- Pedro Damiano
Infobox chess player
playername = Pedro Damiano
birthname = Pedro Damiano
country = POR
datebirth = 1480
datedeath = 1544
Pedro Damiano (in Portuguese, Pedro Damião; "Damiano" is the Italian form, much like the
Latin"Damianus") was a Portuguese chessplayer who lived from 1480 to 1544. A native of Odemira, he was a pharmacist by profession. He wrote "Questo libro e da imparare giocare a scachi et de li partiti," published in Rome, Italy, in 1512; it went through eight editions in the sixteenth century. Damiano describes the rules of the game, offers advice on strategy, presents a selection of chess problems (see diagram), and analyzes a few openings. It is the oldest book that definitely states that the square on the right of the row closest to each player must be white. He also offers advice regarding blindfold chess principally focused on the need to master notation based on numbering the squares 1-64 harv|Murray|1913|loc=788–89.
In his opening analysis, he suggests that after 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 the reply 2...Nc6 is best and 2...d6 (now called the
Philidor Defence) is not as good. Damiano rightly condemned 2...f6 as the worst reasonable defence (black can play 2...Qh4 which is worse), but ironically and deceptively this opening has been given his name ( Damiano Defence). He states that 1.e4 and 1.d4 are the only first moves and that 1.e4 is better. He examines the Giuoco Piano, the Petroff Defense, and the Queen's Gambit Accepted.
In this book Damiano suggested chess was invented by
Xerxeswhich would be the reason why it was known in Portuguese as "Xadrez" and in Spanish as "Ajedrez". In fact, these words come from old Persian "chaturanga" via Arabic "xaţrandj".
8 |kd|rd| | | | | |rd|= 7 |pd| | | | | | | |= 6 | | | | | | | | |= 5 | | | | | | | | |= 4 | | | | |qd| | | |= 3 | | | | | | | | |= 2 | |rl| | | |ql| | |= 1 |kl|rl| | | | | | |= a b c d e f g h
White mates in three Chess diagram|=
8 | | | | |qd|rd|kd| |= 7 | | | | | | |pd| |= 6 | | | | | |pd|pl| |= 5 | | | | | | | | |= 4 | | | | | | | | |= 3 | | | | | | | | |= 2 | | | | |pl| | | |= 1 | | | |ql| |rl| |rl|= a b c d e f g h
White mates in five
*citation | last1=Hooper | first1=David | author1-link=David Vincent Hooper | last2=Whyld | first2=Kenneth | author2-link=Kenneth Whyld | year=1992 | title=
The Oxford Companion To Chess| edition=second | publisher=Oxford University Press | location=Oxford | pages=101 | isbn=0-19-280049-3
*citation | last=Murray | first=H.J.R. | author-link=Harold James Ruthven Murray | title=
A History of Chess| publisher=Clarendon Press (Oxford)| year=1913 | id=ISBN 0-19-827403-3
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