Struck jury

Struck jury

A struck jury is a multi-step process of selecting a jury from a pool. First potential jurors are eliminated for hardship. Second jurors are eliminated for cause by conducting voir dire until there is a pool available that is exactly the size of the final jury (including required alternates) plus the number of peremptory challenges available to each side. Then the two sides exercise their peremptory challenges on the remaining pool, usually alternating. [cite web | title=Tips & Strategies - The "Struck System" Of Jury Selection | work=North Carolina Lawyers Weekly | url=http://www.medicallegallawfirm.com/articles/jury-selection.html | accessdate=2006-05-10] This procedure "has its roots in ancient common law heritage". ["Swain v. Alabama", ussc|380|202|1965. URL accessed on 10 May 2006.]

Commentators have offered the following (and other) advantages of a struck jury over a "strike and replace" jury:
*It is capable of producing a less biased jury than the alternative;
*There is no reason to hold back on use of peremptories, because lawyers have full knowledge of who will remain on the panel;
*Remedying an alleged Batson violation is easier, since court and counsel can view all the strikes and a ruling can be made before any juror is excused. [cite web | title= Jury Selection | work=JURY SELECTION | url=http://www.supreme.state.az.us/jury/Jury/jury1j.htm | accessdate=2006-05-10]

Alternative Use

In older usage, and still in some jurisdictions a struck jury entails the formation of a jury pool of men who possess special qualifications to judge of the facts of a case. This was a common provision in U.S. insanity cases in the late 1800s. This usage is more often called a "special jury". [cite web | title=Bouviers Law Dictionary | work=Bouviers Law Dictionary 1856 Edition | url=http://www.jusbelli.com/Bouvier/bouvier1856_sp.html | accessdate=2006-05-10] It derives in part from the nomenclature in use in England in the 1700s.

United Kingdom

England

There were four different non-standard types of jury in England while operating under common law. The first three were first recognized by Parliament in 1730 under the general term "special jury". The fourth was known by the Latin phrase "jury de medietate linguae"These were:
#The "Gentleman Jury" - men of high social or economic status,
#The "Struck Jury" - principal landowners selected from a list of forty-eight names,
#The "Professional Jury" - members of special knowledge or expertise, and
#The "Party Jury" - a jury for defendants at special risk of suffering prejudice that included either only or half individuals of the same race, sex, religion, or origin. [cite web | title=The Market for Justice, The "Litigation Explosion," and the "Verdict Bubble": A Closer Look at Vanishing Trials| work=Federal Courts Law Review - 2005 Fed. Cts. L. Rev. 8 | url=http://www.fclr.org/articles/2005fedctslrev8(noframes).htm | accessdate=2006-05-10, which cites Kristy Lee Bertelsen, From Specialized Courts to Specialized Juries: Calling for Professional Juries in Complex Civil Litigation, 3 Suffolk J. Trial & App. Advoc. 1, 9 (1998).] The special jury was used most extensively from 1770 to 1790, roughly during Lord Mansfield's tenure as Lord Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench, and declined thereafter. The first statutory requirements for special jurors were introduced in the County Juries Act of 1825, which required such jurors to be merchants, bankers, esquires, or persons of higher degree. [ cite book | last = Oldham | first = James | title = English Common Law in the Age of Mansfield | publisher = The University of North Carolina Press | date = 2004 | location = Chapel Hill, North Carolina | pages = 22 | url = http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0807855324&id=Zbdum56tXd8C&pg=PA22&lpg=PA22&dq=England+%22struck+jury%22&sig=8gP6gzzJGITAH-MQo8xZUP4Us10&hl=en ] The special jury was eliminated by statute books in 1949, excepting the "City of London special jury" that remained available until 1971 for commercial trials in the King's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice. [cite paper | author = Law Reform Committee | title = Final Report - Volume 3 | publisher = Parliament of Victoria | date = December 1997 | url = http://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/lawreform/jury/jury5/chap2.html | accessdate = 2006-10-20 , footnote #258] The last case using a special jury occurred in London in 1950. The "jury de medietate linguae" were abolished in the Naturalization Act of 1870, which also gave foreigners the right to serve on juries.cite book | title=World Jury Systems | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=2000 | editor=Neil Vidmar | id=ISBN 0-19-829856-0, the first chapter of which is available at [http://www.oup.co.uk/pdf/0-19-829856-0.pdf] subst:PDFlink]

United States

This method may be used in many U.S. states. In some states it may be used for both criminal and civil cases, in other states for only one of the two kinds. In at least the state of Washington, it is the default method of choosing a jury. Some courts of appeals in the U.S. have determined that a struck jury offers greater opportunity to shape the final jury than the more common "sequential" (also known as "strike and replace" or "jury box") method, where peremptory challenges can only be issued against those jurors already seated, with no knowledge of the replacement.

The use of this system in murder cases, when properly enabled by statute, was held by the Supreme Court of the United States to be constitutional in Brown v. New Jersey, ussc|175|172|1899. [cite web | title= Brown v. State of New Jersey | work=Brown v. State of New Jersey ussc|175|172|1899 | url=http://supreme.justia.com/us/175/172/case.html | accessdate=2006-05-10]

Some methods of implementing a struck jury have handled waived challenges by eliminating the last identified member of the juror pool. In discrimination cases, this has been treated as identical to specifically challenging that juror. As a result, the now preferred method of handling waived challenges is to let the other side finish its challenges and then randomly eliminate jurors to get to the number needed.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, the special jury has become obsolete and is no longer used. The need to provide special expertise through selection of jurors was eliminated by the introduction of expert witnesses, expert advisors to the judge, and administrative tribunals. [cite paper | title = Report NO 7: The Structure of the Courts (NZLC R7) | publisher = New Zealand Law Commission | date = 1989 | url = http://www.lawcom.govt.nz/UploadFiles/Publications/Publication_19_54_R07.pdf | format = PDF | accessdate = 2006-10-20 ] The "jury de medietate linguae" from English common law was used for cases where a Māori was accused of a crime until it was abolished in 1961.

Major or Famous Cases

King v. Zenger, 1735

In 1735, John Peter Zenger, a newspaper publisher, was arrested and tried for libel against the governor of New York, which was then a colony of England. His first two lawyers were disbarred for attempting to turn the trial into an indictment of the governor. The judge appointed as lawyer John Chambers, who was a placeman of the governor. He then moved for a struck jury. The first panel created was not properly prepared by the clerk out of the book of potential jurors, and was overturned by the judges before use. The second was properly prepared, but the clerk or sheriff subsequently reordered the names to put a partisan of the governor as the foreman, which was also overturned. After the local attorney completed the process of getting an unbiased jury, Andrew Hamilton took over the defense, and won an acquittal on the grounds that the printed statements were true. [cite book | title=A Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High Crimes and Misdemeanors From The Earliest Period to the Year 1783, With Notes and other Illustrations | publisher=T.C. Hansard | location=Peterborough-Court, Fleet-Street, London | year=1816 | editor=T. B. Howell, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A found at cite web | title=Google Books | work=Google Books | url=http://books.google.com/books?vid=04GzG21M3ihyBJlN10v&id=cRRR-RTxMYwC&pg=RA66-PA9-IA1&lpg=RA66-PA9-IA1&dq=zenger+%22struck+jury%22 | accessdate=2006-05-26] [cite web | author=Moglen, Eben | title=Considering Zenger: Partisan Politics and the Legal Profession in Provincial New York | work=Considering Zenger: Partisan Politics and the Legal Profession in Provincial New York | url=http://emoglen.law.columbia.edu/publications/zenger.html | accessdate=2006-05-26] Based on the law at the time, this was also an example of jury nullification.

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • struck jury — n 1: a jury that is selected from a venire of usu. forty people from which potential jurors are struck by attorneys for each side alternately until a specified number (as twelve) of jurors are left 2: special jury Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of… …   Law dictionary

  • Struck jury — Struck Struck, imp. & p. p. of {Strike}. [1913 Webster] {Struck jury} (Law), a special jury, composed of persons having special knowledge or qualifications, selected by striking from the panel of jurors a certain number for each party, leaving… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • struck jury — n. a jury of 12 drawn from the panel of names remaining after each side has been permitted to strike out a certain number of the original list of names …   English World dictionary

  • struck jury — noun : a special jury of 12 members selected from 48 taken by the sheriff indifferently from those qualified to act as special jurymen, reduced to 24 by the attorney for each side striking out the names of 12, and chosen from these 24 by the… …   Useful english dictionary

  • struck jury — A jury chosen from a panel drawn for a particular case, not from the regular panel, sometimes called a special jury. A jury drawn by the exercise of strikes, each party being entitled to strike a certain number of names of persons appearing as… …   Ballentine's law dictionary

  • struck jury — A special jury. See also striking a jury …   Black's law dictionary

  • struck jury — Law. a jury obtained by special agreement between the opposing attorneys, each taking turns in eliminating a member of the impaneled group until 12 members remain. [1855 60] * * * …   Universalium

  • STRUCK JURY —    a jury of men who possess special qualifications to judge of the facts of a case …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Jury selection — are many methods used to choose the people who will serve on a trial jury. The jury pool is first selected from among the community using a reasonably random method. The prospective jurors are then questioned in court by the judge and/or… …   Wikipedia

  • Struck — Struck, imp. & p. p. of {Strike}. [1913 Webster] {Struck jury} (Law), a special jury, composed of persons having special knowledge or qualifications, selected by striking from the panel of jurors a certain number for each party, leaving the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”