Bophuthatswana

Bophuthatswana

Infobox Former Subdivision
conventional_long_name = Republic of Bophuthatswana
common_name = Bophuthatswana
native_name =
continent = Africa
region = Southern Africa
country = South Africa
subdivision = Bantustan
nation = South Africa |
event_start = Self-government
year_start = 1972
date_start = June 1
event1 = Independence
year_event1 = 1977
date_event1 = December 6
event_end = Re-integrated into South Africa
year_end = 1994
date_end = April 27
event_post =
date_post =
p1 = South Africa
flag_p1 = Flag of South Africa 1928-1994.svg
s1 = South Africa
flag_s1 = Flag of South Africa.svg









image_map_caption = Location of Bophuthatswana within South Africa
capital = Mmabatho
title_leader = President
leader1 = Lucas Mangope
national_motto = "Tshwaraganang Lo Dire Pule E Ne" (Tswana) (If we stand together and work hard we will blessed with rain) [ [http://flagspot.net/flags/za-bw.html Bophuthatswana (South African homeland)] FOTW.net]
national_anthem = [http://www.nationalanthems.info/bpt.htm Lefatshe leno la bo-rrarona]
common_languages = Tswana
religion =
currency = South African Rand

Bophuthatswana (meaning "gathering of the Tswana people") [cite book|last = Raper|first = P.E.|title = South African Place Names|publisher = Jonathan Ball, Jhb & Cape Town|date = 2004|pages = p. 34|isbn = 1-86842-190-2] was a bantustan ("homeland") in the northwest of South Africa. It had a surface area of approximately 40 000 km² and consisted of seven enclaves dispersed over the former South African provinces of Cape Province, Transvaal and Orange Free State. The capital Mmabatho was situated in an area bordering Botswana. The homeland was set up to house Setswana-speaking peoples. In 1983 it had more than 1,430,000 inhabitants; in 1990, it had an estimated population of 2,352,296. [" [http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact90/world12.txt 1990 CIA World Factbook] ". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on 2008-08-19.]

History

Bophuthatswana was given nominal self-rule in 1971, and became nominally independent on December 6, 1977; Kgosi Lucas Mangope was appointed head of state. In reality Bophuthatswana was a client state of apartheid-era South Africa and was not recognized as an independent country by any government other than that of South Africa. Those relocated to Bophuthatswana lost their South African citizenship. In 1988 an attempted coup was suppressed by South Africa, who reinstated Mangope. The coup was later said to have been led by the opposition at the time, the People's Progressive Party (PPP) under the leadership of Rocky Malebana Metsing. A second coup in 1990 was also thwarted.

Economy

It was the richest of the TBVC states (nominally independent Bantustans), as it had platinum mines. It also made money from the Sun City casino, which was a day trip from Johannesburg and Pretoria, where gambling was illegal under the National Party government (as it was in the whole country).

Bophuthatswana coup

In the beginning of 1994 with South Africa heading for democratic elections, the autocratic President Lucas Mangope resisted reincorporation into South Africa. 40 people were wounded when Bophuthatswana Defence Force troops opened fire on striking civil servants. Mangope took an increasingly hardline stance, rejected Independent Electoral Commission chairman Judge Johann Kriegler's plea for free political activity in the territory, and fired the staff of the Bophuthatswana Broadcasting Corporation, closing down two television stations and three radio stations.

The white supremacist group Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) took the opportunity to move in and try to restore the apartheid status quo, but was humiliated in early March when, in the presence of photojournalists and a TV crew, uniformed members of the AWB on an armed incursion to the Mmabatho/Mafikeng area shot at people alongside the road, injuring and killing many. [cite web
url=http://www.doj.gov.za/trc/decisions/1999/ac990239.htm
title=Amnesty Application - Ontlametse Bernstein Menyatsoe
publisher=Truth and Reconciliation Commission
] They themselves were shot at by members of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force (BDF) and the Police and forced to retreat. Three wounded AWB members were shot dead at point blank range by Ontlametse Bernstein Menyatsoe of the BDF while retreating. [cite web
url=http://www.info.gov.za/speeches/1999/990806933a1001.htm
title=Amnesty granted for killing of three AWB members in 1994
publisher=Truth and Reconciliation Commission
date=1999-08-05
] These killings effectively spelt the end of white right-wing military opposition to democratic reforms. Mangope was replaced by an interim government, and on April 27 of the same year all ten homelands, including Bophuthatswana, were reincorporated into post-apartheid South Africa.

Post-apartheid South Africa

With the end of apartheid, of the 7 enclaves, 5 were added into the North West Province. Thaba Nchu became part of the Free State and Moretele (the easternmost part) became part of Mpumalanga. The capital, Mmabatho, is now the capital of the North West province.

ee also

*Heads of State of Bophuthatswana
*Coins of Bophuthatswana

Further reading

* "The Bang-bang Club: The Making of the New South Africa", Greg Marinovich and Joao Silva, William Heinemann, 2000 ISBN 0-434-00733-1
* [http://www.polity.org.za/html/govdocs/commissions/1998/tebbutt/index.html Report of the Tebbutt Commission of Inquiry] into the violence Bophuthatswana on 11 March 1994
* [http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/history/tenyearsago2.htm 72 days that shaped South Africa - compilation of newspaper excerpts from 1994]

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • BophuthaTswana — BophuthaTswana,   ehemaliges Homeland im Norden der Republik Südafrika, 44 000 km2, etwa 2,5 Mio. Einwohner (meist Tswana). Seit der Errichtung der neuen südafrikanischen Provinzen 1994 sind die sechs Gebiete von BophuthaTswana auf die Provinzen… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Bophuthatswana — ensemble de districts de l Afrique du Sud, dans la prov. du Nord Ouest, qui correspond à un anc. bantoustan (1959 1994, indépendant en 1977) dont les diverses parcelles se situaient au N. du Vaal …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Bophuthatswana — → Bofutatsuana …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • Bophuthatswana — [bō΄po͞o tät swän′ə] former group of noncontiguous black homelands in N South Africa, on the Botswana border: granted independence in 1977, it was disbanded in 1994 …   English World dictionary

  • Bophuthatswana — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Tswanaland (homonymie). Bophuthatswana 1977 – 1994 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Bophuthatswana — Flagge Bophuthatswanas …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bophuthatswana — /boh pooh taht swah neuh/, n. a self governing Bantu territory of South Africa, consisting of several landlocked areas, along the NE part: granted independence in 1977 by South Africa, but not recognized by any other country as an independent… …   Universalium

  • Bophuthatswana — (Repaboliki ya Bophuthatswana) ► Antigua región del sur de África formada por siete núcleos territoriales, separados entre sí, rodeados por la República de Sudáfrica y en la frontera de este país con Botswana. 570 000 km2 y 936 600 h. Cap.,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Bophuthatswana — geographical name former group of noncontiguous black enclaves in the Republic of South Africa capital Mmabatho; granted independence 1977; abolished 1994 …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Bophuthatswana —  Former South African black homeland; capital Mmabatho. Reintegrated into South Africa in 1994 …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

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