- Âu Việt
The Âu Việt (Hán tự: 甌越) were a conglomeration of upland tribes living in what is today the mountainous region of northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and southern Guangxi, China, since at least the 3rd century BC. Its capital was located in what is today the Cao Bang Province of northeastern Vietnam.
The Âu Việt were also referred to the Kingdom of East Ou (東甌), descendants of the Yue (state) moved to Fujian after its fall, and the West Ou (西甌; Chinese: Xī Ōu; Tây meaning "western"). The West Ou were considered to be one of the Bǎiyuè tribes. They had short hair and tattoos, and blackened their teeth. They are considered to have been the ancestors of the upland Tai-speaking minority groups in Vietnam such as the Nung and Tay, as well as the closely related Zhuang people of Guangxi.
The Âu Việt traded with the Lạc Việt, the inhabitants of the state of Văn Lang, which was located in the lowland plains to Âu Việt's south, in what is today the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam, until 258 BC or 257 BC, when Thục Phán, the leader of the alliance of Âu Việt tribes, invaded Văn Lang and defeated the last Hùng Vương. He named the new nation "Âu Lạc," and proclaiming himself king An Dương Vương.
The Qin dynasty conquered the Chu (state) and abolished the status of the Yue royal descendants. After some years, Shi Huang Di sent 500,000 army to conquer the West Ou, started a 3 year guerrilla warfare and killed the West Ou leader. Before the Han Dynasty, the East and West Ou gain independence again. The East Ou was attacked by the Minyue, and Emperor Wu of Han allowed them to move to between Changjiang and Huaihe. The West Ou pay tribute to the Nam Viet until it was conquered by the emperor, and it also surrendered. Descendants of these kings lost their status later. Ou (區), Ou (歐) and Ouyang (歐陽) remains in family names.
- ^ a b c Chapuis, Oscar (1995). A History of Vietnam: From Hong Bang to Tu Duc. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 13–14. ISBN 0-313-29622-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=Jskyi00bspcC&pg=PA13&dq=%22au+viet%22+%22xi+ou%22&sig=ACfU3U27CLo28r4xTtw6Fn2QigI86SngQg.
- ^ Sterling, Eleanor J.; Martha Maud Hurley, Le Duc Minh, Minh Duc Le, Joyce A. Powzyk (2006). Vietnam: a natural history. Yale University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-300-10608-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=V4YyosYY9WIC&pg=PA28&dq=%22au+viet%22+%22van+lang%22&sig=ACfU3U1-QcWKTJSqe1O9PWS773KCOoUxgg.
- ^ Stevenson, John; John Guy, Louise Allison Cort (1997). Vietnamese ceramics: a separate tradition. Art Media Resources with Avery Press. p. 109.
- ^ Huainanzi 卷18, 人間訓
- ^ zh:s:史記/卷114
- ^ zh:s:史記/卷113
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