- CEN 1789
common_name = European Union
capital = Brussels, Belgium
CEN 1789:2007 is the
European Union standardfor ambulancesand medical transportation vehicles. This European standard specifies requirements for the design, testing, performance and equipping of road ambulances used for the transport and care of patients. This standard is applicable to road ambulances capable of transporting at least one person on a stretcher. [cite web|url=http://www.vca.gov.uk/additional/files/vehicle-type-approval/ambulances/vca058.pdf|title=Ambulance CEN Approval (British VCA document)|accessdate=2008-10-01]
The current version of standard CEN 1789 was published by the
Comité Européen de Normalisation(European Committee on Standardization) on June 29, 2007. This replaced an early version of the standard, published in 2000. European standards are generally annotated by the organization, standard number and year of publication (e.g. CEN 1789:2000 or CEN 1789/2007). Within member countries, [cite journal|author=Committee on European Standards|journal=CEN EN 1789|title=Medical Vehicles and their Equipment 1|year=2007|url=https://www.on-norm.at/ecom/preview.dyn;jsessionid=2BUDS0AIYXPK4CQCAICCFEQ?PROD_ID=268318&SKU_ID=268318911] the annotation is likely to be adapted to include the local standards body, so that in Britain, the 'C' is dropped from the prefix, and replaced with ' BS', in Germany with ' DIN', and so on. Because of the likelihood of significant changes between versions, on the most current version of any standard should be used. The Comité Européen de Normalisation is an agency of the government of the European Union, with membership from the National Standards Body of each participating member country.
While CEN 1789:2007 represents the current European standard for the design of ambulances, it is by no means the only example of such a standard. Standards for ambulance design have existed in the
United Statessince 1976, where the standard is known as KKK-1822-A. [cite journal |author=Vogt F |title=Equipment: Federal Specification, Ambulance KKK-A-1822 |journal=Emerg Med Serv |volume=5 |issue=3 |pages=58, 60–4 |year=1976 |pmid=1028572 |doi= |url=] This standard has been revised several times, and is currently in version 'F', known as KKK-1822-F. As with the European system, only the most current version of the standard should be used. One of the first known standards for ambulance design occurred in London, England, as the result of efforts by the Metropolitan Asylums Board, acting in response to the cholera outbreakof 1832. While horse-drawn, this provided the actual standard for many of the earliest civilian ambulances around the world. More contemporary versions of ambulance design standards also exist at a local level in Canada, Australiaand New Zealand. In each case, the country or jurisdiction develops such standards based upon its own needs, priorities, and realities, and this is also true of the European standard. In some cases, standards compliance may not be planned, and may occur as an incidental result of normal operations. To illustrate, a small country has no domestic ambulance manufacturers, but imports its vehicles from a larger country in which the manufacturer must comply with a published standard. In most cases, the ambulances imported by the smaller country will end up complying with the larger country's standard, regardless of whether or not this outcome was intended. American and Australian standards were reviewed and considered during the development of the European standard, but were not precisely followed because European needs and priorities were different.
The standard is intended to gradually transform the existing 'patchwork' of ambulance design and equipment across Europe into a single set of standards. An ambulance from one country would possess sufficiently common characteristics to be immediately recognizable by the residents of another country. Such vehicles would be similar enough in design to be interchangeable, with
EMSpersonnel from one country able to quickly adapt to the use of a vehicle from another country, if required. Above all, such vehicles would be safe for those being transported in them, [cite journal |author=Shirley PJ, Bion JF |title=Intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients: minimising risk |journal=Intensive Care Med |volume=30 |issue=8 |pages=1508–10 |year=2004 |month=August |pmid=15197442 |doi=10.1007/s00134-004-2293-6 |url=] those working in them, other users of the road, and the general public.
Requirements are specified for categories of road ambulances based in increasing order of the level of treatment that can be carried out. The standard includes both vehicle type and also engine type and performance characteristics, including vehicle dimensions, acceleration rate, braking capacity, traction control, fire safety, and heating/cooling. [cite journal|author=Committee on European Standards|journal=CEN EN 1789|title=Medical Vehicles and their Equipment 2|year=2007|url=https://www.on-norm.at/ecom/preview.dyn;jsessionid=2BUDS0AIYXPK4CQCAICCFEQ?PROD_ID=268318&SKU_ID=268318911]
Interior design standards
The standard contains
ergonomicrequirements and design specifications for the patient compartment, [cite journal|author=Ferreira J, Hignett S|title=Reviewing ambulance design for clinical efficiency and paramedic safety|journal=Applied Ergonomics|volume=36|pages=97-105|year=2005|url=http://amp.osu.edu/CT/download/Journal%20Club/jc_051605_mo.pdf] and also places practical restrictions on the physical lifting of patients in and out of the vehicle, for safety reasons. Other safety factors addressed include lighting, doors & windows, cabinet securing systems, seatbelt and seat anchorage, seat size & position, and restraint of medical equipment, with provisions for static testing, dynamic and impact testing.
Classification of ambulances
*Patient transport ambulances (Types "A1 A2") [cite web |url=http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Ambulance_-_Ambulances_in_France_amp_Europe/id/1283377 |title=Ambulances in France and Europe 1 |accessdate=2008-10-01] Generally only used for the non-emergency transportation of patients, either between facilities or between a facility and a residence. The emphasis is on transportation; such ambulances have limited treatment or equipment space. Such ambulances may also be used because of cost by smaller communities, particularly if there is no ALS service, or if ALS is provided by another vehicle, as with a Notarzt.
*Emergency ambulances (Type "B") [cite web|url=http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Ambulance_-_Ambulances_in_France_amp_Europe/id/1283377|title=Ambulances in France and Europe 2|accessdate=2008-10-01] The most commonly seen type of emergency ambulance. This vehicle type permits increased treatment space and also the ability to store significantly larger amounts of medical equipment. Such vehicles will typically respond independently to emergency calls, providing some level of treatment. For high priority emergency calls, these will often be supplemented by the response of a Notarzt.
*Mobile intensive care unit (Type "C") [cite web|url=http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Ambulance_-_Ambulances_in_France_amp_Europe/id/1283377|title=Ambulances in France and Europe 3|accessdate=2008-10-01] This type of ambulance is commonly seen in the movement of high acuity (ICU) patients between hospitals. It provides adequate space for not only the medical equipment commonly seen in ambulances, but also to accommodate hospital equipment, such as ventilators, during transport. In some locations, vehicles of this design may be used to provide mobile resuscitation services, either supplemented by a Notarzt response, or with the Notarzt as a part of the crew.
This Standard gives general requirements for medical devices carried in road ambulances and used therein and outside hospitals and clinics in situations where the ambient conditions can differ from normal indoor conditions. [cite journal |author=Haji-Michael P |title=Critical care transfers - a danger foreseen is half avoided |journal=Crit Care |volume=9 |issue=4 |pages=343–4 |year=2005 |month=August |pmid=16137381 |pmc=1269476 |doi=10.1186/cc3773 |url=]
The Standard specifies that all ambulances will be painted yellow, with specific colour standards, as their primary body colour. [cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2002/mar/07/health.europeanunion|title=Ambulances Turn Yellow for Europe (Manchester Guardian article)|accessdate=2008-10-01] The colour yellow was chosen primarily because it remains visible to almost all people in all lighting conditions, including the majority of those with colour-blindness.
Active warning systems
All ambulances will be equipped with flashing blue lights, visible for 360 degrees around the vehicle.cite web|title=RVLR Requirements about using Blue warning beacons|url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1989/Uksi_19891796_en_4.htm#(Tiii)26requirementaboutusewarningbeacon] All vehicles must also be equipped with an audible warning system (siren) which meets specified standards for both sound pattern and volume.
Passive warning systems
All ambulances are to be equipped with highly reflective green and yellow 'checkerboard' markings (the English term is '
Battenburg' pattern), of specified proportions, running the entire length of the vehicle. The intent of this measure was to provide specific 'visual identities' for emergency vehicles, by reserving this pattern for ambulances, blue and yellow Battenburg for police cars, and red and yellow Battenburg for fire service vehicles. In addition, all lettering on the vehicle is required to be highly reflective, in order to boost vehicle visibility in all conditions. The colour combination selected was chosen for specific reasons. Under night time conditions, green is among the most visible (exceeded only by blue) of colours, creating high visibility (and safety) for ambulance vehicles. Unfortunately, for many of those who suffer from colour-blindness, neither green nor red is visible, washing out to shades of grey or dark yellow. In fact, almost 99 percent of all colour vision deficiency involves some form of red-green colour blindness, and includes an estimated 7-10 percent of all males, depending on location. [cite book|title=Color Vision: From Genes to Perception|last=Sharpe|first=LT|coauthors=Stockman A, Jägle H, Nathans J| editor=Gegenfurtner KR, Sharpe LT |chapter=Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision and color blindness|publisher=Cambridge University Press| year=1999|isbn=9780521004398|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=4zQMQLLVkFYC] However, even for these individuals, the colour yellow is always visible (see diagram). The resulting pattern is both high visibility and eye-catching for the average person, provides improved night time visibility for most, and provides a combination which is identifiable, at least in part, by the majority of the population.
Application and compliance
As with most European standards, compliance by the member countries of the European Union is purely voluntary, and to be determined at the level of the member country, usually by means of
legislation, or by its' own standards organization. [cite web|url=http://www.normapme.com/english/europstand.htm|title=European Standards website|accessdate=2008-10-01] To illustrate, this standard, which has been accepted by the United Kingdom, is known locally as BS EN 1789:2007, with the 'BS' referring to British Standards. As a result, the adoption of this standard has varied considerably from one country to another. Most countries, for example, have adopted the sections dealing with vehicle design and performance, while only a few (the U.K., Eire, and Swedenat this writing), have fully adopted the colour, warning system, and livery schemes for such vehicles. To further complicate matters, some countries have adopted some portion of the visual identity standards, but not all. In the Netherlands, Belgium, and some parts of Germany, the conversion to the basic identifying colour (yellow) is occurring, but the balance of visual identity provisions are not. In addition, some countries which are not currently members of the European Union, such as Norwayare adopting some portions of the standards, primarily because few other good standards exist for this purpose, particularly those that reflect European realities. The rate and degree of compliance with the standard is a conscious choice by individual countries, while in others, compliance is a matter of the priorities for the changing of older, country specific, legislation. As previously stated, compliance with the standard is purely voluntary. There are no untoward financial implications to compliance, since only ambulances purchased after ratification of the standard by each country are required to be compliant. There is no mandatory provision for the retrofitting of existing ambulances.
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