists' cultural background, rather than because of it.] quotes him speaking of that period in his life some 75 years later:"The boy had always said, 'I will do whatever you want'. There was an element of subservience, obedience. The boy was vague, uncertain, woolly; he didn't seem to care what was happening. He was like a vessel, with a large hole in it, whatever was put in, went through, nothing remained." [ Jayakar, "Krishnamurti", p 28. Krishnamurti in private conversations during his later years would refer to this "vacancy" often, considering it fundamental to his later development. Apparently, Leadbeater thought so too, although for different reasons.]

Following his "discovery", Krishnamurti was taken under the wing of the leadership of the Theosophical Society in Adyar and their inner circle. Leadbeater and a small number of trusted associates undertook the task of educating, protecting, and generally preparing Krishnamurti as the "vehicle" of the expected World Teacher. [ According to theosophical doctrine, the World Teacher is a messianic figure corresponding to, and combining aspects of, Christ, Maitreya, and the Avatar, among others. A founder of the Theosophical Society, H. P. Blavatsky, had divulged to select associates prior to her death that the ultimate purpose of the Society was to prepare the way for this "imminent" arrival.] Krishnamurti (or "Krishnaji" as he was often called) [ The suffix "-ji" in Hindu names is a sign of affection and/or respect.] and his younger brother Nitya were privately tutored at the Theosophical compound in Madras, and later exposed to a comparatively opulent life among a segment of European high society, as they continued their education abroad. In spite of his history of problems with school work and concerns about his capacities and physical condition, the fourteen year old Krishnamurti was within six months able to speak and write competently in English. [ Vernon, "Star in the East", ch 4.]

During all this time, Krishnamurti had developed a strong bond with Annie Besant, and came to view her as a surrogate mother. Apart from his early close relationship with his mother, this was the first of several important and intimate relationships that Krishnamurti established with women during his lifetime. His father, pushed into the background by the swirl of interest around Krishnamurti, sued the Theosophical Society in 1912 to protect his parental interests. After a protracted legal battle, Besant took custody of Krishnamurti and his brother Nitya. [ Jayakar, "Krishnamurti", ch 3.] [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, ch 7.] As a result of this separation from his family and home, Krishnamurti and his brother became extremely close, and in the following years they often traveled together.

The Theosophical Leadership in 1911 established a new organization called the Order of the Star in the East, in order to prepare the world for the aforementioned "coming". Krishnamurti was named as its head, with senior Theosophists in various positions. Membership was open to anybody who accepted the doctrine of the coming of the World Teacher. [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 46.] [ See also The Six Principles for list of the principles of the Order.] Controversy erupted soon after, both within the Theosophical Society and without, in Hindu circles and the Indian press. [ Jayakar, "Krishnamurti", ch 3.] [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, pages 56 & 59, also chapters 5 through 7.] [ Part of the controversy was Leadbeater's role. He had a history of being in the company of young boys, and there was gossip concerning abuses. This was vehemently denied by Annie Besant, but the gossip greatly disturbed Krishnamurti's father. See Lutyens, "Awakening", Discus, p 15.]

Growing Up

Mary Lutyens, in her biography of Krishnamurti, [ The Jiddu brothers initially encountered Lady Emily Lutyens and daughter Mary during their first trip to England. Mary's mother, then 36 years old, and active in the Theosophical Society, formed a strong emotional bond with Krishnamurti. This was at times frowned upon by the highest ranking members of the Society as well as by her frustrated and skeptical husband, noted architect Sir Edwin Lutyens. See Vernon, "Star In The East", Palgrave, p 67. Also "Edwin Lutyens, His Life, His Wife, His Work", by Jane Ridley, Pimlico 2003, and "Candles In the Sun", in the Other Biographies section of this page.] states that there was a time when he fully believed that he was to become the World Teacher after correct spiritual and secular guidance and education. Another biographer describes the daily program imposed on him by Leadbeater and his associates, which among other things included rigorous exercise and sports, tutoring in a variety of school subjects, theosophical and religious lessons, yoga and meditation, as well as instruction in proper hygiene and the ways of British society and culture. [ Vernon, "Star in the East", Palgrave, p 57.] Unlike sports, where he showed natural aptitude, Krishnamurti always had problems with formal schooling and was not academically inclined. He eventually gave up university education after several attempts at admission. He did take to foreign languages, eventually speaking several (French and Italian among them) with some fluency. In this period, he apparently enjoyed reading parts of the Old Testament, and was impressed by some of the Western classics, especially Shelley, Dostoyevsky and Nietzsche. He also had, since childhood, considerable observational and mechanical skills, being able to correctly disassemble and reassemble complicated machinery.

His public image, as originally cultivated by the theosophists, "...was to be characterized by a well-polished exterior, a sobriety of purpose, a cosmopolitan outlook and an otherworldly, almost beatific detachment in his demeanor." And in fact, "...All of these can be said to have characterised Krishnamurti's public image to the end of his life." [ Vernon, "Star In The East", Palgrave, p 53.] It was apparently clear early on that he "...possessed an innate personal magnetism, not of a warm physical variety, but nonetheless emotive in its austerity, and inclined to inspire veneration." [ Vernon, "Star In The East", Palgrave, p 52.] However, as Krishnamurti was growing up, he showed signs of adolescent rebellion and emotional instability, chafing at the regimen imposed on him, and occasionally having doubts about the future prescribed him. [ Lutyens, in "Awakening" (Farrar, Straus), deals extensively with these issues, see especially chapters 10 to 15. Vernon, in "Star In The East" (Palgrave), offers a concise summation in chapters 5 and 6.]

Krishnamurti and Nitya were taken to England for the first time in April of 1911. Between that time and the start of the First World War in 1914, they also visited several other European countries, always accompanied by theosophist chaperones. [ Vernon, "Star in the East", Palgrave, p 65.] [ The Theosophical Society, the charismatic personalities of its leaders, and Theosophy itself, had generated since the Society's inception considerable interest among the cultural, business, and social elites of the late 19th and early 20th century. Heralded as a harbinger of "a new age" it attracted, at least temporarily, a fair number of wealthy patrons and eloquent, famous supporters, many of whom met young Krishnamurti. George Bernard Shaw, an early supporter, declared him to be "...the most beautiful human being [he] ever saw." See M. Lutyens, "The Life and Death of Krishnamurti", John Murray, 1990, p 76.] After the war, Krishnamurti (again accompanied by his brother) embarked in a series of lectures, meetings, and discussions around the world relating to his duties as the head of the "Order Of The Star". In 1922, Krishnamurti and Nitya travelled from Sydney to California on their way to Switzerland. While in California, they lodged at a cottage in then relatively secluded Ojai Valley, offered to them for the occasion by an American member of the Order. [ It was thought that the mountain climate of Ojai would be beneficial to Nitya, who had been diagnosed with tuberculosis. See Vernon, "Star in the East", Palgrave, p 97.] At Ojai, the brothers also met Rosalind Williams, the sister of a local Theosophist, who eventually became close to them both. [ Rosalind Williams, a young American who would play a significant role in Krishnamurti's life, had been asked to act as companion and nurse to the ailing Nitya. See "Lives in the Shadow with J. Krishnamurti", by Radha Rajagopal Sloss, Addison Wesley, 1993, ch 6.] [ "Krishnamurti: His Life and Death", by Mary Lutyens, St. Martin's Press 1990, p 35.] For the first time the brothers were without immediate supervision from their Theosophical Society minders; they spent their time in nature hikes and picnics with friends, spiritual contemplation, and planning their course within the "World Teacher Project". [ Vernon, "Star in the East", Palgrave, p 113.] Krishnamurti and Nitya found the Ojai Valley to be very agreeable, and eventually a trust, formed by supporters, purchased for them the cottage and surrounding property, which henceforth became Krishnamurti's official place of residence. [ Lutyens, "Fulfilment", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 6.]

It was in Ojai, in August 1922, that Krishnamurti went through an intense, "life-changing" experience. [ Jayakar, "Krishnamurti", p 46 onwards.] [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 152 onwards.] It has been simultaneously, and invariably, characterised as a spiritual awakening, a psychological transformation, and a physical conditioning. Krishnamurti and those around him would refer to it as "the process", and it continued, at very frequent intervals and varying forms of intensity, until his death. [ The world at large, initially found out details and first hand decriptions of "the process" in 1976, with the publication of "Krishnamurti's Notebook" (Krishnamurti Publications of America. Consists of a journal that Krishnamurti kept between June 1961 and March 1962).] [ Krishnamurti and the others with him (Nitya, two prominent theosophists, and Rosalind Williams) each gave detailed, near contemporary accounts of the 1922 incident.] According to witnesses, it started on the 17th, with Krishnamurti complaining of extraordinary pain at the nape of his neck, and a hard, ball-like swelling. Over the next couple of days, the symptoms worsened, with increasing pain, extreme physical discomfort and sensitivity, total loss of appetite and occasional delirious ramblings. Then, he seemed to lapse into unconsciousness; actually, he recounted that he was very much aware of his surroundings and while in that state, he had an experience of mystical union. [ "...There was a man mending the road; that man was myself; the pickaxe he held was myself; the very stone which he was breaking up was a part of me; the tender blade of the grass was my very being, and the tree beside the man was myself. ...I was in everything, or rather everything was in me, inanimate and animate, the mountain, the worm, and all breathing things. All day long I remained in this happy condition." Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 158. Quoting Krishnamurti's written account, now in the Krishnamurti Archives, Krishnamurti Foundation America.] The following day the symptoms, and the experience, intensified, climaxing with a sense of "immense peace". [ Nitya and R. Williams also had ecstatic experiences of their own, described in their accounts.]

"...I was supremely happy, for I had seen. Nothing could ever be the same. I have drunk at the clear and pure waters and my thirst was appeased. ...I have seen the Light. I have touched compassion which heals all sorrow and suffering; it is not for myself, but for the world. ...Love in all its glory has intoxicated my heart; my heart can never be closed. I have drunk at the fountain of Joy and eternal Beauty. I am God-intoxicated." [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 159-160. Quoting Krishnamurti's written account, now in the Krishnamurti Archives, Krishnamurti Foundation America.]

Similar incidents continued with short intermissions until October, and later eventually resumed regularly, always involving varying degrees of physical pain to mark the start of "the process", accompanied by what is variably described as "presence", "benediction", "immensity", and "sacredness", which was reportedly often felt by others present.

Several explanations have been proposed for the events of 1922, and "the process" in general. [ The one most frequently put forth is the view that it represented the so-called "awakening of kundalini", a process that, in Hindu mysticism, culminates in transcedent consciousness (see Jayakar, "Krishnamurti", p 46, footnote). Others view it in Freudian terms. A theory, expounded in the "Harvard Theological Review" ("Mystical Union and Grief: the Ba'al Shem Tov and Krishnamurti", July 1993, v86 n3), contends that this was basically a projection of Krishnamurti's accumulated grief over the death of his mother. Still others, have viewed it as a purely physical event centered on sickness or trauma. As far as Krishnamurti was concerned, he had encountered Truth.] Leadbeater and other theosophists, although they expected the "vehicle" to have certain paranormal experiences, were mystified by the developments, and were at a loss to explain the whole thing. The "process", and the inability of Leadbeater to explain it satisfactorily, if at all, had other consequences according to biographer R. Vernon:

"The process at Ojai, whatever its cause or validity, was a cataclysmic milestone for Krishna. Up until this time his spiritual progress, chequered though it might have been, had been planned with solemn deliberation by Theosophy's grandees. ...Something new had now occurred for which Krishna's training had not entirely prepared him. ...A burden was lifted from his conscience and he took his first step towards becoming an individual. ...In terms of his future role as a teacher, the process was his bedrock. ...It had come to him alone and had not been planted in him by his mentors...It provided Krishna with the soil in which his newfound spirit of confidence and independence could take root." [ Vernon, "Star In The East", Palgrave, p 131-132. See also Lutyens, "Fulfilment" (Farrar, Straus) p 6-8, for description of Krishnamurti's "...new stature and authority". Lutyens adds, in a somewhat confusing sentence, that (because of the process) "...He became less vague and more beautiful."] [ Krishnamurti, in his "Notebook", strongly suggests that these experiences, continuing unabated at the time of its writing in the early 1960s, served as facilitators of, and conduits to, the teaching and its public exposition.]
Finally, the unexpected death of his brother Nitya on November 11, 1925 at age 27 from tuberculosis after a long history with the disease, fundamentally shook Krishnamurti's belief in Theosophy and his faith in the leaders of the Theosophical Society. [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 219, describing Krishnamurti's conviction that "...Nitya was essential for K's life-mission and therefore he would not be allowed to die." Elsewhere, Lutyens mentions the theosophists' "assurances" about Nitya's importance to the "mission".] [ In the meantime, the rumors concerning the purported messianic status of Krishnamurti, had reached fever pitch as a visit to Sydney was planned. Leadbeater had been based there since 1914, and the Theosophical Society was strong enough to then own the local radio station 2GB. The Star Amphitheatre was built in 1923–24 at Balmoral Beach on Sydney Harbour, as a platform for the coming World Teacher. According to sensational media reportage, Krishnamurti was to make a triumphant arrival, walking on water through Sydney Heads. Paralleling this increasing adulation was Krishnamurti's growing discomfort with it. See [http://www.nla.gov.au/pub/nlanews/2006/jan06/article4.html National Library Of Australia article] . Also [http://www.abc.net.au/rn/relig/spirit/stories/s238651.htm ABC Radio National (Australia)] .] According to eyewitness accounts, the news "...broke him down completely". He struggled for days to overcome his sorrow, eventually "...going through an inner revolution, finding new strength". [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 220.] The experience of his brother's death apparently shattered any remaining illusions, and things would never be the same again:

"...An old dream is dead and a new one is being born, as a flower that pushes through the solid earth. A new vision is coming into being and a greater consciousness is being unfolded. ...A new strength, born of suffering, is pulsating in the veins and a new sympathy and understanding is being born of past suffering - a greater desire to see others suffer less, and, if they must suffer, to see that they bear it nobly and come out of it without too many scars. I have wept, but I do not want others to weep; but if they do, I know what it means." [ Krishnamurti writing in the bulletin of the "Order of the Star" ("The Herald of the Star", January 1926).]

Break with the Past

"You must become liberated not because of me but in spite of me." [Krishnamurti speaking at annual "Order of the Star" Camp, Eerde (Ommen), Holland, June 30, 1927] . [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar Straus hardcover p. 244. Quoting notes of the speech, taken contemporaneously by Emily Lutyens.]

In the next few years Krishnamurti's new vision and consciousness continued to develop and reached a climax in 1929, when he rebuffed attempts by Leadbeater and Besant to continue with the "Order of the Star". Krishnamurti dissolved the Order at the annual Star Camp at Ommen, the Netherlands, on August 3rd, 1929 [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 272. Some sources erroneously list the date as August 2nd. Also see "International Star Bulletin", September 1929, for the complete dissolution speech by J. Krishnamurti, and in the August 1929 issue, "The Dissolution Of the Order" article by D. Rajagopal.] where, in front of Annie Besant and several thousand members, he gave a speech [ Read the full text here: [http://www.kinfonet.org/Biography/dissolution.asp Dissolution Speech] ] saying among other things:

"You may remember the story of how the devil and a friend of his were walking down the street, when they saw ahead of them a man stoop down and pick up something from the ground, look at it, and put it away in his pocket. The friend said to the devil, 'What did that man pick up?' 'He picked up a piece of the truth,' said the devil. 'That is a very bad business for you, then,' said his friend. 'Oh, not at all,' the devil replied, 'I am going to help him organize it.'
I maintain that truth is a pathless land, and you cannot approach it by any path whatsoever, by any religion, by any sect. That is my point of view, and I adhere to that absolutely and unconditionally. Truth, being limitless, unconditioned, unapproachable by any path whatsoever, cannot be organized; nor should any organization be formed to lead or coerce people along a particular path." [ Lutyens "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, ch 33, also [http://www.kinfonet.org/Biography/dissolution.asp link] .]

and also:

"This is no magnificent deed, because I do not want followers, and I mean this. The moment you follow someone you cease to follow Truth. I am not concerned whether you pay attention to what I say or not. I want to do a certain thing in the world and I am going to do it with unwavering concentration. I am concerning myself with only one essential thing: to set man free. I desire to free him from all cages, from all fears, and not to found religions, new sects, nor to establish new theories and new philosophies." [ Lutyens "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, ch 33, also [http://www.kinfonet.org/Biography/dissolution.asp link] .]

Following the dissolution, some Theosophists turned against Krishnamurti and publicly wondered whether "...the Coming had gone wrong". Mary Lutyens states that "...After all the years of proclaiming the Coming, of stressing over and over again the danger of rejecting the World Teacher when he came because he was bound to say something wholly new and unexpected, something contrary to most people’s preconceived ideas and hopes, the leaders of Theosophy, one after the other, fell into the trap against which they had so unremittingly warned others." [ Lutyens "Awakening", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 278.]

Krishnamurti had denounced all organized belief, the notion of gurus, and the whole teacher-follower relationship, vowing instead to work in setting man absolutely, totally free. Mary Lutyens notes that he never actually denied being the World Teacher; when asked, he insisted that the question was irrelevant. In correspondence with Lady Emily Lutyens, who was distressed over the ending of the Order and its "World Teacher Project", he remarked: "You know mum I have never denied it [being the World Teacher] , I have only said it does not matter who or what I am but that they should examine what I say, which does not mean that I have denied being the W.T." When a reporter asked him if he was the Christ, he answered "Yes, in the pure sense but not in the traditional accepted sense of the word." [ M. Lutyens, "The Life and Death of Krishnamurti", London: John Murray 1990, p 83.] From that time, he began to disassociate himself from the Theosophical Society and its teachings and practices, despite being on cordial terms with some of its members and ex-members throughout his life.

Krishnamurti would only refer to his teachings as "the" teachings and not as "my" teachings. His concern was always about "the" teachings: the teacher had no importance, and spiritual authority was denounced.

"All authority of any kind, especially in the field of thought and understanding, is the most destructive, evil thing. Leaders destroy the followers and followers destroy the leaders. You have to be your own teacher and your own disciple. You have to question everything that man has accepted as valuable, as necessary." [ "Freedom from the Known", by J. Krishnamurti, edited by M. Lutyens, HarperSanFrancisco 1969, p 21.]

Krishnamurti returned all monies and properties donated to the "Order of the Star" - including a castle in Holland [ Castle Eerde (Ommen), previously owned by the Van Pallandt family.] and around convert|5000|acre|km2|0 of land - to their donors. [ Lutyens, "Awakening", Farrar, Straus, hardcover, ch 34, also Jayakar, "Krishnamurti", pages 79 to 85.] He subsequently spent the rest of his life holding dialogues and giving public talks across the world on the nature of belief, truth, sorrow, freedom, death, the apparently eternal quest for a spiritually-fulfilled life, and related subjects. Following on from the "pathless land" notion, he accepted neither followers nor worshippers, seeing the relationship between disciple and guru as encouraging the antithesis of spiritual emancipation - dependency and exploitation. He constantly urged people to think independently and clearly, and invited them to explore and discuss specific topics together with him, to "walk as two friends". [ Krishnamurti's tenth public talk at Saanen, August 1, 1965. See Collected Works Vol 15, p. 245. Krishnamurti made similar remarks in many of his talks and discussions.] He accepted gifts and financial support freely offered to him by people inspired by his work, and continued with lecture tours and the publication of books and talk transcripts for more than half a century. [ See chronology and annual speaking schedule here: [http://www.kinfonet.org/Biography/chrono.asp Chronology] ]

Middle Years

From 1930 through 1944, Krishnamurti engaged in speaking tours and in the issue of publications under the auspice of the "Star Publishing Trust" (SPT), which he had founded with a close associate and friend from the "Order of the Star", D. Rajagopal. [ Born in India in 1900 and of Brahmin descent, Desikacharya Rajagopal had moved in Krishnamurti's circle since early youth. Although regarded as an excellent editor and organizer, he was also known for his difficult personality and high-handed manner. Upon Nitya's death, he had promised Annie Besant that he would look after Krishnamurti. See Henri Methorst, "Krishnamurti A Spiritual Revolutionary", Edwin Publishing House, 2003, ch 12.] The base of operations for the new enterprise was in Ojai, where Krishnamurti, Rajagopal, and Rosalind Williams (now the wife of Rajagopal), resided in the house known as "Arya Vihara". [ Meaning "Noble Monastery" in Sanskrit, Arya Vihara was part of a later addition to the Ojai property that was Krishnamurti's official residence. See Lutyens, "Fulfilment", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 7.] The business and organizational aspects of the SPT were administered chiefly by D. Rajagopal as Krishnamurti devoted his time to speaking and meditation. The Rajagopals' marriage was not a happy one, and the two became physically estranged after the 1931 birth of their daughter, Radha. [ "Lives in the Shadow with J. Krishnamurti" by Radha Rajagopal Sloss, Bloomsbury Publishing, 1991, ch 12.] In the relative seclusion of "Arya Vihara", Krishnamurti's close friendship with Rosalind deepened into a love affair which was not made public until 1991. [ The two also shared an interest in education: Krishnamurti helped to raise Radha, and the need to provide her with a suitable educational environment led to the founding of the "Happy Valley School" in 1946. See Sloss, "Lives in the Shadow", ch 19.] [ Radha's account of the relationship, "Lives in the Shadow With J. Krishnamurti", was first published in England by Bloomsbury Publishing LTD in 1991, and was soon followed by a rebuttal volume authored by Mary Lutyens, "Krishnamurti and the Rajagopals", Krishnamurti Foundation of America, 1996.]

Throughout the 1930s, Krishnamurti spoke in Europe, Latin America, India, Australia and the United States. In 1938, he made the acquaintance of Aldous Huxley, who had arrived from Europe during 1937. [ Vernon, "Star in the East", p 205.] The two began a close friendship which endured for many years. They held common concerns about the imminent conflict in Europe which they viewed as the outcome of the pernicious influence of nationalism. [ Huxley wrote the comprehensive foreword to "The First and Last Freedom", a Krishnamurti book that generated considerable interest at the time of its publication in 1954. See List of Books subsection.] Krishnamurti's stance on World War II was often construed as pacifism and even subversion during a time of patriotic fervor in the United States and for a time he came under the surveillance of the FBI. [ Vernon, "Star in the East", p 209.] He did not speak publicly for a period of about four years (between 1940 and 1944). During this time he lived and worked quietly at "Arya Vihara", which during the war operated as a largely self-sustaining farm, with its surplus goods donated for relief efforts in Europe. [ Vernon, "Star in the East", p 210.]

Krishnamurti broke the hiatus from public speaking in May 1944 with a series of talks in Ojai. These talks, and subsequent material, was published by "Krishnamurti Writings Inc" (KWINC), the successor organization to the "Star Publishing Trust". This was to be the new central Krishnamurti-related entity worldwide, whose sole purpose was the dissemination of the teaching. [ Lutyens, "Fulfilment", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 59-60. Initially, Krishnamurti (along with Rajagopal and others) was a trustee of KWINC. Eventually he ceased being a trustee, leaving Rajagopal as President - a turn of events that according to Lutyens, constituted "...a circumstance that was to have most unhappy consequences."]

When in India after World War II, many prominent personalities came to meet with him, including Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. In his meetings with Nehru, Krishnamurti elaborated at length on the teachings, saying in one instance, "“Understanding of the self only arises in relationship, in watching yourself in relationship to people, ideas, and things; to trees, the earth, and the world around you and within you. Relationship is the mirror in which the self is revealed. Without self-knowledge there is no basis for right thought and action.”" Nehru asked, "“How does one start?”" to which Krishnamurti replied, "“Begin where you are. Read every word, every phrase, every paragraph of the mind, as it operates through thought.”" [ Jayakar, "Krishnamurti", p 142.]

Later Years

Krishnamurti continued speaking around the world, in public lectures, group discussions and with concerned individuals. In the early 1960's, he made the acquaintance of respected phycisist David Bohm, whose philosophical and scientific concerns regarding the essence of the physical world, and the psychological and sociological state of mankind, found parallels in Krishnamurti's philosophy. The two men soon became close friends and started a common inquiry, in the form of individual dialogues - and in group discussions with other participants - that periodically continued over nearly two decades. [ Among other works, Bohm's Wholeness and the Implicate Order embraces several concepts also present in Krishnamurti's teaching, starting with the proposition that the "Observer is the Observed". See "The First and Last Freedom" by J. Krishnamurti, Harper & Row 1954. Chapter 15, "The Thinker and the Thought" is devoted to an exposition of this idea - one out of many such presentations that Krishnamurti made over the years. Bohm was attempting to apply a similar idea to the field of Quantum Theory.] [ Bohm would eventually serve as a Krishnamurti Foundation trustee.] Several of these discussions were published in the form of books or as parts of books, and introduced a wider audience (among scientists) to Krishnamurti's ideas than was previously the case. [ See Partial List of Published Works/List of Books subsection.] [ Although Krishnamurti's philosophy delved into fields as diverse as religious studies, education, psychology, physics, and consciousness studies, he was not at the time, nor currently (as of June 2008), well known in academic circles. Nevertheless, Krishnamurti met and held discussions with, several prominent scientists including physicists Fritjof Capra and George Sudarshan, biologist Rupert Sheldrake, psychiatrist David Shainbert, as well as psychotherapists representing various theoretical orientations. See "On Krishnamurti", by Raymond Martin, Wadsworth, 2003, for a discussion on Krishnamurti and the academic world.] Through Bohm, Krishnamurti also met, and held discussions with, several other members of the scientific community. Their long friendship went through a rocky interval in later years, and although they overcame their differences and remained friends until Krishnamurti's death, the relationship did not reattain its previous intensity. [ Their falling out was partly due to questions regarding Krishnamurti's private behavior, especially concerning the long and secret love affair that Krishnamurti had had with Rosalind Williams-Rajagopal, at the time unknown to the general public.] [ After their falling out, Bohm criticized certain aspects of the teaching on philosophical, methodological, and psychological grounds. He also criticized what he described as Krishnamurti's occasional "verbal manipulations" when deflecting challenges. Eventually, he questioned some of the reasoning concerning the nature of thought and self, although he never abandoned his belief that "Krishnamurti was on to something." See "Infinite Potential: The Life and times of David Bohm", by F. David Peat, Addison Wesley, 1997.] [ Bohm was also distressed when Krishnamurti more or less abruptly distanced himself, with the implication that Bohm had become too dependent on him. According to his biographers, Krishnamurti reportedly often employed this tactic in similar situations of perceived dependency. See also online interview with F. David Peat linked in the External Links/Specific Subjects subsection.]

Although Krishnamurti's subject matter had evolved to encompass several new and different directions, [ A recurrent theme in his later talks and discussions was the need for "a new brain": a "radical", physical, "mutation" of the brain cells that would "wipe out" unnecessary baggage accumulated in human consciousness throughout its evolutionary history. This would then naturally result in direct perception of present reality, unencumbered by the filters of past experience. According to Krishnamurti, such "mutation" - regeneration of the brain - can logically only happen instantaneously and in toto; otherwise the "old" consciousness, in self-defense, will use the intervening time to distract from the task and so avoid its "death". He constantly reminded his audience to be aware of such actions by the "old" brain, and also to realize that just " [f] actually seeing" the need for a new brain objectively, without judgement (and therefore without pondering it in time), will bring about the change. Recently, the idea that such mutation may be at least within the realm of possibility has found some currency in the new science of neuroplasticity, which posits that the anatomy of the brain changes through experience, and that new neural connections can appear in areas of the brain that were previously considered immutable.] the fundamental notions remained unchanged. In late 1980, he took the opportunity to reaffirm the basic elements of his message in a written statement that came to be known as the "Core of the Teaching". An excerpt follows:

"The core of Krishnamurti's teaching is contained in the statement he made in 1929 when he said: 'Truth is a pathless land'. Man cannot come to it through any organization, through any creed, through any dogma, priest or ritual, nor through any philosophical knowledge or psychological technique. He has to find it through the mirror of relationship, through the understanding of the contents of his own mind, through observation, and not through intellectual analysis or introspective dissection. Man has built in himself images as a sense of security—religious, political, personal. These manifest as symbols, ideas, beliefs. The burden of these dominates man's thinking, relationships and his daily life. These are the causes of our problems for they divide man from man in every relationship." [ From "Total Freedom", by J. Krishnamurti, edited by Mary Cadogan et al, HarperSanFrancisco 1996, p 257. " [This excerpt is from the original 1980 version of the statement. The statement was later minimally edited by Krishnamurti] ".] [ See full text here: [http://www.deeshan.com/krishnamurti.htm Core Of The Teaching] " [Note that in this 1983 version of the statement some wording was edited by Krishnamurti] ".]

In the 1970s, Krishnamurti met several times with then Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi, with whom he had far ranging, and apparently, in some cases very serious discussions. His true impact on Indian political life is unknown; however Jayakar considers his attitude and message on meetings with Indira Gandhi as a possible influence in the lifting of certain emergency measures Mrs. Gandhi had imposed during periods of political turmoil. [ See Jayakar, "Krishnamurti" pages 340-343. Pupul Jayakar was a close friend and biographer of Indira Ghandi, and had been a political and cultural activist in India since the end of World War II.]

Meanwhile, Krishnamurti's once close relationship with the Rajagopals had deteriorated to the point where Krishnamurti took D. Rajagopal to court in order to recover donated property and funds, publication rights for his works, manuscripts, and personal correspondence, that were in Rajagopal's possession. [ D. Rajagopal was the head or co-head of a number of successive corporations and trusts, set up after the dissolution of the "Order of the Star" and chartered to publish Krishnamurti's talks, discussions and other writings.] The litigation and ensuing cross complaints, which formally began in 1971, continued for many years and were finally settled in 1986, shortly after the death of Krishnamurti. [ "Formation of the Krishnamurti Foundation of America and the Lawsuits Which Took Place Between 1968 and 1986 to Recover Assets for Krishnamurti's Work", by Erna Lilliefelt, Krishnamurti Foundation of America, 1995. The complicated settlement dissolved the "K & R Foundation" (a previous entity), and transferred assets to the "Krishnamurti Foundation of America" (KFA). However certain disputed documents remained in the possession of Rajagopal, and he received partial repayment for his attorney's fees.] [ Mary Lutyens placed the preponderance of responsibility for the acrimony of the lawsuits - and resulting damage to Krishnamurti's reputation - on the Rajagopals. In her view, they harbored personal animosity, related to their loss of influence in Krishnamurti's life. See Mary Lutyens, "Krishnamurti And the Rajagopals", KFA, 1996, for her account of the troubled relationship.]

In April 1985 he spoke to an invited audience at the United Nations in New York, where he was awarded the United Nations 1984 Peace medal. [ See transcript here: [http://www.krishnamurtiaustralia.org/articles/world_peace.htm UN talk and Q+A session] .]

In November 1985 he visited India for the last time, holding a number of what came to be known as "farewell" talks and discussions between then and January 1986. These last talks included the fundamental questions he had been asking through the years, as well as newer concerns related to then recent advances in science, technology, and the way they affected humankind. Krishnamurti had commented to friends that he did not wish to invite death, but was not sure how long his body would last (he had already lost considerable weight), and once he could no longer talk, he would have "no further purpose". In his final talk, on January 4, 1986, in Madras, he again invited the audience to examine with him the nature of inquiry, the effect of technology, the nature of life and meditation, and the nature of creation:

"...So, we are enquiring into what makes a bird. What is creation behind all this? Are you waiting for me to describe it, go into it? You want me to go into it? Why (From the audience: To understand what creation is [)] . Why do you ask that? Because I asked? No description can ever describe the origin. The origin is nameless; the origin is absolutely quiet, it's not whirring about making noise. Creation is something that is most holy, that's the most sacred thing in life, and if you have made a mess of your life, change it. Change it today, not tomorrow. If you are uncertain, find out why and be certain. If your thinking is not straight, think straight, logically. Unless all that is prepared, all that is settled, you can't enter into this world, into the world of creation." [ "The Future Is Now: Last Talks in India", by J. Krishnamurti, HarperCollins, 1989. See also an unedited transcript here: [http://www.jiddu-krishnamurti.net/en/1986_madras/1986-01-04_madras_3rd_public_talk_4th_january_1986.html Madras Jan 4 1986] .]

Krishnamurti was also concerned about his legacy, about being unwittingly turned into some personage whose teachings had been handed down to special individuals, rather than the world at large. He did not want anybody to pose as an interpreter of the teaching. [ Lutyens, "Fulfilment", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 171, statement of Krishnamurti published in the Foundation Buletin, 1970.] He warned his associates on several occasions that they were not to present themselves as spokesmen on his behalf, or as his successors after his death. [ Lutyens, "Fulfilment", Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 233.]

A few days before his death, in a final statement, he emphatically declared that "nobody" - among his associates, or the general public - had understood what had happened to him (as the conduit of the teaching), nor had they understood the teaching itself. He added that the "immense energy" operating in his lifetime would be gone with his death, again implying the impossibility of successors. However, he offered hope by stating that people could approach that energy and gain a measure of understanding "...if they live the teachings". [ See Lutyens, "The Life and Death of Krishnamurti", London: John Murray, p 206. Quoting Krishnamurti from tape-recording made on February 7th, 1986: "I was telling them this morning – for seventy years that super-energy – no – that immense energy, immense intelligence, has been using this body. I don’t think people realize what tremendous energy and intelligence went through this body. ...Nobody, unless the body has been prepared, very carefully, protected and so on – nobody can understand what went through this body. Nobody. Don’t anybody pretend. Nobody. I repeat this: nobody amongst us or the public know what went on. ...You won’t find another body like this, or that supreme intelligence, operating in a body for many hundred years. You won’t see it again. When he goes, it goes."] In prior discussions he had compared himself with Thomas Edison, implying that he did the hard work, and now all was needed by others was a flick of the switch. [ Lutyens, "Fulfilment" Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 119.] In another instance he talked of Columbus going through an arduous journey to discover the New World, whereas now, it could easily be reached by jet; the ultimate implication being that even if Krishnamurti was in some way "special", in order to arrive at his level of understanding, others didn't need to be. [ This line of reasoning could be thought of as again affirming his statement that there exists no special method, education, or technique in the pursuit of understanding the teaching. See Lutyens, "Fulfilment" Farrar, Straus hardcover, p 119, for Columbus reference.]

J. Krishnamurti died on February 17, 1986, at the age of 90, from pancreatic cancer. His remains were cremated and scattered by friends and former associates in the three countries where he had spent most of his life: India, England, and the United States of America.

Recurrent Themes

Knowledge

Krishnamurti constantly emphasized the right place of thought in daily life. But he also pointed out the dangers of thought when it becomes knowledge that acts as a calcified projection of the past. According to Krishnamurti, such action distorts our perception and full understanding of the world we live in, and more specifically, the relationships that define it. Some excerpts:

"How is the mind which functions on knowledge – how is the brain which is recording all the time – to end, to see the importance of recording and not let it move in any other direction? Very simply: you insult me, you hurt me, by word, gesture, by an actual act; that leaves a mark on the brain which is memory. That memory is knowledge, that knowledge is going to interfere in my meeting you next time – obviously. ... Knowledge is necessary to act in the sense of my going home from here to the place I live; I must have knowledge for this; I must have knowledge to speak English; I must have knowledge to write a letter and so on. Knowledge as function, mechanical function, is necessary. Now if I use that knowledge in my relationship with you, another human being, I am bringing about a barrier, a division between you and me, namely the observer. That is, knowledge, in relationship, in human relationship, is destructive. That is knowledge which is the tradition, the memory, the image, which the mind has built about you, that knowledge is separative and therefore creates conflict in our relationship." [ "A Wholly Different Way of Living: Krishnamurti in Dialogue With Professor Allan W. Anderson", by Allan W. Anderson, Victor Gollancz 1991.]

"The brain has been trained to record for in that recording there is safety, security, a sense of vitality; in that recording the mind creates the image about oneself. And that image will constantly get hurt. Is it possible to live without a single image about yourself, or about your husband, wife, children, or about the politicians, the priests, or about the ideal? It is possible, and if it is not found you will always be getting hurt, always living in a pattern in which there is no freedom. When you give complete attention there is no recording. It is only when there is inattention that you record. That is: you flatter me; I like it; the liking at that moment is inattention therefore recording takes place. But if when you flatter me I listen to it completely without any reaction, then there is no center which records."

"The brain is the source of thought. The brain is matter and thought is matter. Can the brain – with all its reactions and its immediate responses to every challenge and demand – can the brain be very still? It is not a question of ending thought, but of whether the brain can be completely still? This stillness is not physical death. See what happens when the brain is completely still." [ "The Urgency of Change", by J. Krishnamurti, edited by M. Lutyens, Harper & Row 1970, p 184.]

Fear and Pleasure

Fear and pleasure were lifelong themes in his public talks. The following is an excerpt from his talk in San Diego in 1970.

“Fear is always in relation to something; it does not exist by itself. There is fear of what happened yesterday in relation to the possibility of its repetition tomorrow; there is always a fixed point from which relationship takes place. How does fear come into this? I had pain yesterday; there is the memory of it and I do not want it again tomorrow. Thinking about the pain of yesterday, thinking which involves the memory of yesterday’s pain, projects the fear of having pain again tomorrow. So it is thought that brings about fear. Thought breeds fear; thought also cultivates pleasure. To understand fear you must also understand pleasure – they are interrelated; without understanding one you cannot understand the other. This means that one cannot say ‘I must only have pleasure and no fear’; fear is the other side of the coin which is called pleasure.

Thinking with the images of yesterday’s pleasure, thought imagines that you may not have that pleasure tomorrow; so thought engenders fear. Thought tries to sustain pleasure and thereby nourishes fear.

Thought has separated itself as the analyzer and the thing to be analyzed; they are both parts of thought playing tricks upon itself. In doing all this it is refusing to examine the unconscious fears; it brings in time as a means of escaping fear and yet at the same time sustains fear.” [ "Beyond Violence", by J. Krishnamurti, 1973, HarperCollins College Division, p 66.]

Meditation

Krishnamurti used the term "meditation" to mean something entirely different from the practice of any system or method to control the mind, or to consciously achieve a specific goal or state. He dealt with the subject of meditation in numerous public talks and discussions.

“A mind that is in meditation is concerned only with meditation, not with the meditator. The meditator is the observer, the senser, the thinker, the experiencer, and when there is the experiencer, the thinker, then he is concerned with reaching out, gaining, achieving, experiencing. And that thing which is timeless cannot be experienced. There is no experience at all. There is only that which is not nameable.”

“You know, in all this there are various powers like clairvoyance, reading somebody’s thought – which is the most disgusting thing to do: it is like reading letters that are private. There are various powers. You know what I am talking about, don’t you? You call them siddhis, don’t you? Do you know that all these things are like candles in the sun? When there is no sun there is darkness, and then the candle and the light of the candle become very important. But when there is the sun, the light, the beauty, the clarity, then all these powers, these siddhis – developing various centres, chakras, kundalini, you know all that business – are like candlelight; they have no value at all. And when you have that light, you don’t want anything else.” [ "The First Step is the Last Step", by J. Krishnamurti, Krishnamurti Foundation India 2004, p 281.]

"Meditation is one of the greatest arts in life-perhaps the greatest, and one cannot possibly learn it from anybody, that is the beauty of it. It has no technique and therefore no authority. When you learn about yourself, watch yourself, watch the way you walk, how you eat, what you say, the gossip, the hate, the jealousy-if you are aware of all that in yourself, without any choice, that is part of meditation." [ "Freedom from the Known", by J. Krishnamurti, edited by M. Lutyens, HarperSanFrancisco 1969, p 116.]

“Man, in order to escape his conflicts, has invented many forms of meditation. These have been based on desire, will, and the urge for achievement, and imply conflict and a struggle to arrive. This conscious, deliberate striving is always within the limits of a conditioned mind, and in this there is no freedom. All effort to meditate is the denial of meditation. Meditation is the ending of thought. It is only then that there is a different dimension which is beyond time.” ["Meditations", by J. Krishnamurti, edited by Evelyne Blau, Shambhala 2002, preface.]

“Meditation is the emptying of the mind of all thought, for thought and feeling dissipate energy. They are repetitive, producing mechanical activities which are a necessary part of existence. But they are only part, and thought and feeling cannot possibly enter into the immensity of life. Quite a different approach is necessary, not the path of habit, association and the known; there must be freedom from these. Meditation is the emptying of the mind of the known. It cannot be done by thought or by the hidden prompting of thought, nor by desire in the form of prayer, nor through the self-effacing hypnotism of words, images, hopes, and vanities. All these have to come to an end, easily, without effort and choice, in the flame of awareness.” [Krishnamurti, "Meditations", p 105.]

Education

Krishnamurti founded several schools around the world. When asked, [See "As The River Joins The Ocean: Reflections about J. Krishnamurti", by Giddu Narayan, Edwin House Publishing 1999, p 64.] he enumerated the following as his educational aims:

1. "Global outlook": A vision of the whole as distinct from the part; there should never be a sectarian outlook, but always a holistic outlook free from all prejudice.

2. "Concern for man and the environment": Humanity is part of nature, and if nature is not cared for, it will boomerang on man. Only the right education, and deep affection between people everywhere, will resolve many problems including the enviromental challenges.

3. "Religious spirit, which includes the scientific temper": The religious mind is alone, not lonely. It is in communion with people and nature.

The World Crisis

According to Krishnamurti, many problems in the world such as poverty, war, the nuclear threat, and other unfortunate circumstances, have their roots in our thinking. In his view, as we live and behave according to our thinking so wars and governments are also a result of our thinking. We each have our own particular beliefs, conclusions, and experiences, to which we cling, thereby isolating ourselves from others. Self centered activity is expressed outwardly as nationalism and religious intolerance, creating a world divided, in which we are willing to kill for the sake of belief. Understanding our relationship with the world crisis is necessary to understand ourselves. [ "The Flame of Attention", by J. krishnamurti, Harper & Row paperback 1984, chapters 1 and 7.]

Along with the influence of our thinking on the world and the way society functions, there is also a reciprocal influence from society on our thinking. This mainly manifests itself as the process of our adapting to society. [ From the first of a series of talks in Varanasi, India, 1962.] Independent thinking becomes almost impossible when one feels forced to adapt to society, but as such thinking is necessary for intelligence to operate, the impasse creates a problem.

Influence

Krishnamurti's lasting influence is hard to gauge in an objective way; there is no organizational or other entity based on his philosophy, whose progress can be measured. His insistence that there be no successors or interpreters has so far [ As of June 2008.] prevented any individual or group from claiming to represent a continuity, or a unique understanding, of his philosophy. Krishnamurti himself remarked in 1929, at the dissolution of the Order of the Star, that he was not interested in numbers, stating: "If there are only five people who will listen, who will live, who have their faces turned towards eternity, it will be sufficient." [ See [http://www.kinfonet.org/Biography/dissolution.pdf Dissolution Speech] p 2. Source material is in pdf format.]

However, there exists, [ As of June 2008.] anecdotal and other evidence suggesting that interest in him and "the teachings" has not abated since his death. Many books, as well as audio, video, and computer materials, remain in print and are carried by major online and traditional retailers. The four official Foundations continue with the maintenance of archives, dissemination of the teachings in an increasing number of languages, new conversions to digital and other media, development of websites, sponsoring of television programs, and with organizing meetings and dialogues of interested persons around the world. According to communications and press releases from the Foundations, their mailing lists, and individuals' inquiries, continue to grow. [ See Foundation websites, listed in section Foundations & Related Entities.] The various schools and educational institutions also continue to grow, with new projects added alongside their declared goal of holistic education. [ One of the newer projects, (as of June 2008) is a "Teacher's Academy" at the Oak Grove School at Ojai, an introduction to the holistic educational philosophy of Krishnamurti targeted at educators. See section on Schools.] There are also active "unofficial" "Krishnamurti Committees" operating in several countries.

Since his death, biographies, reminiscences, research papers, critical examinations, and book-length studies of Krishnamurti and his philosophy have continued to appear. Cursory (and necessarily incomplete) examination of internet search traffic and group discussion forums indicates that among similar topics, interest on Krishnamurti remains high.

Because of his ideas and his era, Krishnamurti has come to be seen as an exemplar of those spiritual teachers who disavow formal rituals and dogma. His conception of truth as a "pathless land", with the possibility of immediate liberation, is mirrored in teachings as diverse as those of est, Bruce Lee, Barry Long [ In his "Talks from Tamborine Mountain, 4th Series" (recorded on audio tape circa 1986-1990), Long states: "His contribution of truth to the West was enormous. All the teachers and masters who have subsequently appeared on the scene have unavoidably been influenced by his genius. The practicality of my teaching owes much to his inspiration."] , and the Dalai Lama.

Krishnamurti was friends with, and influenced the works of, the mythologist Joseph Campbell, artist Beatrice Wood, and author Alan Watts. Authors Eckhart Tolle and Deepak Chopra were also profoundly influenced by Krishnamurti. [ Blau, "Krishnamurti: 100 years", p 233.] Writer/philosopher Iris Murdoch also met with Krishnamurti, [ Blau, "Krishnamurti: 100 years", p 191.] while Live's album "Mental Jewelry" is influenced by Krishnamurti's ideas.

In India, with its long tradition of wandering "holy" men, hermits, and independent religious teachers, Krishnamurti attracted the attention (and occasionally the unwanted admiration) of large numbers of people in public lectures and personal interviews. He was, and is presently, considered a "great teacher" by such diverse religious figures as the respected mystic Ramana Maharshi, [ According to his associate Maurice Frydman, Maharshi agreed that "like the Buddha's", Krishnamurti's teaching was "...beyond expression." From "Talks with Sri Ramana Maharshi", page 155. Frydman, (spelled "Friedman" by Jayakar in "Krishnamurti"), became a long-standing close associate of Krishnamurti.] the spiritual teacher Anandamayi Ma, [ A female guru with a large following in North India, see Jayakar, "Krishnamurti", p 144.] as well as figures more well-known to the West such as Osho. Although Krishnamurti had a special tenderness for the true sannyasi or Buddhist monk, his criticism of their rituals, disciplines, and practices was devastating. [ In a typical exchange, Anandamayi Ma asked him, "Why do you deny gurus? You who are the Guru of Gurus". To which Krishnamurti replied, "“People use the guru as a crutch.”" See Jayakar, "Krishnamurti", p 144.]

As was also often the case elsewhere, Krishnamurti additionally attracted the interest of the mainstream religious establishment in India. He was friendly, and had a number of discussions with, well known Hindu and Buddhist scholars and leaders, including the Dalai Lama. [ The two men had a good rapport and mutual admiration. The Dalai Lama characterized Krishnamurti as a "great soul" (Jayakar, "Krishnamurti" p 203). Krishnamurti very much enjoyed the Lama's company, and by his own admission could not bring up his anti-guru views, mindful of the Lama's feelings.] Several of these discussions were later published as chapters in various Krishnamurti books.

Twentieth-century gnostic philosopher and occultist Samael Aun Weor praised Krishnamurti's teachings, stating that his "inner spirit" was a "highly realized Buddha", although he questioned his handling by the theosophists and its effect on his spiritual development. [ cite book |last=Samael Aun Weor |authorlink=Samael Aun Weor |title=Fundamental Notions of Endocrinology & Criminology |origyear=1959 |year=2007 |publisher=Thelema Press |chapter= [http://www.gnosticteachings.org/content/view/195/65/ The Krishnamurti Case] ]

Any discussion of influence, however expansive, deserves to be weighed against Krishnamurti's own measure of success i.e., whether individuals really understand, and therefore "live and breathe", the teaching. [ It is not clear how such an assessment of an individual's state can presently, or ever, be made in a manner that is neither subjective, nor based on artificially constructed criteria.] Regarding this measure of influence or success, the last, and only, definitive public statement belongs to Krishnamurti himself. In a dismal prognosis, delivered 10 days prior his death in 1986, his words were simple, and emphatic: "nobody" – among his associates or the world at large – had understood Krishnamurti, his life, or the teaching.

Criticism

A number of people questioned whether Krishnamurti's attitudes were conditioned by privilege, as he was supported, even pampered, by devoted followers starting as far back as his "discovery" by the theosophists. Helen Nearing, who had known Krishnamurti in the 1920s, made such an assessment in an autobiographical volume ("Loving and Leaving the Good Life", see Other Biographies section below). She also thought that he was at such an "elevated" level that he was incapable of forming normal personal relationships. [ "Loving and Leaving the Good Life", by Helen Nearing, White River Jct., VT: Chelsea Green, 1992. Krishnamurti had fallen in love with then Helen Knothe in the 1920s; presumably her impression of his inability to forge personal relationships was a later development.]

In her 1991 book, "Lives in the Shadow with J. Krishnamurti" (see Other Biographies), Radha Rajagopal Sloss, the daughter of Krishnamurti associates Rosalind and Desikacharya Rajagopal, wrote of Krishnamurti's relationship with her parents, including a secret affair between Krishnamurti and Rosalind which lasted for many years. The public revelation was received with surprise and consternation by many individuals, and was also dealt with in a rebuttal volume of biography by Mary Lutyens ("Krishnamurti and the Rajagopals", also see Other Biographies). [ Roland Vernon, in "Star in the East", (see Other Biographies section), questions the ultimate impact of the revelations when compared to Krishnamurti's body of work as a whole.]

Partial List of Published Works

Apart from a few noted exceptions - see subsection below - the majority of Krishnamurti's books are edited transcripts of his talks and discussions, arranged either thematically, chronologically, by location, or in a combination of the above. Unless otherwise specified, the entries have been arranged by the publication date provided. (Format: "Title", year of first publication, different editions: ISBN, notes)

"Krishnamurti on Krishnamurti"

*"Krishnamurti's Notebook", 1976, Krishnamurti Publications of America expanded 2004 edition: ISBN 1-888004-63-0. Published journal that Krishnamurti kept between June 1961 and March 1962. " [With the publication of this book, for the first time the general public was informed about the so-called "process", a strange condition that having started in the 1920s, intermittently affected Krishnamurti throughout his life] ."
*"Krishnamurti's Journal", 1982, Harper & Row: ISBN 0-06-064841-4, LCC B5134.K765A34 1982. A personal journal, that was started in 1973 and kept intermittently until 1975.
*"Krishnamurti to Himself: His Last Journal", 1987, HarperCollins 1993 paperback: ISBN 0-06-250649-8. Transcribed from audio tape recordings made at his home in the Ojai Valley.

"List of Books"

As noted previously, various official Krishnamurti-related entities have published, and continue to publish, transcripts of Krishnamurti's talks and discussions. These verbatim reports and transcriptions are not included here. See also Collected Works section below. The following is not a complete listing.

*"At the Feet of the Master: Towards Discipleship", 1910, Quest Books 2001 edition: ISBN 0-8356-0803-4. " [The author of this book is also listed as "Alcyone". There is considerable scepticism among Krishnamurti's biographers and others about Krishnamurti's true role in the production of this and other works by so-called "Alcyone". Among other objections, a consensus of the sceptics considers such works as Theosophical literature.] "
*"The Immortal Friend", 1928, Boni & Liveright New York hardcover: no ISBN, Kessinger Publishing 2004 paperback edition: ISBN 1417978554. Poetry.
*"Life in Freedom", 1928, Satori Resources 1986 reprint: ISBN 0-937277-00-2.
*"Education and the Significance of Life", 1953 Krishnamurti Foundation Trust, HarperSanFrancisco 1981 edition: ISBN 0-06-064876-7.
*"The First and Last Freedom", 1954, HarperSanFrancisco 1975 reprint: ISBN 0-06-064831-7.
*"Commentaries on Living: Series One", 1956, Quest Books 1994: ISBN 0-8356-0390-3. D. Rajagopal, editor.
*"Commentaries on Living: Series Two", 1958, Quest Books 1967: ISBN 0-8356-0415-2. D. Rajagopal, editor.
*"Commentaries on Living: Series Three", 1960, Quest Books 1967: ISBN 0-8356-0402-0. D. Rajagopal, editor.
*"Life Ahead: On Learning and the Search for Meaning", 1963, Harper & Row, New World Library 2005 edition: ISBN 1-57731-517-0.
*"Think on These Things", 1964, Harper Perennial 1989 reprint: ISBN 0-06-091609-5. D. Rajagopal, editor.
*"Talks with American Students 1968", 1970, Shambhala Publications: ISBN 0-87773-021-0.
*"Freedom from the Known", 1969, HarperSanFrancisco 1975 reprint: ISBN 0-06-064808-2. M. Lutyens, editor.
*"The Only Revolution", 1970, Gollancz hardcover: ISBN 0-575-00387-1. M. Lutyens, editor.
*"The Urgency of Change", 1970, HarperCollins hardcover: ISBN 0060648724. M. Lutyens, editor.
*"The Flight of the Eagle", 1971, HarperCollins 1973 paperback edition: ISBN 0060916109. Subtitled "Authentic report of talks and discussions in London, Amsterdam, Paris, and Saanen, Switzerland".
*"The Impossible Question", Harper & Row 1972: ISBN 0-0606-4838-X.
*"You Are the World: Authentic Reports of Talks and Discussions in American Universities", 1972, Harper & Row: ISBN 0-06-080303-7, Krishnamurti Foundation India 2001 edition: ISBN 81-87326-02-6.
*"The Awakening of Intelligence", 1973, Harper & Row paperback 1987: ISBN 0-06-064834-1. G. & C. Wingfield Digby, editors.
*"Beyond Violence", 1973, HarperCollins College Div.: ISBN 0-06-064839-2.
*"Beginnings of Learning", 1975, London: Gollancz: ISBN 0-5750-1928-X. Edited transcripts of Krishnamurti's discussions on education with students and staff at the Brockwood Park School, England.
*"Truth and Actuality", 1977, Victor Gollancz, London: ISBN 0-575-02325-2, HarperSanFrancisco 1980 edition: ISBN 0-06-064875-9.
*"Krishnamurti on Education", 1977, HarperCollins: ISBN 0-06-064794-9, Krishnamurti Foundation of America 2001 edition: ISBN 81-87326-00-X. Talks and discussions with students and teachers of Rishi Valley and Rajghat schools in India.
*"The Wholeness of Life", 1978, HarperCollins 1981 paperback: ISBN 0-06-064868-6. Abridgement of discussions held between Krishnamurti, physicist David Bohm, and psychiatrist David Shainbert.
*"Meditations", 1979, Shambhala Publications 2002 edition: ISBN 1-57062-941-2. Compilation of quotes/writings on meditation, Evelyne Blau, editor.
*"From Darkness to Light: Poems and Parables: The Collected Works of Krishnamurti Volume One", 1980, Harper & Row: ISBN 0-06-064832-5. This is completely different from the Collected Works Volume 1 listed below.
*"Exploration into Insight", 1980, HarperCollins: ISBN 0-06-064811-2.
*"The Ending of Time", 1985, Harper & Row, San Francisco: ISBN 0-06-064796-5. Discussions with the physicist David Bohm.
*"The Way of Intelligence", 1985, Krishnamurti Foundation India: ISBN 81-87326-47-6.
*"The Future of Humanity: A Conversation", 1986, HarperCollins: ISBN 0-06-064797-3. Further discussions with the physicist David Bohm.
*"Last Talks at Saanen, 1985", 1987, HarperCollins: ISBN 0-06-064798-1.
*"The Future Is Now: Last Talks in India", 1989, HarperCollins: ISBN 0-06-250484-3. Krishnamurti's last public talks.
*"Meeting Life: Writings and Talks on Finding Your Path Without Retreating from Society", 1991, HarperSanFrancisco: ISBN 0-06-250526-2.
*"Freedom, Love, and Action", 1994, Shambhala 2001 paperback: ISBN 1-5706-2826-2. Based on talks given at Brockwood Park School, England.
*"Total Freedom: The Essential Krishnamurti", 1996, HarperSanFrancisco: ISBN 0-06-064880-5. Introduction to Krishnamurti and selections from the breadth of his works, M. Cadogan, A. Kishbaugh, M. Lee, and R. McCoy editors.
*"Limits of Thought: Discussions", 1999, Routledge, London: ISBN 0-415-19398-2. More discussions with the physicist David Bohm.
*"This Light in Oneself: True Meditation", 1999, Shambhala Publications: ISBN 1-57062-442-9.
*"The Concise Guide to Krishnamurti: A Study Companion and Index to the Recorded Teachings", 2000, Krishnamurti Publications of America: ISBN 1-888004-09-6.
*"To Be Human", 2000, Shambhala, paperback: ISBN 1-5706-2596-4. David Skitt, editor.
*"Can Humanity Change?", 2003, Shambhala, paperback: ISBN 1-5706-2826-2. Subtitled "J. Krishnamurti in dialogue with Buddhists", David Skitt, editor.
*"The First Step is the Last Step", 2004, Krishnamurti Foundation India: ISBN 8187326565.
*"As One Is", 2007, Hohm Press: ISBN 1890772623. Subtitled "To free the mind of all conditioning". Collects the 1955 Ojai public talks.

"The Collected Works of J. Krishnamurti"

This series consists of previously published talks, discussions, question and answer sessions, and other writings, covering the period from 1933-1967.

*"Volume I (1933-1934): The Art of Listening", 1991, Krishnamurti Foundation of America: ISBN 0-8403-6341-9
*"Volume II (1934-1935): What Is the Right Action?", 1991, Krishnamurti Publications of America: ISBN 1-888004-32-0. Edward Weston, editor.
*"Volume 3 (1936-1944): The Mirror of Relationship", 1991, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company: ISBN 0-8403-6236-6
*"Volume 4 (1945-1948): The Observer Is the Observed", 1991, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6237-4
*"Volume 5 (1948-1949): Choiceless Awareness", 1991, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6238-2
*"Volume 6 (1949-1952): The Origin of Conflict", Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6262-5
*"Volume 7 (1952-1953): Tradition and Creativity", 1991, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6257-9
*"Volume 8 (1953-1955): What Are You Seeking?", 1991, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6266-8
*"Volume 9 (1955-1956): The Answer is in the Problem", 1991, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6260-9
*"Volume 10 (1956-1957): A Light to Yourself", 1991, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6268-4
*"Volume 11 (1958-1960): Crisis in Consciousness", 1991, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6272-2
*"Volume 12 (1961): There is No Thinker, Only Thought", 1991, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6286-2
*"Volume 13 (1962-1963): A Psychological Revolution", 1992, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6287-0
*"Volume 14 (1963-1964): The New Mind", 1992, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6288-9
*"Volume 15 (1964-1965): The Dignity of Living", 1992, Krishnamurti Foundation of America: ISBN 0-8403-6282-X
*"Volume 16 (1965-1966): The Beauty of Death", 1992, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6307-9
*"Volume 17 (1966-1967): Perennial Questions", 1992, Kendall/Hunt Publishing: ISBN 0-8403-6314-1

References

Principal Biographies

Arranged alphabetically by author, then by publication date.

*Pupul Jayakar, "Krishnamurti: A Biography", San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986: ISBN 0-06-250401-0. Official biographer.
*Mary Lutyens, "", London: John Murray, 1975. Discus reprint 1983: ISBN 0380007347, Shambhala reprint edition 1997: ISBN 1-57062-288-4. Also official biographer. This first volume of a three-volume biography covers years from birth to 1935.
*Mary Lutyens, "", London: John Murray, 1983: ISBN 0-7195-3979-X, Farrar, Straus, Giroux paperback: ISBN 0-374-18224-8, Avon Books 1991 reprint: ISBN 0-380-71112-5. Covers 1935 to 1980.
*Mary Lutyens, "The Open Door", London: John Murray, 1988: ISBN 0-7195-4534-X. Covers 1980 to 1986, the end of Krishnamurti's life.
*Mary Lutyens, "The Life and Death of Krishnamurti", London: John Murray, 1990: ISBN 0-7195-4749-0, Nesma Books India 1999: ISBN 81-87075-44-9, ISBN 0-900506-22-9, also published as "Krishnamurti: His Life and Death", St Martins Press 1991: ISBN 0-312-05455-6. An abridgement of her trilogy on Krishnamurti's life.

Other Biographies/Memoirs/Reminiscences

A fair number of biographical works have been published. Most are by people who knew Krishnamurti at some point in his life, or/and were close associates for varying lengths of time. Some mention Krishnamurti only in passing; others are posthumous scholarly works with or without the co-operation of the people close to him.

*"Candles in the Sun" - Emily Lutyens, London: R. Hart-Davis, 1957. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1957. Interesting memoir by Mary Lutyens' mother, Lady Emily, who had a long and very intimate relationship with Krishnamurti.
*"The Boyhood Of J. Krishnamurti" - Russell Balfour-Clarke, Bombay: Chetana, 1977. Reminiscences from one of the young Theosophists trusted with the boy Krishnamurti's upbringing.
*"One Thousand Moons: Krishnamurti at Eighty-Five" - Asit Chandmal, Harry N Abrams, 1985: ISBN 0-8109-1209-0. Also published, with additional material and updates, as "One Thousand Suns: Krishnamurti and the Last Walk", Aperture, 1995: ISBN 0893816310. The author was a close friend and longtime associate of Krishnamurti in India.
*"Krishnamurti: The Reluctant Messiah" - Sidney Field and Peter Hay, Paragon House Publishers; 1st edition, 1989: ISBN 1-55778-180-X. The author originally met Krishnamurti in California in the 1920s.
*"Truth Is A Pathless Land: A Journey with Krishnamurti" - Ingram Smith, Theosophical Publishing House; 1st edition, 1989: ISBN 0-8356-0643-0. Also published, with additional material and updates, as "The Transparent Mind: A Journey with Krishnamurti", Edwin House, 1999: ISBN 0-9649-2473-0.
*"Krishnamurti: the man, the mystery & the message" - Stuart Holroyd, Element, 1991, paperback: ISBN 1-8523-0200-3.
*"Lives in the Shadow with J. Krishnamurti" - Radha Rajagopal Sloss, London: Bloomsbury, 1991. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993 edition, hardcover: ISBN 0-201-63211-X. A critical look at the private life of Krishnamurti by the daughter of erstwhile close associates D. Rajagopal and R. Williams-Rajagopal.
*"Loving and Leaving the Good Life" - Helen Nearing, White River Jct., VT: Chelsea Green, 1992: ISBN 0-930031-61-6. This autobiographical work by a well-known naturalist includes the author's encounters with Krishnamurti in the 1920s, which led to an early romantic interest on his part.
*"Krishnamurti: 100 Years" - Evelyne Blau, Stewart, Tabori and Chang; Reprint edition, 1995: ISBN 1-55670-678-2.
*"The Kitchen Chronicles: 1001 Lunches with Krishnamurti" - Michael Krohnen, Edwin House Publishing, 1996: ISBN 0-9649247-1-4. Reminiscences by the chef at "Arya Vihara", Krishnamurti's residence.
*"Krishnamurti and the Rajagopals" - Mary Lutyens, Ojai, CA: Krishnamurti Foundation of America, 1996: ISBN 1-888004-08-8. Contains a detailed refutation of the allegations contained in the Sloss book above, by one of Krishnamurti's authorized biographers.
*"A Vision of the Sacred: My Personal Journey with Krishnamurti" - Sunanda Patwardhan, South Asia Books; 2nd edition, 1999: ISBN 0-14-029447-3. The author had been a long time friend of Krishnamurti and had worked as his private secretary in India.
*"As The River Joins The Ocean: Reflections about J. Krishnamurti" - Giddu Narayan, Edwin House Publishing, 1999: ISBN 0-9649247-5-7. Chandramouli Narsipur, editor. The author, an educator and principal of a Krishnamurti school in India, had also been an associate of Krishnamurti.
*"Krishnamurti: The Taormina seclusion 1912" - Joseph E. Ross, XLibris, 2000: ISBN 0738851981. Focuses on the young Krishnamurti's correspondence with various parties during his retreat to Taormina, Italy, in 1912.
*"The Beauty of the Mountain: Memories of Krishnamurti " - Friedrich Grohe, The Krishnamurti Foundation Trust Ltd, 2001. The author had originally met Krishnamurti in 1983, and eventually became a trustee of several Krishnamurti Foundations.
*"Star In The East: Krishnamurti: The Invention of a Messiah" - Roland Vernon, Palgrave, 2001: ISBN 0-312-23825-8. Sentient Publications, 2002: ISBN 0-9710786-8-8.

Bibliographies

*"A bibliography of the life and teachings of Jiddu Krishnamurti" - Susunaga Weeraperuma, Brill Archive, 1974: ISBN 90-0404007-2

*"Supplement to A bibliography of the life and teachings of Jiddu Krishnamurti" - Susunaga Weeraperuma, Bombay, Chetana, 1982: ISBN 0-8618-6717-3.

Other Works

A number of books, monographs, research papers in various disciplines etc, have appeared through the years examining different aspects of Krishnamurti. An indicative selection follows. Krishnamurti himself accepted no interpreters, contemporary or future.

*"Krishnamurti and the world crisis" - Lilly Heber, G. Allen & Unwin 1935. Originally published in Norwegian by Gyldendal, Oslo 1933. Part of a series of books on Krishnamurti by the same author.
*"Krishnamurti and the Unity of Man" - Carlo Suares, Chetana, Bombay 1953.
*"A Note on Krishnamurti" - in "The New Religions", by Jacob Needleman, Doubleday, N.Y., 1970: ISBN 0385034490.
*"The Mind of J. Krishnamurti" - Luis S. R. Vas, Jaico Publishing House, Bombay 1971: ISBN 8172242131.
*"The Quest of the Quiet Mind: The Philosophy of Krishnamurti" - Stuart Holroyd, Aquarian Press 1980, paperback: ISBN 0-85030-230-7.
*"Insight and religious mind: an analysis of Krishnamurti's thought" - Hillary Rodrigues, P. Lang 1990: ISBN 0820409936.
*"J. Krishnamurti and awareness in action" - A. D. Dhopeshwarkar, Popular Prakashan 1993: ISBN 8-1715-4759-1.
*"The inner life of Krishnamurti: private passion and perennial wisdom" - Aryel Sanat, Quest 1999: ISBN 0-8356-0781-X. A Theosophical examination of Krishnamurti.
*"The joy of creative living" - Scaria Thuruthiyil, LAS 1999: ISBN 8-8213-0410-8.
*"The phenomenology of compassion in the teachings of Jiddu Krishnamurti" - V. Boutte, Edwin Mellen Press 2002: ISBN 0-7734-7090-5. An examination through the lens of Phenomenological Psychology.
*"On Krishnamurti" - Raymond Martin, Wadsworth 2003: ISBN 0-534-25226-5.

Footnotes

External links

Foundations & Related Entities

During 1969 and 1970, Krishnamurti and his associates established several foundations - in the UK (1969), the United States (1969), India (1970 - originally established as "The Rishi Valley Trust" in 1928), and Argentina (1970 - now relocated to Spain) - with a two-fold purpose: the dissemination of Krishnamurti's talks, discussion and writings, and the facilitation of meetings and discussion on the themes of his philosophy.
* [http://www.jkrishnamurti.org/ Official J. Krishnamurti inter-organizational website] An international joint venture of the Krishnamurti foundations. Includes daily quotes and an RSS news feed.
* [http://www.kfoundation.org/ Krishnamurti Foundation Trust (UK)]
* [http://www.kfa.org/ Krishnamurti Foundation of America]
* [http://www.kfionline.org/ Krishnamurti Foundation of India]
* [http://www.fkla.org/ Krishnamurti Foundation Latinoamerica] . Includes daily quotes and an RSS news feed.
* [http://kscskfi.com The Study Centre of the Krishnamurti Foundation India]

chools

Beginning with the [http://www.rishivalley.org/ Rishi Valley School] in India in 1931, several primary, elementary- and secondary-level schools have been established under the guidance of Krishnamurti, and posthumously under the guidance of the Foundations. The following schools (partial listing) are affiliated with Krishnamurti Foundations.
* [http://www.brockwood.org.uk/ Brockwood Park School, Hampshire, UK]
* [http://www.oakgroveschool.com/ Oak Grove School, California, USA]
* [http://www.rbsvaranasi.com/ Rajghat Besant School, Varanasi, India]
* [http://www.rishivalley.org/ Rishi Valley School, Andhra Pradesh, India]
* [http://www.theschoolkfi.org/ The School, Chennai, India]
* [http://www.thevalleyschool.in/ The Valley School, Bangalore, India] For a more complete listing, please see [http://www.kinfonet.org/Community/Schools/School_Listings/ kinfonet.org]

Related Websites

* [http://www.beyondthemind.net/krishnamurti-index.html Beyond the Mind] - A new (ca. 2007) website discussing the central themes of his talks.
* [http://krishnamurtiworldcrisis.googlepages.com/ Krishnamurti and the World Crisis] - World crisis teachings website
* [http://krishnamurti-for-you.com/ Krishnamurti for You] - 219 video clips of Krishnamurti interviews, talks, and discussions.
* [http://tchl.freeweb.hu/ Krishnamurti on Freeweb] - A site containing many of his works online.
* [http://www.k.thequest.org.np/ Krishnamurti World] - About Krishnamurti and his teachings in English and Italian
*gutenberg author| id=J.+Krishnamurti | name=J. Krishnamurti

pecific Subjects

Roughly according to the chronological order of the events described or the date of publication.
* [http://www.thequest.org.np/k/more/meeting/ocean_2.html Untie the Ocean] - Dr. Rubén Feldman González recounts an intimate one-on-one discussion with Krishnamurti.
* [http://www.wie.org/j11/peat.asp David Bohm and Krishnamurti] - Insights by F. David Peat, Bohm's biographer, in an interview in "What Is Enlightenment?" magazine from the Spring 1997 issue. " [Look for the section "Bohm and Krishnamurti"] ".
* [http://www.tamilnation.org/sathyam/sathyam.htm Meeting Jiddu Krishnamurthy] - Reminiscences and commentary by Nadesan Sutyendra. " [Note alternate spelling of "Krishnamurti"] ".
* [http://thinkg.net/david_bohm/martin_gardner_on_david_bohm_and_krishnamurti.html David Bohm and Krishnamurti] - Critical article by Martin Gardner from July, 2000 "Skeptical Inquirer".
* [http://www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/ThinkersPdf/krishnamurtie.pdf Krishnamurti and his impact on education] - A 2001 article published in a UNESCO journal by sociologist and educator Meenakshi Thapan. " [Article is in pdf fomat] ".
* [http://www.strippingthegurus.com/stgsamplechapters/krishnamurti.asp A Critique Of Krishnamurti] - A highly critical article from the website "Stripping The Gurus", based on a chapter of the book by the same name. " [Note that this article is almost wholly comprised of quotes from other works and other third person accounts] ."


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