LaTeX ( pronEng|ˈleɪtɛk or IPA|/ˈleɪtɛx/) is a
document markup languageand document preparation system for the TeX typesettingprogram. Within the typesetting system, its name is styled as .
LaTeX is most widely used by mathematicians, scientists, engineers, philosophers, scholars in
academiaand the commercial world, and other professionals. [ cite web | url = http://www.ctan.org/what_is_tex.html | title = What are TeX, LaTeX and friends? ] As a primary or intermediate format (e.g. translating DocBookand other XML-based formats to typesettingachievable by TeX. The typesetting system offers programmable desktop publishingfeatures and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and cross-referencing, tables and figures, page layout and bibliographies.
LaTeX is intended to provide a high-level language that accesses the power of TeX. LaTeX essentially comprises a collection of TeX macros and a program to process LaTeX documents. Because the TeX formatting commands are very low-level, it is usually much simpler for end-users to use LaTeX.
LaTeX was originally written in the early 1980s by
Leslie Lamportat ).
The term LaTeX refers only to the language in which documents are written, not to the text editor itself. In order to create a document in LaTeX, a .tex file must be created using some form of text editor. While many text editors work, many people prefer to use one of several editors designed specifically for working with LaTeX.
Distributed under the terms of the
LaTeX Project Public License(LPPL), LaTeX is free software.
The typesetting system
LaTeX is based on the idea that authors should be able to focus on the meaning of what they are writing without being distracted by the visual presentation of the information. In preparing a LaTeX document, the author specifies the logical structure using familiar concepts such as "chapter", "section", "table", "figure", etc., and lets the LaTeX system worry about the presentation of these structures. It therefore encourages the separation of layout from content while still allowing manual typesetting adjustments where needed. This is similar to the mechanism by which many
word processors allow styles to be defined globally for an entire document or the CSS mechanism used by HTML.
The example below shows the LaTeX input and corresponding output:
LaTeX can be arbitrarily extended by using the underlying
macro languageto develop custom formats. Such macros are often collected into "packages," which are available to address special formatting issues such as complicated mathematical content or graphics. Indeed, in the example above the
eqnarrayenvironment is deprecated by the
amsmathpackage, [ cite web | url = http://www.tug.org/pracjourn/2006-4/madsen/ | first=Lars | last=Madsen | title = Avoid eqnarray!? ] which provides the typographically better
alignenvironment for the same purpose.
Pronouncing and writing "LaTeX"
LaTeX is usually pronEng|ˈleɪtɛk or IPA|/ˈlɑːtɛk/ in English (that is, not with the IPA|/ks/ pronunciation English speakers normally associate with "
X", but with a IPA|/k/).The last character in the name comes from a capital Χ (chi), as the name of TeXderives from the Greek τέχνη (skill, art, technique); for this reason, TeX's creator Donald Knuthpromotes a IPA|/tɛx/ pronunciation (that is, with a voiceless velar fricativeas in Modern Greek, or the last sound of the German word "Bach", similar to the Spanish "j" sound). Lamport, on the other hand, has said he does not favor or discourage any pronunciation for LaTeX.
The name is traditionally printed with the special typographical
logoshown on this page.In media where the logo cannot be precisely reproduced in running text, the word is typically given the unique capitalization "LaTeX" to avoid confusion with the word " latex". The TeX, LaTeX [cite web
last = O'Connor
first = Edward
title = TeX and LaTeX logo POSHlets
url = http://edward.oconnor.cx/2007/08/tex-poshlet
accessdate = 2008-04-21] and
last = Taraborelli
first = Dario
title = CSS-driven TeX logos
accessdate = 2008-04-21] logos can be rendered via pure
CSSand XHTMLfor use in graphical web browsers following the specifications of the internal LaTeX macro. [cite journal
last = Walden
first = David
title = Travels in TeX Land: A Macro, Three Software Packages, and the Trouble with TeX
journal = The PracTeX journal
issue = 3
url = http://www.tug.org/pracjourn/2005-3/walden-travels/
accessdate = 2008-04-21]
LaTeX is typically distributed along with plain
TeX. It is distributed under a free software license, the LaTeX Project Public License(LPPL). The LPPL is not compatible with the GNU General Public License, as it requires that modified files must be clearly differentiable from their originals (usually by changing the filename); this was done to ensure that files that depend on other files will produce the expected behavior and avoid dependency hell. The LPPL is DFSG compliant as of version 1.3. As free/open source software, LaTeX is available on most operating systems including Linux, Unix(including the BSDs), Windows, Mac OS X, RISC OSand AmigaOS. The first DVI previewers capable of on-screen previewing and modification of LaTeX documents were Amigas. [In 1986 Tomas Rokickiprinted his first page with dvisw, an early DVI printer driver for the Amiga, on a QMS SmartWriterusing AmigaTeXby Radical Eye Software. A link to a relic info about milestones of LaTeX history is available [http://www.xent.com/FoRK-archive/feb98/0307.html at this external site] .] [Description of Amiga system used by Tomas Rokicki in an article on TUG official review Tugboat: TUGboat, volume 9, (1998) n.1; Site Reports "The Commodore Amiga: A Magic Machine" by Tomas Rokicki, also available in PDF format [http://www.tug.org/TUGboat/Articles/tb09-1/tb20site.pdf at this external site] ]
As a macro package, LaTeX provides a set of macros for TeX to interpret. There are many other macro packages for TeX, including Plain TeX,
GNU Texinfo, AMSTeX, and ConTeXt.
When TeX "compiles" a document, the processing loop (from the user's point of view) goes like this: Macros > TeX > Driver > Output. Different implementations of each of these steps are typically available in TeX distributions. Traditional TeX will output a DVI file, which is usually converted to a
PostScriptfile. More recently, Hàn Thế Thànhand others have written a new implementation of TeX called pdfTeX, which also outputs to XeTeXengine developed by Jonathan Kew merges modern font technologies and Unicode with TeX.
The default font for LaTeX is Knuth's
Computer Modern, which gives default documents created with LaTeX the same distinctive look as those created with plain TeX.
LaTeX2e is the current version of LaTeX. As of|2008, a future version called LaTeX3 is in development and it has been since the beginning of 1990s. [See e.g. [http://bubl.ac.uk/archive/journals/texdig/v93n1193.htm] . Furthermore, all LaTeX3 components actually carry the copyright notice "(C) 1990-2006 LaTeX3 project", e.g. [http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/exptl/project/expl3/l3basics.dtx] .] Planned features include improved syntax,
hyperlinksupport, a new user interface, access to arbitrary fonts, and new documentation. [cite web | url=http://www.latex-project.org/guides/ltx3info.pdf | title=The LaTeX3 Project | author=Frank Mittelbach, Chris Rowley | date=January 12, 1999 | accessdate=2007-07-30]
There are numerous commercial implementations of the entire TeX system. System vendors may add extra features like additional
typefaces and telephone support. LyXis a free visual document processor that uses LaTeX for a back-end. TeXmacsis a free, WYSIWYGeditor with similar functionalities as LaTeX but a different typesetting engine. Other WYSIWYG editors that produce LaTeX include Scientific Wordon MS Windows.
A number of TeX distributions are available, including
TeX Live(multiplatform), teTeX(deprecated in favour of TeX Live, Unix), fpTeX(deprecated), MiKTeX(Windows), MacTeX, gwTeX(Mac OS X), OzTeX(Mac OS Classic), AmigaTeX (no longer available) and PasTeX(AmigaOS) available on the Aminetrepository.
TeXnicCenterfree open source LaTeX editor (Windows)
LyXfree open source GUI based editor that uses LaTeX for typesetting
* [http://www.latex-project.org/ LaTeX home page]
* [http://www.ctan.org CTAN – The Comprehensive TeX Archive Network]
* [http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html The UK TeX FAQ]
* The [http://www.tug.org/ TeX Users Group]
* [http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX A very comprehensive wiki guide to LaTeX]
* [http://www.iopb.res.in/grad-course/latex/latex.pdf A Working Guide to Latex] (2002)
* [http://www.maths.tcd.ie/~dwilkins/LaTeXPrimer Getting Started with LaTeX (basic introduction to typesetting with TeX and LaTeX)] (1995)
* [http://thornahawk.unitedti.org/equationeditor/equationeditor.php Online LaTeX Equation Editor]
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